As we all know that the universe system is an mutualist system of several states linked by economic and political competition. The universe part stress on the mutuality of topographic points and parts around the universe where in the parts are farther categorized as nucleus, semi peripheral and peripheral parts.

Immanuel Wallerstein, the laminitis of the rational school of world-systems theory, characterizes the universe system as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from theperipheryto thecore. In his nomenclature, thecoreis the developed, industrializedpart of the universe, and theperipheryis the “ developing ” , typically natural materials-exporting, hapless portion of the universe ; themarketbeing the agencies by which thecoreexploits theperiphery.

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The above figure depicts the hierarchy of national societies divided into 3 world-system zones. The nucleus states are in dark black, the semi peripheral states in the center of the planetary hierarchy are in cross-hatch and the peripheral states are grey.

Further we would analyze more about these parts which would assist us understand their function and some of their features.

Core part and their features:

The nucleus parts of the universe system are the most economically diversified, affluent and powerful ( both economically and militarily ) states of the universe. These states are really high on industrialisation and they tend to specialise in information, finance and service industries. Often they produce manufactured good instead than exporting natural stuffs to other states which would non give them high incomes. More frequently they are the front smugglers in high-technology electronics and biotechnology industries. They have sufficient revenue enhancement base so that the authorities can supply better substructures and installations for a strong economic system internally and externally. Due to these factors, the nucleus states have more influence over noncore states as a consequence of which they enjoy comparatively high per capita incomes.

The trading hubs of England and Holland were the first nucleus parts of the universe system and they were subsequently joined by other fabrication and exporting parts in other parts of Western Europe and in North America. Japan excessively became a portion of the nucleus part as they were and are the market leaders in electronic scientific discipline and engineering.

The history of modern universe system shows that the nucleus states has been viing with one another in order to entree universe ‘s resources, economic laterality and have control over peripheral states. Consequently to Immanuel Wallerstein, a nucleus state can be dominant over all if they lead in three most of of import factors.

1 ) Productivity laterality which will let them to bring forth goods and services of high quality at a inexpensive monetary value as compared to any other state.

2 ) Productivity laterality will besides take to merchandise laterality which means that there is a favourable balance of trade since there is more of export trade than import trade.

3 ) This in bend leads to fiscal laterality which means that the influx of the currency will be more than the escape and this will take to more control of universe ‘s fiscal resources.

Semi fringe part and their features:

Semi Periphery parts can be defined as a geographic country that lies merely outside and country of cardinal economic activity. They are considered as the mediocre parts which means they lay between the nucleus and the fringe parts. For better apprehension, they can besides be called as developing states. They are the states traveling towards industrialisation and more diversified economic system. They are neither every bit developed as the nucleus society nor they are developing as the peripheral parts. “ While they are weaker than nucleus societies, they are seeking to get the better of this failing and are non as capable to outside use as peripheral societies. ”

Semi-periphery parts play an of import function in interceding political, societal and economic activities that link nucleus and peripheral parts. The possibility of reforms in societal and organisational construction, advanced engineering and laterality over peripheral states is led through these parts. Hence, through these alterations, a semi-periphery state is promoted to a nucleus state. Furthermore, Semi-periphery serves as a place within the universe hierarchy in which economic and societal alteration can be interpreted.

As described by the World-systems theory, the semi-periphery part plays an of import function in the universe economic system. The semi-periphery dramas much of import function than what the Spain and Portugal played in the 17th and the eighteenth centuries as intermediate trading groups within the European colonial imperium.

As mentioned earlier, semi peripheral states are industrialized and therefore they are the hub of fabrication and exportation of a assortment of goods. They normally have above mean land mass which means addition in market size and portion, illustrations of which are China, India and Mexico. Though non all the semi peripheral states are big, smaller states such as Poland, Italy, Israel and Greece besides exits with the semi peripheral part.

Since early period of globalized trade, the semi-peripheral states of the universe have played a critical function in universe trade and interaction. This “ in-between land ” between the really powerful nucleuss and the backwaters of the far fringe allowed those two zones to interact with greater easiness.

Periphery parts and their features:

Regions that have resisted and remained economically and politically unable to take part in this procedure of incorporation into the universe system are known as Peripheral states. These states are least economically diversified and they tend to depend on one type of economic activity such as pull outing and exporting natural stuff to core states. Furthermore they are frequently targeted by the transnational corporations from nucleus states which come with a head set to work the cheap unskilled labour for export back to the nucleus states. The per centum of hapless and uneducated people in these parts is excessively high and hence inequality tends to be excessively high for the fact that little upper category that owns most of the land and has profitable ties to transnational corporations. They are extremely influenced by nucleus states and their transnational corporations because of which many a clip they are forced to follow economic policies that favor the nucleus states and harm the long term economic chances of fringe states. Unlike nucleus parts, they have comparatively weak establishments with small revenue enhancement base to back up substructure development.

At the same clip, it is of import to acknowledge that nucleus, peripheral and semi peripheral are non mammoth geographicss. In other footings, there are peripheral countries within nucleus parts and in nucleus metropoliss excessively, merely as there are core countries with peripheral parts and peripheral metropoliss. For illustration, Canada being the portion of nucleus part has some extended countries such as Nunavut that do non hold widespread entree to progress engineerings and have low degree of economic productiveness. The same goes with the fringe part where some countries have more in common with the nucleus part than they do with the countries that instantly surround them. For illustration, Rio de Janiero and Mumbai in India, both of which are core metropoliss in semi peripheral and peripheral states.

List of nucleus, semi peripheral and peripheral parts of the universe.

Core part

Semi peripheral part

Peripheral part












Costa Rica

Irish republic


Dominican Republic




New Zealand






United Kingdom



United States of America

South Korea

Yemen Republic.

The hereafter of peripheral part:

Periphery part would non stay the same and will easy travel to the semi peripheral part for certain in the approaching hereafter. Here are some of the logical grounds behind it.

Economic: As we all know that the nucleus parts have ever practiced to work the natural resources in the peripheral parts to gain more net incomes by different ways of investing, net income sharing etc. the economic system of the state is bound to take a spring with more investing and with flow of fiscal resources which in bend will besides assist the society, substructure, medical assistance and instruction system in the state. This has a direct consequence on the foreign trade which helps the state to construct a better economic system. For illustration, India had opened their door for foreign investings in mid 90 ‘s because of which, today the state is one of the ace power in Asia and a leader in package industry.

Political: Globalization has made the universe a little topographic point to populate due to which we frequently see two or more states unite to subscribe trade and public assistance understandings. These understandings besides helps the state to do itself a better and safer topographic point to populate as the member states are at that place to assist each other in footings of political, fiscal or societal demands. Besides with turning economic system, instruction system plays a critical function which so outputs in better politicians and economic experts.

Sociable: The societal facet of peripheral part is expected to be high because of globalisation and utmost competition in the universe market. With more foreign investing and foreign trade, the societal environment of the state will acquire better which in bend can advance many other factors of our twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life.


After analyzing the history of the universe parts, one can state that the clip taken by a state or a part to travel from peripheral to semi peripheral is acquiring shorter and shorter with unexpected addition in foreign trade and globalisation. Even ace powers like United States of America and Japan were a peripheral part. Spain and Portugal, portion of the original nucleus in the sixteenth century, became semi peripheral in the nineteenth century but are now one time more a portion of the nucleus part.

It is the people of the universe who can alter the part from peripheral to semi peripheral and from semi peripheral to core by doing right and utile determinations which can assist us and the coevalss to come.


* ( 0 ) : Global part in planetary context by Sallie A Marston, Paul L. Knox, Diana M. Liver adult male

* ( 1 ) : Wikipedia site