It was built to be the new ‘home of football ‘ ; to be one of the largest and magnificent bowls in the universe and designed to be state-of-the-art with a siting capacity of 90,000. Designed by the World Stadium Team led by Mott MacDonald, the Wembley Stadium now stands as the most expensive bowl of all time built, the longest single-span roof construction in the universe ( 315m ) , 2nd largest bowl in Europe and the tallest in the universe ( 133m ) with every place under roof screen.
The construct was to construct a state-of-the-art bowl, with none that can compare anyplace else in the universe. The new bowl has a partially retractable roof which can be adjusted to let sunshine to make all parts of the pitch. During bad conditions, the roof can be retracted in approximately 15 proceedingss to cover every place ( http: //www.designbuild-network.com/projects/wembley/ ) .
?120 million from the Lottery Fund was invested into the bowl with an extra loan of ?426 million through West Deutsche Landesbank. A fixed monetary value contract was reached between the client and contractors. This made proviso for a edifice cost of ?352 million and entire undertaking costs of ?757 million ( Public Accounts Committee, 2004 ) .
However, like most iconic building undertakings of national involvement, the Wembley undertaking was non spared its ain portion of contentions, accusals, rumors, anxiousnesss and captivation. The Football Association ( FA ) must hold imagined a dramatic 2006 FA Cup expansive coda, the biggest UK association football title at Wembley National Stadium. Unfortunately, this of import event had to be moved all the manner to Wales! What was incorrect? Wembley Stadium ‘s inordinately ambitious re-development was absolutely behind schedule.A The undertaking subsequently opened in March 2007, about a twelvemonth behind agenda and ?70million over budget and has since so kept some of the finest building attorneies in changeless employment.
The Wembley Stadium construct was decidedly ambitious and the merchandise stands now imposingly. Even more breathe pickings is the 133m arch which when lit up at dark clambering gloriously, and can even be seen across London. Wembley has so become England ‘s new icon of football.
The client for the undertaking was the Football Association ( FA ) working through its subordinate the Wembley National Stadium Ltd ( WNSL ) . The chief contractor was Multiplex Constructions with Mott MacDonald being the Lead Designers. The undertaking used two project advisers ; Tropus at the initial phases ( 1997-2001 ) and Capita Symonds ( 2001-2006 ) . The initial steel contractor was Cleveland Bridge
2.0 Problems during the undertaking
A litany of jobs can be identified that bedevilled the building of the Wembley Stadium chiefly adversarial contracts, unreasonable hazard allotment, cash-flow jobs, design alterations, hapless public presentation, hapless site direction and judicial proceedings. These are presented in inside informations below:
Delaies and indecisiveness even before the undertaking begun: Plans for a new bowl were beset with holds, direction jobs and increasing costs since December 1996. The designs were revealed in 1999 and the bowl should hold been completed in 2003 but the work itself started merely in September 2002 due to many political and fiscal jobs. The undertaking was eventually rescheduled to finish in May 2006 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2119413.stm ) .
Design Problems: Multiplex argued that ‘Mott MacDonald`s design for the Wembley steel work was non fit for intent and that the initial designs were non right, constructible, coordinated and consistent. ‘ It further stated that ‘Mott MacDonald ‘s deficient design, failure to warn and/or take action is shown in many 1000s of single Acts of the Apostless or skips ‘ ( Technology and Construction Court ( TCC ) , 2006 ) .
Scope Creep: The initial range was to suit sports, rugger and football in the same bowl. This ulterior became really controversial and resulted in the remotion of sports from the strategy in 1999, because of the proficient and commercial challenges of suiting the three athleticss within the same bowl. In December 2001, the range was further changed with the remotion of a hotel from the undertaking, the enlargement of cordial reception suites and considerable alterations to the north side of the bowl bowl. This took the Mott Consortium 7-8 months to redesign. These alterations increased the cost of the undertaking particularly in steel plants ( TCC, 2006 ) .
Procurement Issues: In the decisions of Public Accounts Committee ( Eighth Report of Session 2003-04 ) , it stated that “ Best procurance pattern has non been followed on what is a high profile undertaking… Organisations responsible for pull offing undertakings should be expected to put out a formal procurance procedure, which treats all bidders every bit to avoid giving any one a possible advantage over the others. ” It further criticised Wembley National Stadium Limited for neglecting to follow a elaborate and open formal procurance procedure and holding duologue with Multiplex prior to get downing the procurance procedure. A study by former Wembley undertaking director Tropus, said ‘the assignment was made with undue velocity. ‘ The James Report besides concluded that there had ‘been serious defects in the procurance policies. ‘ ( James Report, 2002 )
Poor Communication: Apart from the major alterations in the range of the plants, MultiplexA lamented non given entree to critical design information which made them underprice the steelwork. Mott on the other manus thought “ Multiplex was cognizant of the province of design, holding managed the design procedure and holding been closely involved in the design work. ” ( Wembley Stadium into Injury Time, 2002 )
Poor Planning and administration: A batch of determinations seem to hold been made hurriedly. No wonder several alterations had to be made at ulterior phases. When it became a premier aim to complete the undertaking in clip for the FA Cup coda in May 2006, efficiency and cost effectivity became secondary issues. In my sentiment, a batch of jobs could hold been avoided if Multiplex did non hold to hotfoot the occupation to run into unrealistic deadlines. Multiplex claims that it has sustained important losingss as a consequence of a ‘multitude of breaches of contract and/or Acts of the Apostless of carelessness ‘ by the adviser, which had ‘far-reaching effects ‘ for Wembley ( TCC, 2006 ; Baloch, 2008 ) .
Disputes and dissensions: Cleveland Bridge ( CB ) , the steel contractor terminated their contract in 2004 because they did non believe they would be paid for stuffs and that there were apparently unsurmountable troubles between them and Multiplex. A sustained input from a steelwork subcontractor could hold greatly influenced the timely completion of the undertaking but finally CB had to be replaced with all go toing jobs of a new undertaking squad member.
Health and Safety jobs: In March 2006, a impermanent roof support fell by over half ensuing in the emptying of all building workers and hold of work. Another accident occurred January 2004 ensuing in the decease of one building worker and the hurt of another when a platform collapsed without warning, pin downing the work forces underneath ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.designbuild-network.com/projects/wembley/ )
Poor Performance by Cleveland Bridge: Delaies were caused by CB as non all the steel sent to China could be fabricated in clip to follow with the programme. So the steel sent to China was frequently shipped back to England with most non fabricated. Furthermore the steel sent to site was frequently losing important pieces ( intending it could non be erected ) or else was untagged with the effect that site staff could non place the relevant pieces of steel ( TCC, 2006 ) .
Poor Supervision by Sports England: The Government was less than happy with the degree of supervising offered by Sport England. It stated that “ Sport England ‘s public presentation in supervising the advancement of the undertaking has been lack, slovenly and supine. ” This finally resulted in supply squad losing the focal point of the undertaking right from the beginning and before long, a batch was out of manus ( Wembley Stadium into Injury Time, 2002 ) .
Poor Stakeholder direction: In a statement by The House of Commons Culture, Media and Sports Committee, it blamed some of the jobs encountered on the undertaking on hapless stakeholder direction. It said, “ the undertaking had been undermined by the ‘fundamental failure ‘ to include all representatives at the beginning in be aftering the renovation ” ( www.publications.parliament.uk ) . The surrender of Ken Bates in 2001 as president of WNSL gives a farther intimation. He cited a deficiency of support from the board and that he had been undermined by senior figures within both the authorities and the FA. He unusually said, “ Even Jesus Christ merely had one Pontius Pilate – I had a whole squad of them. ” ( www.forbes.com ) .
3.0 The Problems Encountered: The Role of Project Management
Undertaking Management ( PM ) is the “ . . . application of cognition, accomplishments, tools and techniques to project activities to accomplish undertaking demands. ” ( PMBoK, 2004 ) . This same subject tallies through other criterions for PM including BS6079 and ISO 10006. Suffice it for now to state that PM is the managerial duty and actions involved in finishing a undertaking on clip, in budget and to the specified quality criterions, in conformity with the traditional public presentation standards. The function of PM in the Wembley undertaking will now be appraised under some of the cardinal cognition countries identified in the PMBoK.
3.1 Project Scope Management This involves developing a range statement that will specify the boundaries of the undertaking and verify the sum of work to be done. PM uses such tools as brainstorming, fast diagrams, Value Management workshops to specify the undertaking. This is because if you have the incorrect definition, you may come up with the right solution-to the incorrect job! ( Lewis, 2007 ) . If scope definition is non holistically carried out, major alterations such as those experienced on Wembley may happen subsequently and do holds, cost fluctuations taking to claims and judicial proceedings. This, I believe, was the ‘akiles heel ‘ of this iconic undertaking. Where alteration becomes inevitable, PM should pull off them to protect the undertaking from the effects of range weirdo. Wembley failed in this country ensuing in the considerable cost and clip overproductions. Lewis ( 2007 ) justly said, “ I have become positive that undertakings rarely fail at the terminal. Rather, they fail at the definition phase. ”
3.2 Undertaking Time Management PM adorns itself with yet another award of being able to efficaciously gauge clip frame for undertakings realistically and specifying work bundles and milepost to accomplish this mark. It employs one of its popular tools of Critical Path Method and scheduling in this regard. Many packages including Primavera and MS Project have besides been developed to helped in the direction of clip. Kaming ( 1997 ) , Elinwa ( 2001 ) and Aibini ( 2006 ) nevertheless reveal that the happening of clip overproductions is high and that overproductions can happen of undertakings irrespective of its size. Wembley was no exclusion. Some of the differences, alterations, hard currency flow jobs, design jobs etc. that caused resulted in the undertaking being delivered in 10 months late and the subsequent changing of the FA Cup finals to Wales could hold been avoided through effectual undertaking clip direction. PM should hold helped to come out with a realistic continuance for the undertaking.
3.3 Undertaking Cost Management This involves gauging the cost of all resources and such things as travel and other support inside informations. After this is done, costs are budgeted and tracked to maintain the undertaking within that budget ( Rad, 2002 ) . This is really of import in PM as the first inquiry most clients inquire is ‘how much will it be? ‘ It is the responsibility of the PM to realistically find what it will be to accomplish a peculiar range. The tough inquiry so arises. Was Wembley ‘s initial cost of ?445million realistic? Why did cost rise astronomically to ?757million at completion? The undertaking even had to be stalled ‘into hurt clip ‘ merely to seek extra support. Why could n’t PM forestall this? Much of the incrimination lies forthrightly on PM ‘s failure to realistically gauge cost at construct.
3.4 Undertaking Communications Management “ This is the procedures required to guarantee seasonably and appropriate coevals, aggregation, airing, storage, and temperament of undertaking information. ” ( PMBoK, 2004 ) . MultiplexA claims it was non given entree to critical design information and that this led to increased steelwork costs. Mott MacDonald on the other manus dismisses this expression, “ Multiplex was cognizant of the province of design, holding managed the design procedure and holding been closely involved in the design work ” ( TCC, 2006 ) . PM is supposed to make a smooth communicating interface between all parties to prevent these misinterpretations.
3.5 Project Procurement Management This helps in choosing the most appropriate contractors and providers, administers the contract every bit good as signifier the best working relationships between all parties to accomplish undertaking ends. The Public Accounts Committee ( 2003-04 ) , stated that “ Best procurance pattern has non been followed on what is a high profile undertaking… ” PM should hold besides salvaged the job between Mott, Cleveland and Multiplex before it got out of manus, ensuing in Cleveland walking off from the undertaking with its go toing jobs. More besides, it is known that competitory tendering and cost as a choice standard has produced hapless consequences in building over the old ages and PM should hold helped in planing the best procurance attack to forestall the jobs ( Egan, 1998 ) .
The contract used for the undertaking was fixed cost method in which the client smartly shirks hazard to the contractor. This signifier of contract invariably consequences in making an adversarial environment with where each party involved focuses their attendings on the demands and hazards of their concerns as opposed to those of the undertaking ( Morriss, P. and Hollis, A. , 2005 ) .This may good be another country that grossly affected the consequences on Wembley and effectual PM should hold prevented this.
3.6 Stakeholder Management: Freeman and McVea ( 2001 ) describe this map as “ looking out from the house or undertaking and identifying, and puting in all the relationships that will guarantee long-run success. ” At construct phase, this is used to roll up positions of all interested parties, particularly those of terminal users who normally hold critical information that may be critical to the design, map and success of a undertaking. If this was efficaciously done, it would hold prevented the bitterness that grew between some of the contractors and would hold saved the undertaking from unneeded holds and increased cost of replacing Cleveland Bridge. It would hold helped to bring forth the best adjustment design every bit good as kind out the fact that sports, football and rugger in the same locale would show a batch of proficient and functional troubles at the design phase salvaging the undertaking from about 8 months of redesign.
3.7 Site Management: Chan ( 1997 ) showed that out of 8 group factors that caused holds in building undertakings, hapless site direction and supervising was amongst the top five. The accusals and counter-accusations during the hearing at the Technology and Construction Court between Multiplex and Cleveland Bridge gives us yet another glance into an country of failure of PM on Wembley. The site was ill managed as it was littered with random pieces of steel that had been delivered in the incorrect order and a important measure of steel was sitting on dawdlers next to the site or around the margin. This had the potency of interrupting flow of activities and even doing accidents ( TCC, 2006 ) .
4.0 The Actions and MeasureS that should hold been taken
The influential Latham ( 1994 ) and Egan ( 1998 ) studies called for new attacks to construction- one in which client leading is cardinal and where there is greater collaborative working between houses within the building supply concatenation. Egan summarised five cardinal drivers of alteration viz. ‘committed leading ; a focal point on the client ; integrated procedures and squads ; a quality driven docket ; and a committedness to people. ‘ Some of the necessary actions and steps that should hold been taken is now presented below:
4.1 Key Client Leadership: The new Terminal Five at Heathrow is a widely acclaimed illustration of current building best pattern. The attack was alone and tailored to the really needs of the undertaking i.e. the client took a degree of ownership of undertaking therefore making a clear vision for how it wanted the undertaking delivered and besides remaining near plenty to the undertaking from origin to completion ( Brady, 2008 ) . Latham ( 1994 ) recommended that “ the client should be at the nucleus of the building procedure ” because “ clients [ basically ] thrust best pattern. ” Egan ( 1998 ) . The Client in the Wembley Stadium undertaking was the Football Association and therefore should hold:
stayed near adequate to the undertaking, supervising it and to do certain things do n’t travel out of manus ;
ensured that major alterations to the range of plants was frozen at a peculiar point on the undertaking or avoided wholly. These alterations frequently result in difference, holds and excess disbursal ;
made certain that equal support was secured for the undertaking before it even begun and that the appraisal of both clip and cost were realistically carried out ;
come out with clear, concise, realistic and unambiguous aims at the construct of the undertaking affecting all necessary stakeholders so that major alterations, such as those that were experienced, could be avoided ;
shared in hazard of development/construction instead than smartly jostling it to contractors.
4.2 The “ Heathrow Method ” : Terminal 5 was an brave development undertaking that involved more than 60 contractors and 16 major undertakings. British Airways Authority ( BAA ) adopted a alone attack to the undertaking to do certain it is completed both on clip and within budget. It used “ an advanced signifier of cost-reimbursable contract – the ‘T5 Agreement ‘ under which BAA holds all the hazards associated with the undertaking instead than reassigning the hazards to external providers and guarantees a degree of proi¬?t for providers. ” ( Brady, 2008 ) . The Agreement included an incentive payment for contractors that achieved a certain degree of public presentation. It decided to reimburse the costs of bringing and to honor exceeding public presentation and punish mediocre and hapless public presentation merely in footings of proi¬?tability. This created some kind of ‘win-win ‘ environment for all parties and motivated the contractors to concentrate their attending on the demands of the undertaking and jointly work out jobs instead than concentrate on their ain concern hazards and involvements. These are the cardinal grounds why T5 achieved the commendable success of remaining within budget and cost at completion.
Cleveland would non hold walked out of the occupation if it was given steadfast confidence of re-imbursement of cost incurred. The contracts should hold been designed with an attack that offered inducements to all, for betterment in cost, clip or quality and non in an adversarial environment associated with fixed cost contracts.
4.3 Integrating the Supply concatenation: Both Latham ( 1994 ) and Egan ( 1998 ) underscored the importance of utilizing incorporate squads to gain undertaking ends. The T5 attack used by BAA combined two chief rules: the client ever bears the hazard ; and spouses are worth more than providers. ‘It provides an appropriate environment for incorporate squad working [ aˆ¦ ] to enable providers to work efficaciously and concentrate on run intoing the undertaking ‘s aims non merely in relation to the traditional clip, budget, and quality steps but besides in relation to safety and environmental marks ‘ ( Brady, 2008 ) . ‘By making that you take off negativeness, allow infinite for invention and make any chance for people to execute at degrees they have n’t been allowed to before ‘ ( Mylius, 2005 ) .
4.4 Engagement of terminal users: End users frequently hold critical information as they are normally in a better place to notice on the elaborate demands for a edifice than senior direction who may non even be the residents of the edifice when it is completed. After all, the users have first manus experience of what makes a edifice successful or otherwise ( Menches, 2008 ) . By the usage of such methods as focal point groups, value direction workshops and major studies, the issue of sports, rugger and football in the same locale could hold been resolved even before any elaborate design and therefore extinguishing the extended holds and cost deductions it had on the undertaking ( Barrett, P. , and Stanley, C. , 1999 ) .
4.5 Use of a Project bank: In an effort to incorporate undertaking squads in an ambiance of trust, coaction and openness, the National Audit Office ( NAO ) of the UK suggested the usage of a undertaking bank history. To guarantee better building, it said, ‘ … providers [ require ] greater certainty that they will be paid on clip to re-enforce the trust that should be between all parties for collaborative working to run efficaciously. ‘ This was endorsed by the Specialist Contractors who indicated that ‘payments for the undertaking bringing squad should be protected and secure, which would, in bend, significantly cut down differences and, more significantly, will promote closer working relationships between all parties. ‘ ( Parliamentary Newsletter, Issue 3, Spring/Summer 2006 ) .
4.6 Best Undertaking Management Practice: At the executing degree, much of the jobs that occurred on the undertaking could hold been avoided or its impact attenuated if best undertaking direction pattern was adopted by all particularly Multiplex and Cleveland Bridge. Problems of hapless site direction pattern, hapless or wrong fiction of steel, design alteration direction and communicating could hold been arrested with proper planning, administration and control.
4.7 Careful Monitoring: Undertakings seldom stay on path in footings of clip and cost. the more likely happening is that undertakings will be behind agenda yet over budget at any point in clip. Good undertaking direction carefully and critically appraises all factors that a likely to force a undertaking off agenda ( Office of Government Commerce, 2005 ) . Monitoring advancement carefully and inciting seasonably disciplinary actions by both WNSL, Multiplex every bit good as the FA, would hold helped place the likely impact of any jobs so that action can be taken to acquire the undertaking back on path.
Experience is a great plus to professionals practising in any subject, whether that experience comes from success or failure and whoever fails to larn from his errors is doomed to reiterate them. Some of the cardinal lessons on Wembley Stadium is therefore now summarised below:
Adequate clip and attempt demands to be invested in the strategic planning stage of every undertaking to come out with clear, realistic, and unambiguous undertaking aims ;
Undertaking squad must prosecute efficaciously with users and other external stakeholders particularly at the construct phase of any strategy to salvage the undertaking from major alterations with its go toing jobs ;
Construction procurance must travel off from competitory tendering and cost as the choice standards and develop processs that use public presentation and squad partnering and capableness ;
Contracts must be designed to supply inducement to all for cost and clip betterment and besides hammer a ‘win-win ‘ environment between clients and supply concatenation members ;
Adequate resources have to be made available for the undertaking based on realistic estimations ;
Clients must presume cardinal functions in undertakings for they basically drive best pattern ;
Continual alteration in undertaking demands and range can be really damaging for the undertaking ;
Dysfunctional relationships and atomization can turn a perfect undertaking strategy into a complete pandemonium and therefore project squads must run as a cohesive unit, with clear allotment of functions and duties.
Finally, it is apparent, at least from the Wembley Stadium undertaking that a hapless cognition and a deficiency consciousness of the cardinal undertaking direction accomplishments by the client can take to failure as clients basically drive best pattern. An effectual and successful result of undertaking direction on any undertaking in most instances will merely be achieved if both the client and the contractor or undertaking direction administrations are effectual in the accomplishments of undertaking direction. A hapless client administration, in footings of undertaking direction, may good drive a good undertaking director and his squad into hapless public presentation.
Pleasantly, it may non be a Panacea due to many fortunes and happenings that may good be out of its control. However, Project Management stands the opportunity of bring forthing commendable consequences if the building industry stopped handling it casually and unprofessionally but strictly use the great worth of cognition and see its gathered over the past old ages, through both its success and failure narratives.