In subdivision A of this study, we will analyze and measure Marks and Spencer ‘s ( M & A ; S ) nutrient sector concern scheme. In old consultancy undertaking we examined UK supermarket sector and concern environment. That will be important in understanding current M & A ; S strategic place. Besides, it will assist us to place beginnings of competitory advantage and at the same clip chances for future strategic placement. In add-on, we have to be cognizant of company ‘s non-financial public presentations every bit good as quantitative corporate aims and cardinal public presentation indexs. Analyzing them utilizing balanced scorecard and benchmarking method will demo us, is our scheme sustainable, does it hold long run position and way we are presently traveling. This will be covered in portion B of this study

Part A

Scheme can be defined as “the way and range of an organisation over the long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its constellation of resources and competencies with the purpose of carry throughing stakeholder expectations” ( Johnson et al. 2005, pp.9 ) . Harmonizing to Porter ( 1996 ) company can make better than other companies merely “if it can set up a difference it can preserve” ( Porter 1996, pp.63 ) . Delivering extra value to clients, supplying them with comparable merchandises at lower cost or both is a good manner to do a difference harmonizing to the writer.

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Johnson et Al. ( 2005 ) presented three Porter ‘s generic schemes which could be used by companies to accomplish competitory advantage: cost leading, distinction and focal point. It can be concluded that M & A ; S utilizing focussed distinction scheme. Harmonizing to the Bowman ‘s scheme clock this scheme is seen every bit high monetary value scheme which gives perceived high value to clients. They choose to distinguish themselves from other nutrient retail merchants with: top quality ain label nutrient, ready prepared repasts, fresh nutrient and nutrient for particular occasions. They do non pull clients for full hebdomadal food markets shopping but gives them extra value for their money with focal point on freshness and quality. Their merely nutrient shops contributed with high borders to overall gross revenues in past few old ages. Besides, they expanded abroad to 40 states in order to pull new gross revenues into the same niche. This is consistent with Johnson et Al. ( 2005 ) who explained that growing may be achieved by aiming new sale at the same market niche abroad.

In old consultancy we analyse supermarket sector utilizing Porter ‘s five forces model. That helped us to better understand industry in which M & A ; S operates. We concluded that power of providers is high due to a batch of supermarkets and trade names. Besides the menace of replacements is high because clients now want better value for money. M & A ; S is cognizant of that, particularly because that was primary ground for a large diminution in gross revenues in 1990. The power of providers is low because of immense figure of disconnected providers. Menace of new entries is on medium degree and competition among industry is on high degree.

The four biggest nutrient retail merchants in UK ( Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury and Morrison ) have about 76 % market portion. Therefore, M & A ; S with 3.9 % market portion in 2009 can non vie with lower monetary value scheme. Their focal point is more on merchandise quality. The M & A ; S nutrient offer ‘has mostly focused on the upper terminal of the mass market, typically higher than its placement for non-food. ‘ [ 1 ] They are selling ain trade name labels merely to their clients which giving them value for money. It helps them in publicity of overall M & A ; S trade name. The good thing is debut of some branded goods from 2008, because of higher targeted clients demand.

M & A ; S nutrient sector scheme lies on company ‘s basic values: Quality, Freshness, and Value, Standards of invention, Ethical Sourcing and Healthy feeding. [ 2 ] M & A ; S is premium nutrient retail merchant and nutrient sector is really of import to overall group concern and public presentation. It brings over 50 per centum of group grosss in UK with gross revenues of ?4.25bn in 2009.

Previous consultancy besides shows that the most influential tendencies in wide environment related to nutrient industry are:

Food industry was comparatively recession cogent evidence and these yearss UK is officially out of recession after six back-to-back quarters. [ 3 ] High degree of rising prices in UK ( CPI inflation=3 per centum ) is the ground which contributed to retailer ‘s profitableness. In 2009, M & A ; S reported somewhat lessening in borders and profitableness. Previous twelvemonth, they were traveling in good way with enterprises to cut costs ( selling, distribution, support ) and reinvest that money in monetary values to supply better value to clients. The bad thing is cut downing capital outgos for about 40 % which have to make value in future.

Increasing figure of healthy witting consumers is a 2nd tendency. As a premium nutrient retail merchant who is selling top quality nutrient, this tendency is large strategic chance for M & A ; S future strategic placement. In add-on to this, study show that merely one in six clients switched to less expensive and frozen nutrient. [ 4 ]

Today we have environmentally cognizant consumers. M & A ; S is first nutrient retail merchant who realizes that. Therefore, they presented Plan A in 2007 with 100 environmentally committednesss to finish within five old ages. Today, after two old ages they achieve 39 committednesss. This scheme have aim to distinguish their nutrient concern from chief rivals.

Online shopping is besides today ‘s tendency and chance for retail merchants. They launched M & A ; S direct and free vino bringing as a consequence of turning demand.

In 2009 M & A ; S market portion diminution from 4.3 % to 3.9 % and this is opposite to what board of managers announced in 2008. They predicted growing in market portion to 5 % . [ 5 ] In explicating scheme for following twelvemonth, they have to take into history few things which will hold consequence on clients ‘ disposable income. From January 2010, we have increase in Value added revenue enhancement from 15 to 17.5 % . Personal income revenue enhancement will remain at the same degree in 2011.This financial step will impact 70,000 people across UK who are now in higher revenue enhancement set. Additionally we have announced addition in sin revenue enhancements for alcoholic drinks. Customers are today disbursement ?36 per individual per hebdomad on nutrient in UK. [ 6 ] Previous mentioned alterations will hold certain impact on clients passing wonts. Probably they will non cut nutrient disbursals, but some merchandises coul be more affected. That is one ground more for M & A ; S to supply clients with extra value for money.

Part B

Balanced scorecard

The Balanced scorecard is “an incorporate set of public presentation steps derived from the company ‘s scheme that gives top direction a fast but comprehensive position of the organisational unit.” ( Drury 2004, pp.1001 ) . The chief inquiry behind the balanced scorecard construct harmonizing to Kaplan and Norton ( 2001 ) is how to mensurate future public presentation. The writers were cognizant that companies are merely in 10 to 30 per centum successful in put to deathing its scheme. The chief grounds are vision, people, resource and other barriers. For illustration non-understanding of scheme by employees or direction fails to associate budget with scheme aims. Besides they realize importance of intangible assets, non capital any longer in adding value to company. In this new concern environment focal point merely on past fiscal steps ( net income, hard currency flow ) and non taking into history non-financial public presentations such as client satisfaction could be fatal for organisation. The writers presented model and suggest every company to be viewed from four positions: fiscal, client, internal concern procedure and acquisition and growing position. All fiscal and non-financial steps and aims should be based on company ‘s vision and scheme. That will assist directors to hold overview over whole procedures in company and employees to better understand planetary house ‘s scheme. We will utilize suggested model to back up preparation and execution of Marks and Spencer ‘s current scheme.

1. Financial position

Kaplan and Norton ( 2001 ) argue that non-financial positions are of import but the same is with fiscal position. The ground is simple. Effectss from other three positions will demo their impact through company ‘s fiscal public presentations. Marks and Spencer current fiscal aims on group degree and concern unit degree are to cut down costs and pull off hard currency flow.

In 2009, the consequence of wide environment and recession in UK wedged way of M & A ; S scheme. Because of lessening in UK nutrient sector gross revenues and lessening in market portion from 4.3 % to 3.9 % they choose to cut down costs with purpose to maintain profitableness. Food gross border was down 235 bits per second at 31.5 % . We can go on to utilize gross border as public presentation step. Besides, we could utilize profitableness steps such as Operating net income, Return on equity, Return on capital employed and net border which are already being used as M & A ; S cardinal public presentation steps. The consequences of cut downing costs are, decreased disbursement in support countries and selling activities of 8.6 % without endangering client satisfaction ( stayed at mean high degree of 84 % ) and addition of merely 1.9 % in staff costs. These activities will hold impact on profitableness in approaching old ages. The mark for following twelvemonth should increase of 10 % in mentioned profitableness steps. On the other manus, important cut in capital outgos of ?450 million had immediate impact on company ‘s hard currency flow from puting activities. M & A ; S besides have to concentrate to on how to better operating hard currency flow. They decreased hard currency transition rhythm for about 6 yearss. [ 7 ] They should farther supervise debtor payment period, creditor aggregation period and stock clearance period ( lessening from 8.7 to 4.29 yearss in 2009 ) . [ 8 ] In future, lessening of 10-20 % in stock clearance period and hard currency transition rhythm could assist the company to hold stronger hard currency flow.

2. Customer position

Main aims of M & A ; S in order to increase market portion, get new clients and maintain client satisfaction on a high degree are to supply clients on targeted market with extra invention, improved on-shelf handiness and to give them extra value for money. The last have roots to twelvemonth 1935 motto “Do n’t inquire the monetary value it ‘s a penny” [ 9 ] . They took legion publicities like “Wise buys” , ‘Family favourites for ?4 ‘ and ‘Dine in for two for ?10 ‘ during the twelvemonth. Despite this investment in monetary values across nutrient scope have impact on company ‘s borders, it besides provides clients with better value.

In 2009 study, M & A ; S is recognized as a leader in top quality nutrient. In future, they should increase ‘wise buys ‘ merchandises from bing 10 % nutrient scope and put mark step to 15 % . Besides, invention in merchandises should be continued and monitored with comparing per centum of new merchandises in overall merchandises. Associating to on-shelf handiness, they already employ more people in shops, unfastened new 75 and near 26 shops with underperforming public presentations. This tendency should be continued because it gives clients more convenience shopping. Customer trueness, satisfaction and quality client service are of import in future period particularly when market portion declined 0.4 % .

3. Learning and Growth perspective

Kaplan and Norton ( 1996 ) recognized importance of intangible assets and employees as most of import resource company have. In order to maintain clients satisfied and loyal, company demand to put in its employees, systems and organisational processs harmonizing to Drury ( 2004 ) . Therefore, employee satisfaction, investing in employee accomplishment and preparation must non be overlooked.

M & A ; S have good communicating with employees via M & A ; S intranet and employee magazine. The consequences from employee satisfaction study ‘Your Say ‘ show high response rate ( 90 % ) and consistent mark with old old ages of 70 % . Another two steps could be applied to mensurate employee capabilities- employee keeping and employee productiveness. Last two derived from employee satisfaction, because merely satisfied employee could be productive.

Investing in employee accomplishments is recognized as of import for M & A ; S. Thus, organisation of development programme for 2000 lines directors, leading programme and nutrient academy are critical for future growing and development.

The purpose to go most sustainable retail merchant by 2015 they converted into the Plan A. It is besides in conformity with Food industry sustainability scheme presented by DEFRA in 2006. They already fulfilled 39 committednesss in order to go energy efficient, send no waste to landfill and go carbon impersonal. Target of complete 15 new committednesss per twelvemonth will maintain them on right manner to make this strategic end.

4. Internal concern procedure position

Harmonizing to Drury ( 2004 ) internal concern procedure position demand to give reply on inquiry what concern procedures will increase value to stockholders and clients and assist company accomplish its vision at the same clip. M & A ; S recognizes that investing in invention procedure and operation procedure ( decrease distribution costs, maintain supplier satisfaction, addition efficiency in value concatenation and procedure quality ) are critical to win.

M & A ; S already presented invention in nutrient from national culinary arts ( Italian, Chinese etc. ) and should supervise per centum of gross revenues from these new merchandises, besides compare themselves with rivals ( at first topographic point Waitrose who is concentred on the same market niche- top quality nutrient ) . To stand out in invention field, they should besides concentrate on market merchandises in which they are first or 2nd in the market harmonizing to Drury ( 2004 ) .

Inventions in operation procedure has aim to do more efficient supply and value concatenation in a company. On one side we have providers and clients on other. Already half of 2000 providers were trained on M & A ; S ethical criterions. Distribution costs will be managed with execution of SAP package and edifice of domestic and international logistic and distribution Centres. Once a physique, they will significantly diminish distribution cost and clip.

Balanced scorecard method ( BSC ) will assist organisations to interpret vision into public presentation steps and better communicating within the company. Besides we have to be cognizant of some restrictions of BSC. Othman ( 2007 ) argues that BSC is inactive, ignores external environment and dainty company as mechanical system. Drury ( 2004 ) describe that empirical survey failed to supply grounds that nexus between non-financial informations and fiscal public presentation in future exists- which is the premise of BSC method.


There are legion definitions of benchmarking. One of the first books written about benchmarking supplying definition of this method was in “The hunt for industry best patterns that lead to superior performances” in 1989 by Camp. Until today many definitions emerged but still the most quoted one is from this book that says “Benchmarking is the hunt for the best industry patterns which will take to exceeding public presentation through the execution of these best practices” ( Ungen 2007, pp. 335 ) .

In this portion, we are traveling to look at our internal strength and failings, make comparing with our closest rival in UK market- Waitrose, because both have about the same market portion of approximately 4 % and the same market focus- top quality nutrient. At the terminal, we will do comparing with Tesco and Sainsbury as a market leaders and see could we utilize cognition to better our operations. Here the purpose is to larn from our rivals, non merely to compare with them.

First we have to understand our internal position- sections we are good at, possible chances and sections where betterment is needed. M & A ; S distinguish itself with high quality nutrient and at the same clip have perceptual experience among clients as a top nutrient retail merchant. It has strong trade name for last 125 old ages, strong internal fiscal beginnings and good communicating with clients and providers. About 100 % ain label nutrient is advantage but at same clip could be failing. So, they start selling branded premium nutrient which they do non bring forth. Main chance is in farther enlargement to international market. Today, M & A ; S has 296 shops in 40 states with important 26 % addition in international gross revenues. In future, they should spread out more as a entirely owned concern, non as franchising concern.

Second, comparing with Waitrose we will get down comparing their fiscal public presentations because they will demo us how successful other positions from the balanced scorecard are. An M & A ; S nutrient sector sale is down 0.1 % at ?4.25bn with loss of market portion of 0.4 % . On the other manus, in the same period Waitrose addition its sale for 5 % to ?4.2bn, market portion 0.4 % and lessening in runing border 45 bits per second to 5.1 % . Increase in Waitrose ‘s borders is at some portion consequence of 13 Somerfield shops acquired in 2008. Waitrose is besides focused on premium organic nutrient trade name. Comparing with Waitrose, M & A ; S opened 47 shops more and is selling 3600 merchandises more with much more ain label nutrient merchandising. This shop opening tendency in old old ages was primary ground for border addition but now M & A ; S should closely supervise shop public presentation ( already near 26 underperformed shops in 2009 ) and different merchandise lines and replace slow merchandising merchandises. M & A ; S in footings of pricing is above Waitrose and selling about 100 % ain trade name nutrient with merchandises made in UK is major difference from rival. [ 10 ] As a consequence their gross revenues depends wholly on ain label merchandises. In add-on to this in 2009 M & A ; S made a cut of ?127m in selling activities which was of import for him in nutrient sector placement. [ 11 ] In Corporate societal duty subdivision, M & A ; S is leader with presented 100 committednesss plan A. Besides partnership with Amazon will assist them better online shopping section. On the other manus, Waitrose presented on-line nutrient bringing service which could be following measure for M & A ; S in satisfaction of client demands.

In UK nutrient retail sector, major market portion has Tesco and Sainsbury. They both have entree to economic systems of graduated table and monetary value publicities are cardinal portion of their scheme. On the other manus, M & A ; S distinguish itself with supplying extra value non inexpensive monetary value to clients. Despite different in size, M & A ; S could utilize good pattern from leaders to accomplish better consequences. Sainsbury launched these yearss promotion ‘buy now free following clip ‘ . [ 12 ] M & A ; S could implement these on 500 wise bargain merchandises which are 10 % of scope in a one month period and closely look at gross revenues, net income border and overall fiscal consequence. Besides, Tesco since last twelvemonth increase 29 % percent addition in marketing activities. [ 13 ] In twelvemonth where we have 13.8 % bead in organic nutrient sale, cutting selling activities as M & A ; S did should be re-examined. Tesco, for illustration offer dual points in order to maintain client trueness. M & A ; S has merely 39 mercantile establishments out of 668 shops in UK. This figure should be increased in future because of lifting consumers demand for convenience shopping. Besides, hunt for value and healthier feeding will be still in client focal point. [ 14 ]

Benchmarking can back up BSC with recommendations from outside the company how internal, client and acquisition and growing position could be improved. One of the chief critics to benchmarking harmonizing to Johnson et Al. ( 2005 ) it will non place the grounds for company ‘s good or hapless public presentation. But Benchmarking as a tool have aim to better company ‘s public presentation and can back up BSC. Therefore, synergism between benchmarking and BSC and execution of current tendencies and best pattern into organisation will better fiscal position of our company.


This study showed importance of understanding wide environment and market sector in scheme formulating and execution. For illustration, mature supermarket sector in UK is one of the grounds for M & A ; S ‘s determination to put in developing states in the same premium nutrient market niche.

In portion B we showed changed focal point from capital to intangible assets and from fiscal to non-financial step. It is of import for M & A ; S to supervise all four positions in order to hold sustainable long- tally scheme. Besides it is critical for M & A ; S to understand what facors influence the fiscal and operational public presentation. Therefore, benchmarking and BSC should be used together in scheme preparation and execution.


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