By and large, sewerage sludge is a residuary sludge from infected armored combat vehicle and other similar installing for the intervention of sewerage. However, in my context of research, it means stabilised sewerage sludge contains big measures of organic affair, N, P, Mg, and Ca which are good for agribusiness as it stated by European Commission.

Why I chose sewerage as my chief topic

Sewage is chosen by me as the chief topic of my research because it characteristically a extremely nutrient-rich waste merchandise. Furthermore, it volume is keep increasing as figure of population addition. For illustration, effluent intervention works in the United States generated about 7 million dry dozenss of sludge each twelvemonth. So, fundamentally about 0.16 lb ( dry weigh footing ) of sewerage sludge has generated by each individual per twenty-four hours ( Stehouwer, 1999 ) . Publicly Owned intervention Works ( POTWs ) is a local bureaus in US which is designed to handle domestic sewerage. It shows that production of sludge has increasing when figure of people increase within old ages. Besides, a valuable food such as P and N can be recycled from us back into the agribusiness system.

Cow manure besides could be used as fertiliser yet I chose sludge which chiefly produces by homo. This because cow manure is one of the worst perpetrators in environment pollution as it increased the mass qualities of animate beings for nutrient ( Sixbear, 2010 ) .


The thought is simple. The sewerage sludge is collected into sludge armored combat vehicle at a effluent intervention works from cloacas of all over the metropolis or peculiar country. As we all know sewerage is generated by residential, institutional, and commercial & amp ; industrial constitution. It includes family waste, liquid from lavatories, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed of vie cloacas.

Then the pure or untreated sludge has treated by a few phase of intervention to go a safe organic affair known as biosolid. Or in other word, biosolid besides called as compost or treated sludge or organic fertiliser. Environment Protection Agency ( EPA ) of United States has stated that biosolids are the nutrient-rich organic stuffs ensuing from the intervention of sewerage sludge ( the name for the solid, semisolid or liquid untreated residue generated during the intervention of domestic sewerage in a intervention installation ) . When treated and processed, sewage sludge becomes biosolids which can be safely recycled and applied as fertiliser to sustainably better and keep productive dirts and stimulate works growing.

Finally, biosolids are loaded onto shit trucks to be transported to agriculture countries for usage as fertiliser.

Where I can acquire those of sludge

I can acquire those of sludge from Indah Water Konsortium ( IWK ) Sdn. Bhd. as it is the lone company that supplying sewage services in Malaysia. It is known as a national sewage company which owned by Minister of Finance Incorporated. This company is the most I will join forces and negociate with as it monopoly this industry. The nearest effluent intervention works of IWK in Petaling Jaya is at Pantai Dalam. So, it is easier for me to shuttle between University of Malaya and IWK for dialogue.

“ Malaya produces about 5 million m3A of sewerage sludge per twelvemonth. On 9thDecember 1993, the Government of Malaysia handed over the national sewage denationalization undertaking to Indah Water Konsortium Sdn. Bhd. to pull off a more modern and efficient sewage system for the state. Currently, IWK operates and maintains over 4,300 public sewerage intervention workss all over Malaysia, desludges and dainties sludge from over 0.8 million infected armored combat vehicles on a regular basis and proctors effluent samples from sewerage intervention workss to guarantee they run into the Department of Environment ‘s criterions ” ( Indah Water Consortium Sdn. Bhd. , 1997 ; Rosenani et Al, 2004 ) . This shows that IWK has control and rule the sewerage sludge industry in Malaysia even until now.

The chosen sludge merely

In my research, of cause the chosen sludge merely I will utilize. The usage of untreated sludge could put on the line to human or carnal wellness every bit good as for works itself. So, sludge must be treated before being used in agribusiness. If non those untreated sludge may incorporate a harmful bacterium or heavy metal that transcending the standard bound. Before I conduct the experiment which I have to straight reach with sludge, I must duplicate cheque or analysis it for safety propose. The analysis should cover a few parametric quantities such as degree of dry affair, organic affair, pH, degree of N, P, Cd, Cu, nickel, lead, zinc, quicksilver and Cr.

How the procedure

As I had stated before there are a few procedure to transform a risky sludge to be a utile fertiliser. Sewage intervention by and large involves three phases, called primary, secondary and third intervention.

Primary intervention consists of temporarily keeping the sewerage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the underside while oil, lubricating oil and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating stuffs are removed and the staying liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary intervention.

Secondary intervention removes dissolved and suspended biological affair. Secondary intervention is typically performed by autochthonal, water-borne microorganisms in a managed home ground. Secondary intervention may necessitate a separation procedure to take the microorganisms from the treated H2O prior to dispatch or third intervention.

Third intervention is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary intervention in order to let rejection into a extremely sensitive or delicate ecosystem such as estuaries, low-flow river, and coral reefs. If it is sufficiently clean, it can besides be used for agricultural intents.

EPA Washington, DC has stated on 2004 that the sludge accumulated in a effluent intervention procedure must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effectual mode.

The intent of digestion is to cut down the sum of organic matterA and the figure of disease-causingA microorganismsA nowadays in the solids. The most common intervention options includeA anaerobiotic digestion, A aerophilic digestion, and composting and incineration. By the of procedure incineration in sewerage intervention, I can acquire biosolid.

However, the behaviours and belongingss of dirt demand to be understood before adding any sewerage sludge. When both dirt and sewerage sludge are combine in the right manner and clip so merely biosolid can assist to increase the birthrate dirt ( Rosenani et al, 2004 ) .

What sort of works that I use

To turn out that biosolid is better fertiliser that chemical fertiliser, I need to utilize a works as the index. So, the works that I choose is maize works or scientific name known asA Zea Mayss L. However, there has an optional to utilize other a few types of workss such as Bahiagrass

( Paspalum notatum flugge ) , Sunflower ( Helianthus annus L ) , amaranthus, black-eyed pea, crossandra and Poplar tree ( Populus euramericana ) ( Singh and Agrawal, 2008 ) . Yet maize works has a particular feature. For illustration, it can turn fast and really easy to turn. Besides that, it can demo alterations rapidly and the most significantly, it is really antiphonal to the status of the dirt and fertilizing.

There are 3 aims that I want to accomplish by making this research. First, I want to present the usage of sewerage sludge as fertiliser to populaces in Petaling Jaya. Second, to widen the utilizations of fertiliser made up from sludge. My last nonsubjective is to cut down the utilizations of chemical fertiliser.

Literature reappraisal

About sewerage sludge

Wastewater intervention industry has introduced another name of sewerage sludge as a biosolid. Biosolid is a stuff that suited for land application and sewerage sludge is normally referred for effluent intervention. However both of them are the same thing. In general, biosolid means as sewerage sludge that has undergone sufficient intervention for stabilisation and pathogen decrease and that is sufficiently high quality to be land applied ( Stehouwer, 1999 ) . This definition was introduced by people in effluent intervention industry. Wastewater intervention and intervention procedure really give a large consequence on the composing of sewerage sludge. Stehouwer in 1999 has stated that biosolid consist of inorganic and organic stuffs, high concentration of some works foods, low concentration of legion hint component, organic chemical and some pathogens.

The chief constituents in sewerage sludge are organic compound and foods ( Kulling, 2001 ) . Foods such as N and P are good for works growing because it enrich dirt status. A beginning of works foods from macronutrients in the sewerage sludge had provided good dirt conditioning belongingss ( Logan and Harrison, 1995 ) . Soil biological, chemical, and physical belongingss can be improved when sewerage sludge added into dirt. The features of sludge and dirt can be influence by the alterations in belongingss of sludge amended dirts ( Mitchell et al, 1978 ; Gupta et Al, 1977 ; Kelley et Al, 1984 ) .

Nowadays, most of the company that carry oning a concern related to sewage sludge particularly as fertilizer merchandise, they normally use word “ compost ” , “ organic ” , “ dirt amendment ” and “ fertiliser ” . As it called so, the market on it increased ( Graves, 2011 ) .

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Table above shows that works food cycling in society can be divided into fresh fish, nutrient and industrial rhythms ( Yaric et al, 2011 ) .

By and large, sewerage sludge that usage as compost incorporating industrial and human waste. “ Foods removed from the Fieldss enter metropoliss in the signifier of nutrient of works or animate being beginning, ensuing in the production of municipal wastes such as lavatory waste in the signifier of sewerage sludge, and organic family waste in the signifier of compost or biogas residues. Waste accretion around metropoliss leads to logistical troubles in re-distributing human waste to cultivable land ” ( Yaric et al, 2011 ) . Arable land besides called as agricultural land.

History of utilizations of fertiliser

Organic fertiliser has been used hundred old ages ago and significantly used in agribusiness during post-World War 2 ( Kathleen, 2002 ) . This shown that an organic agribusiness is the oldest signifier of agribusiness in the Earth. Manure besides was the common natural fertilisers as it was the lone signifier of nutrition for harvest utilizations. However, natural fertiliser had been replaced by chemical fertiliser after the Second World War 2 such as the usage of petroleum-based chemical.

“ It was the early 1990s and sludge, by Federal jurisprudence, had to acquire out of the H2O. The PVSC was forcing its industries to take the quicksilver, lead, Cd before disposal. Some advancement was made, but non plenty to be safe. Assorted procedures were looked into to handle the sludge for land application after original regular sewerage intervention ” ( Paulus, 2008 ) .

Agribusiness as a disposal method for sewerage sludge

A few old ages back, the figure of husbandman that apply sewerage sludge on their cropland addition. This is might be due to economic ground. Besides being able to frugal in footings of fertiliser budget, husbandmans can enrich their cropland easy and cheaply.

Table above shown a per centum engagement of common disposal methods sewerage sludge used in European in comparing to the USA ( Renner, 2000 ; Laturnus et Al, 2007 )

Approximately 37 % of sewerage sludge used in Europe has been disposed by method of application to farmland. Yet the major per centum of sewerage produced which is about 47 % disposed into landfill. However, in USA about 40 % of sewerage is disposed by application to farm method. This shown that USA has additions their consciousness about the advantages utilizations of sewerage sludge in agribusiness compared to Europe states ( Laturnus et al, 2007 ) .

Stehouwer in 1999 has stated, there are 3 chief ways of disposal sewerage sludge which are landfill, incineration and land application. Landfill is the simplest solution to dump or dispose those sludges from sight. From point of position of economic, landfill method is presently more favourable. Yet in future, there must be some jobs such as limited of infinite and waste dumping costs increase. From environment base of position, a proper building and a good maintainance has done in landfill location. So that it gives a really minimum to environmental hazards. For illustration, dump it into merely one specific location in order to avoid sludge-borne pollutants or pathogen. Second is incineration method. Normally sewage sludge is incinerated to cut down it volume and destroy pathogen wholly. During procedure of incinerating, organic chemical has decomposes. However, a needed of sophisticated system in incineration because it produced ash, C dioxide, other nursery gasses and volatile pollutants. Unfortunately, both landfill and incineration method is wholly lost the possible benefits in sewerage sludge like an organic affair. Last, sewerage sludge is disposed by land application. By utilizing this method, those organic and inorganic affairs can be returned back into dirt via biosolid. Land application besides has its ain commercial value. For case, biosolid can be sold to nursery, householder markets, agricultural and landscape gardening.

As there are so many jobs had occurred late to dispose the sewerage sludge, so recycling it on cropland is one of the possible solutions. When organic waste like sewerage sludge is reuse in land application, so the cost and environmental jobs can be reduced. Besides, regulative restraints faced in this industry can be solved ( Rosenani et al, 2004 ) .

The recycling a constituent like N, P and organic affair has a high possibility when usage sewerage sludge as fertiliser. So, a land application of sewerage sludge is going more popular presents ( Martinez et al, 2002 ) .

Procedure from pure sludge to go stabilize sludge

There must be a few stairss or procedures to change over the unsafe sludge go a really utile thing. By and large, there are 3 chief procedures to handle those of sludge which are primary, secondary and third intervention ( Fytili and Zabaniotou, 2006 ) . The effluent intervention procedures and sludge intervention frequently influence the features of sewerage sludge ( Singh and Agrawal, 2008 ) . Sludge has treated physically and chemically in primary intervention and biologically in secondary intervention. The bulk of municipal workss handle the settled sewerage spirits utilizing aerophilic biological procedures. The third intervention is to supply a concluding intervention phase to raise the outflowing quality before it is discharged to the having environment such as sea, river, lake, and land.

( Beginning: European Commission )

European Communities, 2000 has stated that the restriction values of the current statute law on sludge ( Directive 86/278/EEC ) . So farmer or other users of sludge must utilize the sludge contains below the bound value if non pollutant concentration in sludge can be harm. However, there is an credence to a certain heavy metal like a lead. Lead reading can be exceeded the bound value leting its reuse in dirt. Yet the scope must between 50-300mg kg -1 of dirt volume ( Domene et al, 2010 ) .

What sort works that I use

Singh and Agrawal, 2008 had used many sort of workss to carry on an experiment on consequence of sewerage amendment on growing, output and heavy metal accretion in workss. One of the workss was maize. The growing of corn works has be measured harmonizing to its root and shoot length and leaf country. Another common workss used were cowpea and amaranthus. They ( Singh and Agrawal ) besides stated that when degree of sewerage sludge used addition ( the highest degree at 91g sewerage sludge/ pot ) the output increased. This shows that the sewerage sludge compost has enhanced the output of harvest or agribusiness production provided non transcending the bound.

The experiment that conducted by Chitdeshwari et Al, 2002 has used workss such as corn, amaranthus, black-eyed pea and crossandra in order to find the influence of assorted degrees of natural sewerage sludge compost on output of those workss.

Laturnus et Al, 1999 and Gron et Al, 2001 had study on the debasement and consumption of organic micro-contaminant in sludge-amended in agricultural dirt and in harvests. However the works that they used is uncommon or rare which were carrot and barley. Those of experiments have been performed in nursery.


“ Land application of sewerage sludge can hold many good effects. Supplying foods ( N, P, secondary foods and micronutrients ) to the harvest, bettering dirt physical belongingss, and increasing dirt organic affair content are several advantages of land application municipal sewerage sludge ” ( Kelley et al, 1984 ) .

By using sewerage sludge the dirt physical status has been improved ( Epstein, 1975 ) . This shows that a compost of sewerage sludge can be truly an organic fertiliser since it gives good consequence into dirt. If sewage sludge is used right in agribusiness field, it can hold valuable agronomic belongingss ( Council Directive, 1986 ) . The word right means usage it sagely and over the bound. Achive and Smith, 1981 provinces that the longer we use sewage as organic fertiliser, the dirt go more fertile. Organic fertiliser particularly that made up from sewerage can enrich the dirt over the period of clip. As enzyme activity addition, it enhanced the microbic activity. So that organic affair in the sludge amended become higher every bit good as foods content in the dirt ( Singh and Agrawal, 2008 ) .

Sewage sludge compost largely improved the dirt belongingss as organic affair as an added value. Normally the majority denseness, porousness of dirt and H2O keeping capacity has better altering after adding this sort of fertiliser ( Ramulu, 2002 ) . It shows that by adding sludge at that place was a important alterations in dirt belongingss. As sludge doses addition, the concentration of sludge mixture that contains soluble ions in the dirt besides increasing with exclusion of nitrate and nitrite.Nitrogen signifier is uncorrelated with sewerage doses and suggest in different dirt as it consists of different microbic communities ( Domene, 2010 ) . As the microbic communities are active in dirt, it promotes the enzyme rate to go higher.

By utilizing sewerage sludge as the fertiliser, it promotes the recycling of food between dirt and workss ( Sommers, 1977 ) . The food such as P and N are involved in this cycling can be eliminated the demand of commercial or chemical fertiliser in harvests. So, the aim of cut downing the usage of chemical fertiliser can be achieved.

When sewerage sludge is use in positive manner such in the agricultural field, it could be a portion of concern. In term of alimentary cycling and disposal of sewerage sludge, it could truly sustainable and economical ( Laturnus et al, 2007 ) . Rather than dump it into landfill without any utilizations, it can be sell every bit fertiliser as a manner to do money. They ( Laturnus et Al ) besides said that the utilizations of sludge as fertiliser demand to be balanced. If non, the inordinate usage of it may do jobs such as taint of agricultural land every bit good as harm of the environment so impact the quality of nutrient.

“ During these old ages of back uping our sewerage works ‘s battle to clean metals and toxins out of the sludge, I thought that, at least. It is clean of pathogens. A concluding blow to the thought of recycling it beneficially is that even this is non true. This concluding job is non the mistake of industry pollution but our human usage of drugs designed to contend bugs! Antibiotics, birth control pills, and other powerful agents make merely that, and kill the beings that normally digest the sewerage. This allows immune pathogens to acquire thru the intervention procedure. Peoples and animate beings get ill and dice. ” ( Paulus, 2008 )


Each of things that we have done there must be pro and cons. Sometimes it could be really unsafe even after being treated. The Council of the European Communities, 1986 wants to modulate the usage of sewerage sludge in agribusiness. They though that by making so, it could forestall a harmful consequence on dirt, flora, animate beings every bit good as human and environment. For case, the mixed of toxic and unsafe wastes that contain in the sewerage sludge give a negative consequence to our wellness.

The potency for nitrate or phosphate taint of H2O, the potency for harm to dirt, works, animate beings, and human because of possible toxic metal application and the potency for pathogen transportation are the most common expostulation on utilizations of sewerage sludge ( Kelley et al, 1984 ) .

** pls elaborate parity above.

All the residues such as extra medical specialties and nutrient waste are dump into sink or bowl of lavatory so transported through sewage. Those of things so are accumulated at one topographic point which is in sludge armored combat vehicle at a effluent intervention works ( Jaipi, 2010 ) . Therefore, sludge can be easy contaminated by by chance blending of chemicals in the armored combat vehicle.

There was a nutrient dirt happened in Europe states sing to sewage sludge using onto agribusiness land ( Christen, 2002 ) . Switzerland ‘s authorization had led the nutrient dirt and proposed a prohibition on the usage of sewerage sludge in harvests. Food dirt by and large means a nutrient toxic condition that has menace humanity and related nutrient borne diseases. In this instance, people blame the usage of sewerage sludge in agribusiness activities as the chief caused their nutrient has been contaminated. Most of people think that, fertiliser that made up from sewerage sludge is wholly unsafe and could foul dirt. They non existent open their head toward **

Some other surveies on sewerage sludge found that concentration of foods and heavy metal accumulate in the works tissue when it planted in the dirt which contains sludge. Heavy metal such as Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr and lead are the most common found in sludge emended dirt. For illustration, when a sweet maize planted in sludge-amended dirt, toxic metals like Zn, Cd, and Hg are largely accumulated in foliages and roots tissue. Luckily its lees found in the maize meat ( Dowdy and Larson, 1995 ) .

Nitrate by and large derived from N atom. When there is an inordinate of nitrate from dirt flows into H2O organic structure such as river or lake, it can do the giantism of algae. The surplus of nitrate in our H2O is killing us as it kills our beginnings of nutrient ( Sixbear, 2010 ) . In other word, sewerage is indirectly consequence H2O organic structure. Water resources are being polluted because of anthropogenetic activities ( Singh and Agrawal, 2008 ) . Other job like pathogen and adour besides related with utilizations of sludge compost in agricultural lands. It is so contributed to land and surface H2O taint.

Peoples argue that workss or any other nutrient resources which has been grown in sewerage sludge are non considered as organic nutrient. Materials being certified by Organic Materials Review Institute ( OMRI ) merely can be deemed as an organic nutrient ( Graves, 2011 ) .

Methodology ( stuffs & A ; method )

Lists of stuffs that will be used


Zea mays L or normally in Malaysia called corn. It has a particular characteristic. First, it can turn fast and really easy to turn. As it grows fast, I can roll up the information of growing parametric quantity such as figure of foliages, diameter of root and tallness. Besides that, it can demo alterations rapidly and the most significantly, it is really antiphonal to the status of the dirt and fertilizing.

Treated sewerage sludge

As I said early, I non merely merely take the sewerage sludge from the sewage or drain straight. In order to acquire the treated sludge I have to travel to Indah Water Konsortium ( IWK ) Sdn. Bhd. I have to make dialogue with them and in the same clip be able to convert them about what I try to make.


I will utilize the usual dirt as a medium for the works to turn. However I will blend up the dirt and treated sludge act as fertiliser for enrichment.

There are several methods that I use to make the research.

Library research

I will carry on research on old survey on organic fertiliser specifically on sewerage sludge from on-line diary and books.

Field work

There a few field word demand to be done sing on my research. First, visit IWK in order to acquire the treated sludge as it is the lone topographic point or company that can supply those sludge compost. Then I have to travel to nursery as a topographic point to by the works, dirt and other associate thing such as pot.

Lab work

The procedure of prepare medium, works the seedlings, nurture them and roll up the informations are will be conducted in green house.

Expected end product

Public in Petaling Jaya knows the usage of sewerage sludge in agribusiness as a fertiliser

Fertilizer that made up from sewerage become a common usage among public

Can cut down the usage of chemical fertiliser

Work program











Library research and usher from lectors

Get audience, coaction, dialogue.

Visit Indah Water ( IWK ) to acquire sludge

Buy dirt & A ; works

Experiment in green house

Observation & A ; informations aggregation


Overall I will make my research within 2 months. For the first month, I will make a research sing on my chosen subject which is about sewerage sludge. After garnering a batch of information and acquire all the stuffs so merely I conduct the experiment. For the last 4 hebdomads, it is the clip for growing of corn works and at interim I will make an observation in order to obtain the information.



Price ( each )


Sewage sludge





5 battalions

RM 5






Small pots




Transportation system








Averagely I will utilize about 5kg of biosolid that distributes every bit to 16 workss. By making dialogue with IWK, I believe that I could convert them about what I am seek to make in my research will give some advantages to them in the hereafter. So that I can acquire the treated sewerage sludge or its commercial name, biosolid for free. Transportation system could be the most dearly-won in my budget which is RM150. The ground is I need to go to many topographic points as it includes cost of gasoline and toll. So overall, my research will be merely RM371 which is within the budget provided.