Harmonizing to the National Youth Development Policy in Malaysia ( as cited in United Nations, 2002 ) , people between the ages of 15 and 40 are considered young person. However, the United Nations defines youth, as those individuals between the ages of 15 and 24 old ages. The Merriam-Webster ( 2010 ) defined youth as the clip of life when 1 is immature, the period between childhood and adulthood. Statistically, youth aged 15 to 24 contribute to the largest proportion of the entire population ( Economic Planning Malaysia, 2010 ) . The young persons are the future leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, the authorities of value and stressed on the development of young person. Recently, the authorities had allocated RM20 million to the 1Malaysia fund for young person development under the Budget 2011 ( Bernama, 2011 ) . As young person constituted to the biggest subdivision of Malaysia ‘s population, their engagement in young person pack and condemnable behavior has received great attending from everyone.
Harmonizing to the Oxford Advanced Learner ‘s lexicon ( 1997 ) , the term “ pack ” can be described as a group of immature people, who are typically troublesome ; on a regular basis associate together. Kennedy and Baron ( as cieted in Ngail, Cheung, Steven, 2007 ) defined pack as “ a group oriented and committed to anti societal, aberrant, and condemnable activities. “ Howard ( 1997 ) stated that young person pack is a self-formed association of equals holding identifiable leading and corporate actions to transport out illegal activities.
Background of Study
The hazard behavior among young person is an of all time turning job in Malaysia. A survey revealed the hazard behavior among striplings revealed that hooky ( 34.4 % ) was the major hazard behavior and followed by lounging in public topographic points ( 21.5 % ) ; strong-arming friends ( 14.4 % ) , stealing ( 12.9 % ) and smoke ( 12 % ) ( Hidayah, Hanafiah, Idris, Rosnah, Ibrahim, & A ; Nonnah, 2009 ) .
An academic analysis on the rise of offense in Malaysia showed that there is an addition of offense from 70,823 in twelvemonth 1980 to 156,455 in 2004 ( Sidhu, 2005 ) . This sum to an addition of 120 per centum which indicated that offense rate has increased dramatically. The offense index continue to turn from 156,315 instances in 2003 to 224,298 instances in 2007 which indicated the increased of 45 % over the past four old ages ( “ Crime and Safety ” , 2008 ) .
The three major races of Malayan are Malay, Chinese and Indian. The Economic Planning Unit of Malaysia calculated the population of Malaysia in 2010 stated that Malays ( 21 % ) constituted to the largest group ; Chinese ( 22.6 % ) ; and Indian ( 6.8 % ) . Although Indian represents a little minority group, they have contributed to the condemnable and pack related job. Mr. Ramli Yusuff, deputy national head of investigators, disclosed that there were 38 Indian offense packs in the Peninsular of Malaysia with a entire rank of around 1,500 in 2000. “ Indians are a minority in the state but felons from the cultural group are perpetrating the most figure of serious offenses compared with other races, ” he said ( “ Concern in Malaysia ” , 2000 ) . Aliran ( as cited in Suryanarayan, 2008 ) provided statistical inside informations that 40 per centum of serious offenses in Malaysia are committed by the Indians ; moreover, Indians recorded the highest figure of those detained in prison.
Most gang members begin their engagement in packs as young person. Snyder and Sickmund ( as cited in Sharkey, Shekhtmeyster, Chavez-Lopez, Norris, & A ; Sass, 2011 ) reported that most gang members join between the ages of 12 and 15 old ages. Three former mobsters has been interviewed and reported to fall in pack during their secondary school life ( Alagappar, Len, George, Lee, & A ; Wong, 2005 ) . These surveies indicated the important developmental period of young person is during the high school period.
The Social Activities of Youth Gang
Youth pack engaged in assorted pack activities. Futrell ( as cited in Yahaya, Boon, & A ; Buang ) stated that activities carried out by the mobsters in school consist of being rough to instructors, endangering Acts of the Apostless, stealing, and intimidation or whipping pupils. Another survey indicated that young person pack particularly high school pupils reported to hold high prevalence of intoxicant usage, engaged in physical combat, drug usage and drug merchandising ( Swahn, Bossarte, West, & A ; Topalli, 2010 ) . Gang members have found to hold greater engagement in delinquent behaviours and the pack association increases striplings ‘ engagement in force ( Madan, Mrug, & A ; Windle, 2010 ) .
The young person pack issues in Malaysia have been often reported by the media. In 2006, intelligence published in Daily Express sing pack battles and constabularies rounded up eleven male childs, among them were four secondary school pupils. At the same twelvemonth, a group school misss engaged in pack battle by strong-arming another pupil was reported ( The Star, 2006 ) . This twelvemonth, instances have been reported over newspapers. Guang Ming Daily ( 2011 ) reported that a pack of young person has been prosecuting in larceny behaviour and three adolescents has robbed and injured a sergeant. Recently, five work forces, aged 18 to 30 were arrested in connexion with a clang affecting 40 members of two rival packs. In the resulting battle, at least five members were injured and two vehicles burnt ( Tahir, 2011 ) . Sin Chew Daily ( 2011 ) has revealed adolescents vandalized the public belongings ; a group of Mak Rempit refused to listen to advice and knife guiltless individual. The intelligence being reported has indicated the significance of young person pack jobs and the badness of the jobs can run from hooliganism to killing people.
Hazard Factors for Gang Membership
The traditional strain theories stated that some persons are drawn to offense when they are prevented from accomplishing cultural ends such as pecuniary success or higher societal position ( Froggio, 2007 ) . A more conventional attack of strain theory suggested that if immature people are treated severely, they become disquieted and respond with aggression, offense and other aberrant behaviours ( Agnew, as cited in Froggio, 2007 ) . Agnew stated that strain refers to “ relationships in which others are non handling the person as he or she would wish to be treated. ”
Poverty. Sharkey et Al. ( 2011 ) stated that people populating in poorness experience strain due to the inability to accomplish the ideal economic success ; accordingly, people may turn to experience desperation and turn into condemnable activities in order to accomplish sense of satisfaction. There were 41 per centum drifters and mendicants in Malaysia has been reported by Aliran ( as cited in Suryanarayan, 2008 ) to be Indians. This may bespeak the higher poorness rate is among the Indian community ; hence, they have higher hazards to prosecute in offense. A recent research in Malaysia reviewed bulk of toughs were from rural schools and households with low income ( Uba, Yaacob, Juhari, 2010 ) .Young people populating in poorness may happen it hard to run into basic physical and psychological demands ; one manner to gain hard currency is to fall in a pack involved in the drug trade ( “ Gang ” , 2008 ) . Gangs provide the perfect construction and leading necessary to maximal condemnable success ( Sharkey et al. , 2011 ) .
Inequality. Malaysia ‘s societal workers and politicians said that Indians turn to offense because they feel marginalized from authorities development programs and deficiency equal instruction, concern and occupation chances ( “ Concern in Malaysia ” , 2000 ) . When groups of people are denied entree to power, privileges, and resources, they will frequently organize their ain anti-establishment group ( “ Gang ” , 2008 ) . Regan ( as cited in Sharpe, 2003 ) explained that persons joined pack as the pack provides sense of credence to them.
Social control theory
The control theory suggested that entry into aberrant equal groups is a map of a deficiency of societal control experienced by young person ( Hirschi, as cited in Hill, Howell, Hawkins, & A ; Pearson, 1999 ) . Youth are less likely to fall in a pack if they are committed and able to accommodate to the community outlooks ( Sharkey et al. , 2011 ) .
School. School as a societal control system contributed to a kid ‘s adaptability to community outlook. High academic outlook and instructor ‘s outlook tend to play the function. The hazard factors identified in fall ining a pack included academic failure ; negative labeling from instructors ; low committedness to school ; high delinquent in school ( Hill et al. , 1999 ) .
Social acquisition theory
Social larning theory believed that people learn through mold. The function theoretical accounts of household members and equals tend to be the most influential in childs.
Family. Family members are of import theoretical accounts from whom young person learn from. Howell ( 1997 ) indicated that household members in a pack will lend to the hazard factor of young person for pack rank. Other surveies related to household revealed that pupils with no parents, pupils from broken household and hapless household direction had greater odds of fall ining pack ( Hill et al. , 1997 ) . Systematically, the findings obtained from Alagappar et Al. ( 2005 ) interviews indentified former pack members in Malaysia were from troubled and lack understanding household ( refer to Appendix A ; Appendix B ) .
Peers. In self-report surveies, association with pervert or delinquent equals is systematically one of the strongest forecasters of an stripling ‘s ain delinquency ( Esbensen, Peterson, Taylor, & A ; Freng, 2009 ) . Affectional ties to delinquent equals are besides strongly and systematically linked with young person pack engagement ( Sharkey, et al. , 2011 ) . Systematically, a survey of gangsterism in Malaysia secondary school showed that friends were the most influences referred to by the pupils as compared to their household ( Yahaya et al. , 2001 ) . Other peer-related factors included limited or deficiency of association with pro-social equals or low committedness to positive equals ( Howell, 1997 ) .
Cognitive developmental theory
Cognitive developmental theory respects inadequate cognitive development as a cause of delinquent behaviors and pack engagement ( Ngai, Cheung, & A ; Steven, 2007 ) . Cognitive development manifests itself in one ‘s ability to procedure and analyze information in order to explicate solutions to jobs ( Husband & A ; Platt, as cited in Ngai, Cheung, & A ; Steven, 2007 ) . Raine ( as cited in Ngai et al. , 2007 ) explained that the ability involves empathy, perspective thought, and ethical logical thinking which are cognitive ushers of one ‘s behavior. Ngai et Al. further discussed that delinquency arises out of ignorance of others. As a consequence, choler, wrangle, and even force against others may go on due to inability to understand and digest others.
Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands
Harmonizing to Maslow ‘s theoretical account of hierarchy, people have basic hierarchal demands, which include physiological ( hungriness, thirst, shelter ) , safety ( security and protection ) , belongingness ( love, fondness, household, credence, friendly relationship ) , esteem ( self-esteem, achievement, acknowledgment, regard ) , and self-actualization ( self-fulfilment ; Maslow, 1970 ) . Findingss from several youth pack research have been found to back up Maslow ‘s theory.
Physiological demands. A focal point group of childs who associated with pack, aged 17-21 were interviewed by Alagappar and her group in 2005. When the research workers asked the participants what makes them more likely to fall in gangsterism, bulk of the participants answered in demand of material goods and money.
Safety. A recent survey reviewed by Taylor, Freng, Esbensen & A ; Peterson ( 2011 ) demonstrated that most youth reported fall ining a pack for protection. Research in Malaysia has found that some pupils were victims of bully before they join into a pack ( Alagappar et al. , 2005 ; mention to Appendix C ) .
Belongingness. In a qualitative analysis, an ex-gangster was asked why he joined gangsterism, he replied: “ 9 out of 10 of my friends are mobsters ; I would be left out and anomic if I do non fall in them ” ( Alagappar et al. , 2005 ) . This consequence farther supported the societal acquisition theory as young person obtain the sense of belonging and individuality through equals ( mention to Appendix A ) .
Esteem. Alagappar et Al. ( 2005 ) indicated that one of the grounds childs involve in pack is to derive popularity and acknowledgment from other pupils in school ( mention to Appendix A ) . Additionally, fall ining pack will supply higher privileged for childs to vent out their choler. Once in a pack, self-esteem is increased through power, wealth, and position ( Sharkey et al. , 2011 ) . Sharkey and his group further described that pack provide members with self-esteem and regard that they do non have from others.
“ Gang can work as adaptative societal mechanisms for fulfilling demands of some young persons that are non met through traditional and socially acceptable agencies. Gangs offer many benefits that are unmet in their places, schools, and vicinities ” ( Sharkey et al. , 2011 ) . Regan ( as cited in Sharpe, 2003 ) explained that “ packs serve a valuable function in the development and socialisation of an person as they seek the blessing of their equals and their individualities ; credence and individuality is provided by the pack and therefore makes rank an attractive possibility. ” Studies postulated that failure in academic or societal countries motivates young person to antisocial behaviour and affect in gang provide self-esteem, peer credence, increased pride, feelings of authorization, and a sense of ‘family ‘ , where other establishments have failed to supply ( Kee, Sim, Teoh, Tian, & A ; Ng, 2003 ) .
Youth Gang and Suicide
Madan, Mrug, and Windle ( 2010 ) worked on a sample of 589 ethnically diverse striplings indicated that pack rank was associated with self-destructive behaviour. As pack members reported higher degree of delinquency and witnessing community force, this will intercede the effects of pack rank on self-destructive behaviour. Therefore, higher engagement in condemnable activities and witnessing force may be responsible for increased self-destructive behaviour in stripling pack members. Adolescent gang members non merely are at hazard signifier harming others but besides themselves. Additionally, force exposure is associated with an increased symptom of post-traumatic emphasis upset ( Suglia, Staudenmayer, Cohen, & A ; Wright, 2009 ) . As the pack members exposed to violence often, the hazards for them to develop post-traumatic emphasis upset is high which will in turn contribute to the self-destructive behaviour among young person pack members.
DISCUSSION & A ; CONCLUSION
There was several hazard factors found associated with young person pack rank. Although each hazard factor has been reviewed independently, the exposure to multiple hazard factors may increase the hazard for pack rank. Analysiss of the consequence of exposure to multiple hazard factors done by Hill et Al. ( 1997 ) indicated that exposure to greater figure of hazard factors in childhood greatly increased the hazard of fall ining a pack in adolescence. In other words, young persons may be resilient to the disadvantage posed by several single hazard factors, but as these accumulate, this resilience may deteriorate and delinquency may ensue ( Esbensen, Peterson, Taylor, & A ; Freng, 2009 ) . Therefore, exposure to multiple hazards factors will increase the chance of job behaviour such as force or pack rank. The instance surveies in Malaysia indicated several factors that pupils joined pack ( refer to Appendix A ; Appendix B ; Appendix C ) . The factors include household job, academic failure, equal force per unit area, being bullied, to derive protection, to gain acknowledgment, being recognized and have privilege in showing choler.
From the developmental position, young person are sing physical and psychological alterations. The period of young person has been recognized as transient, characterized by typical tests and trials ( Idris, Yee, Tamam, Hamzah, Wong, 2008 ) . In some fortunes, due to troubles experienced, young person may attest behaviour that is aberrant, unnatural and straitening. During this period, the socio-cultural surroundings plays an of import function in modeling young person ‘s value and civilization. Parenting, equals, school and society therefore are critical in determining young person.
Western states have contributed to the major portion of intercession toward young person pack. A school-based pack bar programme, Gang Resistance Education and Training ( G. R. E. A.T. ) in United States has shown positive preliminary consequences in cut downing pack association and delinquency ( Howell, 1997 ) . This programme provides pupils with age-appropriate accomplishments to cover with life stressors. At the same clip, the programme offers developing for parents, schools and constabularies officers to fix them to cover with young person pack job. Malaysia as a multi-cultural and multiethnic state, the usage of intercession with young person should be wise and good considered.
The major job that needs to be addressed is the deficiency of consciousness on Malayan on the young person pack issues. The insufficient of young person pack research done locally has lead to the deficiency of bar and intervention programme to cover with young person pack issue in Malaysia. This is the major restriction for the deduction of intercession toward Malaysian. More surveies affecting the cultural diverseness of Malaysians need to be conducted in order to acquire a better apprehension of the profile of young person pack and the hazard factors for pack rank, in bend enable better intervention and bar protocol.
Part B: Intervention PROGRAMME
Program Title: Esprit de Corps
Purpose: To forestall and cut down pupils ‘ from affecting in pack
As most research workers indicated that the hazardous age of young person to be involved in pack is during the secondary school old ages ( Alagappar, Len, George, Lee, & A ; Wong, 2005 ) , this intercession programme is designed to aim secondary school pupils. This is a school-based programme that will be carried out during categories, in order to affect full engagement of pupils in the school. Alternatively of calling the programme of anti-gangsterism, an attractive and alone name has been designed. The word Esprit de Corps means integrity ; to beef up the bond among pupils, and teacher. Assorted programmes will be carried out during the month of April and May ( refer to Appendix D, overview of programme ) .
Harmonizing to Thraser and Lal ( as cited in Yahaya, Boon, & A ; Buang, 2001 ) , the happening of young person pack is frequently out of the sight of the instructor. Therefore, the first measure to measure the happening of young person pack is to place its being. The programme will get down with an educational programme targeted on instructors. Training will be provided to instructors, in order for them to run activities during the month of Esprit de Corps.
Purpose: to increase instructors ‘ consciousness and apprehension of the phenomena of young person pack and to fit instructors with the cognition of young person pack in Malaysia and the accomplishment to assist pupil in demand.
Duration: 1 month ( one time per hebdomad )
Person In Charge
Speaker: Social Worker
The professionals served to supply information to the instructors
Brief debut on young person pack in Malaya
Where, when, how, and why young person pack instances happen in school
Q & A ; A session
To fit instructors with the cognition of young person pack in Malaysia and the accomplishment to assist pupil in demand.
Counselors portion their experience and accomplishment while managing with the young person pack instances
Role drama session
Counsellor and Social Worker
Help the instructor to be good prepared and be confident when managing the existent state of affairs
Focus on instance survey to sharpen instructors ‘ guidance accomplishment
Information exchange with the professional to hold a better apprehension on managing the young person pack issues.
Social Worker and Teachers
To fix instructors to run activities
To modify better activities before execution
Run activities ( play, arguments, posting design, teambuilding games ) that will be carried out with the pupils.
portion information and thought on how to beef up the activities to fit with the intent.
Calendar month: April ( every Saturday )
Assorted activities that attempt to cut down pupils ‘ unprompted and risk-seeking inclinations are carried out by instructors after undergo the preparation.
Programme 2: Ex-gang member testimony
Purpose: Create consciousness about young person pack and effects of fall ining young person pack through negotiations and sharing by ex-gang member.
Duration: 1 hr
Venue: School hall
A former pack member will be invite to portion his experience. There will be a brief debut on the ex-gang member background. He will portion about the grounds that he joined pack and his experiences as a pack member, every bit good as what makes him experience declinations and what had changed him. Due to his existent life experience, his words may hold greater impact toward pupils.
Programme 3: Play
Purpose: Provide student a opportunity to affect with different character and understand the different functions of young person in different state of affairs.
Duration: 30 proceedingss
Venue: Classroom ( during moral category )
A category of pupils will split into four groups. Each group will acquire a different rubric ( bystander, cultural differences, hooliganism and combat ) . The pupils will be given a hebdomad of clip to fix for the play. Each group will be showing on each hebdomad. Other pupils will be the audience. Through this, the performing artist can acquire into the function and able to believe as if they were in the places of others. In the terminal of the play, students are invited to portion their thoughts and feedback will be collected. For illustration, the group with bystander will be assign to a scenario and it is accompany by the functions card which include “ Bully ” , “ Bullied ” , “ Bystander ” , “ Collude ” , and “ Challenger ” . The pupils will hold to play different functions in order to heighten their emphasized feelings.
Programme 4: Poster Design
Purpose: Enable pupil to show their ain position on young person pack and “ Esprit de Crops ” in pulling signifier.
Venue: Classroom ( During art category )
A3 pulling paper will be provided and pupils need to fix their ain pulling stuff. The best drawing will be voted by pupils in the same category and the best posting will be printed on Jerseies and sell to the populace. The fund collected will be used in the following community caring plan.
Programme 4: Community Caring Program
Purpose: addition young persons ‘ moral strong beliefs, societal conscience/responsibility, and selfless values through assisting others ; sing underprivileged people may assist pupils to be thankful.
Duration: 5 hours
Venue: Orphanage, old common people ‘s place, centre for handicapped, rehabilitation centres, shelter place and other related topographic points.
Description: The instructors will discourse with their category to make up one’s mind a topographic point for them to see. Students can purchase some day-to-day utensil through the collected fund or donate the money to the centre. Besides that, they may fix some activities to interact with the people at the centre. Besides, pupils may work together in cleaning the topographic point and supply comfy puting for the underprivileged 1.
Programme 6: Arguments
Purpose: Supply a scene to allow pupil to freely talk out their head at the same clip heighten their critical thought accomplishment.
Duration: 30 proceedingss
Venue: Classroom ( During moral category )
The rubric for argument is: young person pack, “ voluntary or nonvoluntary? ‘ The rubric will be given two yearss prior the arguments. Each of the panel has to fix their ain information. During the twenty-four hours of argument, each squad is given three proceedingss to set up their information. The first arguer of each group is given 3 proceedingss to do his debut. The 2nd arguers will hold 4 proceedingss to voice out their point. The 3rd arguers will be given 5 proceedingss to reason the opposition ‘s point and confirm their bases. For the last arguers, 2 proceedingss will be given to repeat their bases and conclude. An unfastened treatment on the argument rubric will be held in category after the argument.
Programme 7: Teambuilding games
Purpose: To heighten teamwork among pupils ; allow them experience being involved, and accepted ; beef up the bond among equals.
Duration: 30 proceedingss
Venue: School field or hoops tribunal ( During physical instruction category )
All the pupils will be divided into little groups ( 8-10 people per group ) . Game direction will be given. This game required squad work where all members will hold to acquire into the Hawaiian dancing hoop which will be placed on the land. The members in the circle can merely stand with one leg. Group members need to assist each other to guarantee everyone is able to acquire inside the circle ; the group needs to maintain their place for at least 10 seconds. The game ends with an account on the intent of game. Standing with merely a leg is to exemplify that everyone has restriction and they need to digest and assist each other in order to carry through the given undertaking.