Monetary value Competition: Monetary value competition can be defined as an intense competition in which rivals cut their retail monetary value to derive concern. In this type of competition if house want to vie efficaciously steadfast demand to be the lowest cost manufacturer and house should be able to alter the monetary value of a merchandise often and steadfast demand to react rapidly and sharply. Harmonizing to our enterprises the rivals will react rapidly. In this type of competition the Sellerss besides raise or lower the monetary value of a merchandise harmonizing to demand curve. It can be obviously seen in short tally of a house in Monopolistic competition.

MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: In this type of market the house can come in freely and each bring forthing its ain trade names or differentiated merchandise. It have two cardinal features:

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In this cross-price snap of demand is big but non infinite.

There is free entry and issue.

In monopolistic competition the net income can be maximized when,



MC = Marginal Cost.

MR = Marginal Revenue.

Monopolistic competition equilibrium in short tally and long tally.

Fig a: Short-run equilibrium of the house Fig B: Long-run equilibrium of the house

under monopolistic competition under monopolistic competition

Figure ( a ) shows the short tally equilibrium in which the house can maximise its net incomes and bring forth a measure where,


In this house can roll up monetary value based on Average Revenue curve. Thus the steadfast gets net incomes if the difference between mean gross and mean cost is positive.

Figure ( B ) shows the long tally equilibrium in which the house bring forth its merchandises if,


In this Average Revenue ( AR ) is shifted as other houses enter the market and there is addition in competition. In this the house will non sell the goods above the mean cost ( AC ) and it even no longer claim an economic net incomes.

In Monopolistic competition:

Elasticity of demand is high elastic in long rum.

Product distinction is high.

There will be no efficiency.

In this net income maximization status is MR = MC.

In this market power is low.

2. NON-PRICE Competition: It is one type of marketing scheme in which one house tries to separate its merchandises or services compare to viing merchandises on footing of properties. The house can separate its merchandise offerings through extended distribution, quality of service, client focal point or any other sustainable competitory advantage other than monetary value. In this type of market the house will besides cut down the cost of merchandise comparison to viing merchandises. It typically involves promotional outgos like advertisement, selling staff, gross revenues publicities, selling research, trade name direction costs and new merchandise development. The Non-price competition can be obviously seen in oligopoly competition.

OLIGOPOLY COMPETITION: It is a market signifier in which a market or industry is dominated by little figure of oligopolistic ( Sellerss ) . In this the determination of one house is influenced by the determination of other house. It gave rise to a broad scope of different results. The houses employ restrictive trade patterns to raise monetary values and restrict production. Where there will be a formal understanding for such trade patterns this is known as trust.


Entry and issue: Barriers to come in are high. The barriers are economic systems of graduated table, complex engineering, patents and entree to expensive.

Condition for net income maximization is MR = MC.

Oligopolies are monetary value compositors instead than monetary value takers.

Oligopolies can retain long tally unnatural net incomes.

In this there are few houses in which one houses action influence other.

Fig degree Celsius: oligopoly competition.

The figure degree Celsius shows that the demand curve above crick is comparatively elastic because all other houses monetary values remain unchanged. Below the crick, demand is comparatively inelastic because all other houses will present monetary value cut, which leads to monetary value war. Thus oligopolistic is to bring forth at point E which is called equilibrium point and the crick point.

Therefore in oligopoly competition one houses action influence the other.

Elasticity: It can be defined as the reactivity of the measure demand of good to alter in one variable on which demand depends. It can besides be defined as the per centum alteration in one variable relation to a per centum alteration in another variable is called snap. That is the per centum alteration in monetary value so how much is per centum alteration in demand. Thus snap is nil but reactivity.

Coefficient of Elasticity = % alteration in A ? % alteration in B


Handiness of replacements.

Proportion of outgo ( gratuitous: inelastic ; Television ; elastic ) .

Time period.

Delay of ingestion.

Change in income ( necessities: inelastic ) .

Nature of the trade good ( necessity vs. luxury ) .

Joint demand.


Distribution of income.

Price degree ( really dearly-won and really inexpensive goods: inelastic ) .

Different utilizations of the trade good ( paper vs. ink ) .

Elasticity of demand:

Price Elasticity of demand

Cross Elasticity of demand

Income Elasticity of demand.

Price Elasticity of demand: It can be defined as a per centum alteration in measure due to 1 % alteration in monetary value.


Ep = % I”Quantity ? % I”Price


Ep = Elasticity of monetary value

I” = Difference

Price Elasticity of demand is used to mensurate the extent of motion along the demand curve. This type of snap is ever negative and expressed in absolute value ( positive Numberss ) . In this type of snap,

If the snap & gt ; 1 demand is said to be elastic ;

If the snap between nothing and one so it is inelastic ;

If the snap = 1 so it is unit-elastic.

Perfect inelastic or 0 elastic demand.

Perfect elastic or infinite elastic demand.

Formula of monetary value snap:

PED = % alteration in measure demanded ? % alteration in monetary value.


PED = Price Elasticity of Demand.


The monetary value gets decreased and entire gross will besides acquire reduced when the demand is monetary value inelastic.

The monetary value gets decreased and entire gross acquire increased when the demand is monetary value elastic.

In unit elastic demand a monetary value lessening leads to no alteration in the entire gross.

Cross Elasticity of demand: Cross snap of demand can be defined as a alteration in demand for one good in response to alter in monetary value of another good. It can besides defined as per centum alteration in measure consumed of one merchandise as a consequence of a 1 % alteration in the monetary value of related merchandises. Change in monetary value of related goods cause the demand curve to switch a alteration in demand for the original good.

Ec = % I”QuantityA ? % I”PriceB.


Ec = cross snap of demand.

In transverse snap of demand,

The mark of cross snap for replacements is positive ;

The mark of cross snap for complements is negative ;

This two merchandises are considered good replacements or complements when the coefficient is larger than 0.5 ( in absolute value ) .

Income Elasticity of Demand: Income snap of demand is the grade of reactivity of quantity demand of a good even if there is a little alteration in the income of the consumer. In this,

Income snap for the good is equal to one if the proportion of income spent on good remains same.

Income snap for the good is greater than one if the proportion of income spent on good additions.

Income snap for the good is less than one if the proportion of income spent on good lessenings.


Percentage Method = % alteration in demand ? % alteration in monetary value.

( Or )

Proportionate Method = Proportionate alteration in demand ? Proportionate alteration in monetary value.

Entire Outlay Method or Expenditure Method:

TO = TQ * P ;


TO = Total Outlay ;

TQ = Total Quantity ;

P = Price of the trade good.

Point Method or Geometric method:

At any given point on the curve = Lower section of demand curve ? Upper section of demand curve.

The hair attention industry one of FMCG ( Fast Moving Consumer Goods ) company which is turning at high rapid gait when compared to other FMCG companies. The hair attention industry includes different shampoo industries which are segmented into three different classs they are:

Cosmetic which includes radiance, healthy, long and silk.

Anti Dandruff.


Under these three classs the fast moving section is Anti Dandruff shampoo.

The shampoo industry participants made a research on use of shampoo in urban and rural countries. Industry participants estimate that the urban market incursion of shampoos is 36 per cent. Shampoo use in the rural markets is even more infrequent, with a incursion degree of 12 per cent. By utilizing this research there is a range for increasing the volume of clients to utilize peculiar trade name of taking participants by keeping the quality. Indian shampoo market have 10 major participants.

The Hindustan unilever is the oldest participant in the shampoo market which has highest market portion of about 65 per centum volume portion ( 68 per centum portion by value ) when compared to other participants. Following to HUL the P & A ; G besides entered into the shampoo market with one of the universe ‘s largest merchandising trade name for antidandruff which is named as Head and Shoulders. The other major participants in this market are Cavinkare, Dabur, Himalayas and ITC etc.

Cavinkare limited, is a company from Chennai which have trade names such as chik and nyle which have a market portion of 19.8 per centum volume portion. It focused on scaled-down versions of is trade names and herbal shampoos. Cavinkare shampoo concern grown faster than overall market, in 1998 it grown to 20 % , in1999 it is 4 % and over past four quarters it grown to 34 % .

These companies identified some obstructions they are:

Shampoo contains rough chemicals which could damage hair.

Monetary value is higher.

These merchandises became glamour merchandise instead than being a hygienic towards wellness.

Therefore in order to get the better of these state of affairs the Cavinkare is first company to cut down the monetary value of the shampoo as 50 paisa per sachet while other companies are selling the merchandise for 2rs per sachet. Therefore by diminishing the monetary value of the merchandise the gross revenues are more in the signifier of little sachets than bottles.

HUL clinic plus is the market leader among shampoos. In the shampoo sector HUL leads the race with market portion of 47.5 % followed by P & A ; G, Dabur India and Cavinkare. All the shampoo participants are aiming the volume growing by cut downing the monetary value of their merchandise. They even introduced some particular offers to increase the supply of the production.

Sunsilk is one trade name of HUL which contains assorted versos. Head and Shoulders is one trade name of P & A ; G which is the 1 of the powerful largest selling shampoo in the universe which is at 1st place. And Rejoice is the Asia ‘s Number 1 shampoo. Today 99 % people has dandruff issue so the participants thought of presenting antidandruff shampoo, HUL introduced All Clear while P & A ; G introduced Head and Shoulders which had proved as figure 1 effectual merchandise for the remotion of dandruff.

Now a twenty-four hours ‘s most of the clients think that concentrate degree of chemical use is more in the shampoos so in order to catch up the attending of clients one time once more companies came out with an option of herbal merchandises. Cavinkare 1st introduced the herb tea shampoo which includes all the natural ingredients such as shikai, amla and the nuts. Again the higher monetary value came into image as the herbal shampoos are really expensive. Slowly the monetary value of this herbal merchandise besides got decreased but there is a net income in lone urban market when compared to rural market.

Monetary value: All the shampoos available in market has boxing available in assorted monetary value trade names. All clear has been priced at Rs.55 for 100ml and Rs.105 for 200ml despite of Head and Shoulder priced at Rs.62 for 100ml and for 200ml Rs.120. To increase the sale HUL occupied assorted monetary value values for sunsilk:

8ml sachet for Rs.2.50.

50ml bottle for Rs.35.

100ml bottle for Rs.55.

Promotional ACTIVITES: All the shampoo sellers have chiefly targeted the immature vernal audience by doing famous persons as the trade name embassadors whom the young person like. The runs have been filled with full of energy and are strictly vernal.

SPACE ALLOCATION: Two major rules in the success of retail market are gross revenues and net incomes. The gross revenues volume and the profitableness can be measured in the sum of infinite consumed for the peculiar merchandise. Depending upon the merchandise class the merchandises are allocated. The sum of infinite is allocated based on the old public presentation of the peculiar merchandise.

If the demand for a peculiar merchandise is turning so more infinite is allocated merchandise or else the infinite allocated is decreased. Allocating the infinite harmonizing to the figure of gross revenues done. Allotment of the infinite for the peculiar merchandise differs from shop to hive away. The features of the merchandise find the infinite allotment in both quality and measure of infinite.

I selected my company as HUL and I studied different shampoo trade names under it. Basically HUL has shampoo merchandises about across all monetary value scopes. I conducted my survey at normal departmental shop in an up town topographic point. When I went to the shop I foremost came across the HUL merchandises this clearly shows the demand for HUL merchandises. I came across many different trade names under the shampoo section of them 4 trade names were of HUL ‘s. When I enquired people on their purchase of the merchandises so I came to a surprising fact that most of people bought HUL shampoo merchandise, no admiration HUL is the market leader.

The first trade name that came to my oculus in the shampoo section was Sunsilk. The demand for the Sunsilk is more compared to all other 3 trade names in HUL because people believed that Sunsilk was the hair expert. Following to sunsilk I observed Clinic All Clear is placed which is chiefly aiming market enduring with dandruff. The 3rd merchandise in the order was Clinic Plus which is a low cost and brings a immense sum of grosss for the company. After this the forth merchandise is Dove which is targeted for niche market. In my interaction with clients I found people rejecting the merchandise the surprising ground was consumers perceptual experience about Dove was it contains a batch of chemicals.

Decision: Harmonizing to my survey it shows that I understood that Sunsilk have an inelastic demand and Clinic Plus was in the bosom of many clients and it enjoys loyal clients maintaining in head the market is an Oligopolic market.