April 2009 marked the 10th day of remembrance of UK ‘s Government ordinances to: “ supply a pay floor that protects low-paid workers, but does non jeopardize the economic system ” ( Low Pay Commission, 2009: nine ) , through the debut of the National Minimum Wage ( NMW ) which was set at 45.6 per cent of the median of all employee average hourly net incomes at its origin in 1999 ( Sloman, and Hinde, 2007: 380 ) . The new NMW rate for 2009, as announced by the Low Pay Commission in October 2009, rose from & A ; lb ; 5.73 per hr to & A ; lb ; 5.80 per hr, an addition of 1.2 per cent, from the NMW for 2008, which was set at 52 % of the degree of all employee average hourly net incomes in the UK in 2008, ( Office for National Statistics: 2009 ) .
With the monthly estimations of GDP falling by 0.4 per cent in the three months stoping in October 2009, following on from a similar diminution old months, ( Weale: 2009 ) , and with an unemployment rate up 2.0 per centum points on the twelvemonth, presently at 7.8 % , ( The Department for Work and Pensions: 2009 ) , the Low Pay Commission stated in their one-year study ( 2009 ) that they had made a modest recommendation in respects to the NMW rate:
“ In the period between 2003 and 2006, our evidence-based attack led to a series of additions that outstripped the growing of mean net incomes, in order to take history of the higher chance of occupation loss in the chilling economic system. It follows that, when economic conditions improve, the lower limit pay could one time once more increase at a faster rate. In doing its recommendations, the Commission ‘s position will ever be driven by the prevalent economic grounds. ” ( Low Pay Commission, 2009: twenty-one ) .
It is obvious that the rate of NMW and its impact on the labor market and the economic system as a whole is inherently intertwined with the current economic clime in the UK and the universe, reflected in the modest addition in the NMW for 2009. Therefore, to discourse whether or non the current rate should be increased, one must take this into history alongside the prevalent historical ‘economic grounds ‘ of the impact of the NMW, the latter being at the Centre of a combative argument.
2. The Impact of NMW
There are differences of sentiment about the overall impacts, benefits and drawbacks of a minimal pay. The NMW in the UK was introduced to undertake poorness and inequality and enable the low paid workers to accomplish net incomes and life criterions closer to the norm. Metclaf ( 1999: 614 ) provinces that ; “ The consequence of the NMW on pay inequality will depend on the Numberss of workers who are affected both straight and indirectly by the NMW, the degree of the NMW and the initial degree of rewards. ” The informations used in the computation of the NMW rate will act upon the NMW rate set and therefore the proportionate affected on the work force and labour market overall. Harmonizing to the Low Pay Commission ( 2009 ) 1.3 million people have benefited from the debut of the NMW, with & A ; lb ; 14million in excess wage being paid or owed, with 70 % of all people who have straight gained from the debut of the NMW being adult females, and about 66 % of occupations affected being parttime. This in consequence illustrates that NMW affects a little proportion of the work force, which could explicate its ‘ comparatively modest impact on overall unemployment, rising prices and monetary value as noted by Dickens and Manning, ( 2004 ) .
There are disagreements between the predicted and existent impact of NMW, found by economic experts, ( Card and Krueger ( 1995 ) , Ehrenberg ( 1995 ) , Odny ( 1998 ) , Dickens and Manning, ( 2004 ) , and Fillion ( 2009b ) ) , and the on-going argument is crucially dependent on the labour market theoretical account used in such research ( Moser, and St & A ; auml ; hler, 2009 ) . Taking the theoretical account of supply and demand in a competitory market, popularized by Alfred Marshall ( 1879 ) and propagated by Nobel laureate James Buchanan ( 1971 ) , ( Ambrosi, 2009: 2 ) , the monetary value of labor should work to equalise the ‘quantity ‘ demanded by employers, and the ‘quantity ‘ supplied by employees, ensuing in an equilibrium pay rate where monetary value and measure are reciprocally related ( Sloman, and Hinde, 2007: 52 ) . Labour will be hired every bit long as the excess benefit of hiring is greater than the excess cost of making so, implying net income maximization where the fringy benefit of engaging labour peers the fringy cost of the aforementioned. ( Sloman, and Hinde, 2007: 206 ) . In a absolutely competitory market model the intersection of the supply and demand curves for labor indicates the market glade pay rate ( equilibrium ) for certain types of labor. In a free economic system, without intervention by authorities ordinance, pay rates for the same type of labour tend to equalise across markets. Consistent with the jurisprudence of supply and demand, the demand curve has a negative incline and the supply curve has a positive incline. ( Sloman, and Hinde, 2007 ) . Zavodny ( 1998 ) further provinces that:
“ Although the market labour supply curve is positively sloped, single houses are assumed to confront a horizontal, or absolutely elastic, labour supply curve. That is, each house is little plenty that it can engage workers without impacting the equilibrium pay. The market labour demand curve is the horizontal amount of the single houses ‘ labour demand curves. ” ( 1998: 19 ) . In this theoretical account the demand for labor is a derived demand, the snap of demand for labor is related to the snap of demand for the merchandise. Here the demand for labor will be less at higher pay rates, than at lower, in conformity with the jurisprudence of decreasing returns, ( Sloman, and Hinde, 2007 ) , proposing that as consecutive units of labor are employed, the add-on to entire merchandise will lift at first but so diminution. If the supply of labor is elastic, a little rise in the pay rate is sufficient to promote more people to offer their labor. An addition in the supply of labor would take to a autumn in the pay rate as there would be an extra supply of labor. If the monetary value of labour rises unnaturally, such as by the monetary value floor set by the NMW, one would anticipate a house ‘s demand for labour to drop ( Zavodny,1998 ) .
Therefore, through the debut of the NMW and a monetary value floor above the free-market equilibrium monetary value for unskilled labor, employers are required to pay a cost on rewards higher than the rate set by a free-market, making an inefficient market ( Smith, 2007 ) , with increased pay growing, cost of production ensuing in rising prices and unemployment ( Tulip, 2004 ) . Neumark, et Al. ( 1999 ) , farther suggesting that the market experiences a ‘substitution consequence ‘ where low-skill labor is replaced with other productive inputs, such as machinery: “ reenforcing the overall increasing cost of production associated with the legislated addition in the pay for low-skilled workers, which in bend raises the monetary value of the merchandise and consequences in less end product sold. ” ( 1999: 2 ) . This basic competitory theoretical account was foremost hypothesized by George Stigler in 1946 ( Card, and Krueger, 1994: 772 ) , was ab initio upheld by David Card and Alan Krueger in 1992 research of the consequence of an addition to the minimal pay in New Jersey, ( The Economist, 2001 ) , but after spread outing on their initial research they found: “ no grounds that the rise in New Jersey ‘s lower limit pay reduced employment at fast-food eating houses in the province ” but instead found indicant that: “ … the addition in the minimal pay increased employment of low-wage workers in New Jersey ” ( Card, and Krueger, 1994: 772 ) .
Fillion ( 2009b ) suggested that the ground Card and Krueger ( 1995 ) , and others, failed to happen a important impact on unemployment from raising the minimal pay, as indicated by the competitory market theoretical account, is a consequence of what he calls the ‘stimulative consequence ‘ of increasing the buying power of low income households, which once more increases disbursement and: “ creates occupations for other workers and helps countervail the theoretically negative impact on employment ” ( 2009b: 2 ) , together with increased productiveness and morale aboard reduced turnover and absenteeism. Odny ( 1998 ) , concludes that:
“ the basic competitory theoretical account makes many simplifying premises that are improbable to be true, even in low pay labor markets. The theoretical account assumes that all workers have the same accomplishment degree and that the end product monetary value does non set even though the infliction of a minimal pay causes houses to cut down their end product. The competitory theoretical account besides assumes that houses can engage an limitless figure of workers at the market pay alternatively of holding to offer a higher pay in order to pull more workers. ” ( 1998: 20 ) .
Odny ( 1998 ) further propose the theoretical account of ‘Substitution ‘ with different accomplishments degree bing amongst workers where a minimal pay will take down employment among low-wage workers but may non take down entire employment, as houses substitute skilled for unskilled workers, as the rate of the minimal pay for unskilled workers become above the market-rate for unskilled workers.
Zavodny argues that the consequence on entire employment is undetermined, the negative consequence on employment of unskilled workers outweighs any positive consequence on skilled workers ‘ and the:
“ entire employment consequence can non be positive in this theoretical account because the rewards of at least one, and perchance both, types of workers increase. Similarly, employment of unskilled workers will fall, and the consequence on entire employment is undetermined without farther premises if an bing pay floor is raised. ” ( Zavodny,1998: 20 ) .
In malice of small grounds of increased ( or decreased ) employment ensuing from the NMW, Ehrenberg ( 1995: 828 ) , found that NMW has had a important equalising consequence on pay distribution which is comparative to the Numberss of workers who are affected both straight and indirectly by the NMW, the degree of the NMW and the initial degree of rewards. Harmonizing to Dickens and Manning ( 2004: 624 ) the NMW has been effectual in raising the net incomes of the lowest paid workers ; less than 1 per cent of grownup workers fail to have the lower limit pay, but the overall impact of NMW is comparatively limited, as the lower limit pay affects less than 10 % of all workers ( Dickens and Manning, 2004: 625 ) .
In an early survey by Forth and O’Mahony ( 2003 ) on the impact of the NMW on labour productiveness and unit labor costs they found small grounds to propose that it provided a general encouragement to labor productiveness growing in low-paying sectors, or that it led to a general addition in unit labor costs. Fitzner ( 2006 ) , Dickens and Manning ( 2004 ) concludes that NMW has been effectual in raising the net incomes of the lowest paid workers. Metcalf ( 2007 ) supports this determination, but adds that it will hold a more modest impact on the distribution of household incomes, small inauspicious impact on overall employment and will be loosely impersonal on exchequer fundss.
The grounds of the NMW in the UK indicates small impact on the overall economic system, and modest impact on the proportionate low wage work force. One can propose that this is linked to the Government ‘s aim of the current NMW ‘s minimum impact. As Odny provinces: “ If the degree of the minimal pay depends on its consequence on employment, the minimal pay is endogenous with regard to employment. Traditional techniques that measure the consequence of the minimal pay on employment that do non account for this endogenity will give wrong consequences ” Odny ( 1998: 20 ) .
The Low Pay Unit underlines the European Community Household Panel, Eurostat ‘s findings that the UK has the 3rd highest per centum of its population with incomes below 60 per cent of the median of all the EU states ( in Low Pay Unit, 2009 ) , with about 12 million families populating in poorness ( Low Pay Unit, 2009 ) . The NMW has a strong societal entreaty through the proposed ability of markets to supply income equity for the least able members of the work force. Politically, the purpose would be to accomplish a socially preferred distribution of income, cut downing poorness, but this needs to be balanced alongside the economic demands of efficient labour economic system, and other income support policies and/or revenue enhancement decreases.
The grounds of the impact of the NMW demonstrates small inauspicious consequence on the economic system, but indicates that upratings have been effectual in raising the net incomes of the lowest paid workers ( Dickens and Manning, 2004 ) , assisting to shut the gender wage spread, and that the wage spreads for cultural minority workers and those with work-limiting disablements have reduced to the lowest deciles ( Low Pay Commission, 2009: sixteen ) . Harmonizing to Moser and St & A ; auml ; hler ( 2009: 1 ) : “ the debut of a ( modest ) lower limit pay in Great Britain in 1999 has been mostly perceived as successful, the comparatively high degree of minimal rewards in France is frequently held responsible for the high unemployment rate of immature and low-skilled employees ” ( 2009: 1 ) , which underlines the importance of the proportionate addition of the NMW.
If the current rate of NMW was increased, it would impact a larger proportion of the work force in footings of income distribution and as discussed, potentially drive up the cost of labor and production, increasing unemployment, peculiarly among low-skilled workers, so one must inquire what the overall aim of the NMW is? The Low Pay Unit stipulates: “ A desire to merely eliminate the most utmost instances of development might bring forth a lower rate than efforts to undertake poorness or inequality and enable the low paid to accomplish net incomes and life criterions closer to the norm. ” ( 2002 ) . So an addition in the NMW must carefully see the relative impact on a greater portion of the work force, equilibrating the possible benefits against the hazard of inauspicious economic effects, and taking into consideration: “ the higher chance of occupation loss in the chilling economic system ” ( Low Pay Commission, 2009: twenty-one ) .
Therefore, whether or non the current rate of the NMW should be increased has to be based on its overall aim ( and the balance between societal and economic benefits ) , grounds of impact, current economic clime, the labour market construction, and followed up through careful monitoring of the buying power of the low income groups, which besides require a strong societal duologue beyond statistical Numberss. Taking these factors into consideration, it seems that the current NMW should non be increased for 2010, but that farther investing should be placed on implementing complimentary enterprises such as preparation, income support, revenue enhancement credits for the work force every bit good as inducements for concern growing ( admiting that this will hold budget effect, and an impact on the overall economic system and hence must be seen as an holistic attack ) .
- Ambrosi, G. ( 2009 ) ‘The offer-curve attack to labor market analysis: from Marshall-Pigou over Robbins and Buchanan into limbo? ‘ presented to the 36th Annual Conference of the History of Economic Society, University of Colorado, Denver, June
- Bhaskar, V. , A. Manning and T. To ( 2002 ) ‘Oligopsony and Monopsonistic Competition in Labor Markets ‘ , Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16, pp. 155-174.
- Card, D. and Krueger, A. ( 1994 ) ‘Minimum Wagess and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania ‘ , The American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 4, September, pp. 772-793
- ‘Debating the minimal pay ‘ ( 2001 ) The Economist, ( 1 February )
- The Department for Work and Pensions ( 2009 ) ’11 November 2009 – 35,000 more occupations to be created for the long term unemployed as new figures show rise in Numberss in work ‘ [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dwp.gov.uk/newsroom/press-releases/2009/november-2009/dwp063-09-111109.shtml [ 12 Nov 2009 ]
- Devils, R. and Manning, A. ( 2004 ) ‘Has the National Minimum Wage Reduced UK Wage Inequality? ‘ , Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A ( Statistics in Society ) , Vol. 167, No. 4 pp. 613-626
- Dobbs, Clive ( 2007 ) ‘Patterns of wage: consequences of the Annual Survey of Hours and Net incomes 1997 to 2008 ‘ , Economic & A ; Labour Market Review, vol 3, no 3, pp 24-32
- Dolado, J. , Kramarz, F. , Machin, S. , Manning, A. , Margolis, D. , Teulings, C. , Saint-Paul, G. , and Keen, M. ( 1996 ) ‘The Economic Impact of Minimum Wages in Europe ‘ , Economic Policy, Vol. 11, No. 23, October pp. 319-372
- Draca, M. , Machin, S. and Reenen, J. , ( 2005 ) , The Impact of the National Minimum Wage on Net incomes and Monetary values: Report for Low Pay Commission, Revised, London School of Economics
- Ehrenberg, R.G. ( 1995 ) , ‘Review Symposium on Myth and Measurement: The New Economics of the Minimum Wage ‘ , Industrial and Labour Relations Review, Vol. 48, No. 4 ( Jul. , 1995 ) , pp. 827-828
- Fillion, K. ( 2009a ) ‘Minimum Wage Issue Guide, from Economic Policy Institute ‘ , [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.epi.org/content.cfm/issueguides_minwage [ 9 Nov 2009 ]
- Fillion, K. ( 2009b ) ‘A Furtive Stimulation: How hiking the lower limit pay is assisting to excite the economic system ‘ , ? [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib255/ [ 9 Nov 2009 ]
- Fitzner, G. ( 2006 ) ‘How Have Employees Fared? Recent UK Trends, Employment ‘ , Relations Research, Series 56, DTI, March.
- Forth, J. and O’Mahony, M. , ( 2003 ) ‘THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL MINIMUM WAGE ON LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY AND UNIT LABOUR COSTS ‘ National Institute of Economic and Social Research [ Online ] , Available: www.lowpay.gov.uk/lowpay/research/pdf/forth.pdf [ 9 Nov 2009 ]
- Gwartney, James D. ; Richard L. Stroup. Economicss: Private and Public Choice. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp.559-562.
- KATZ, L. F. , AND KRUEGER A. ( 1992 ) , ‘Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast-Food Industry. ‘ Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 46 ( October ) : 6-21.
- Lee, D. ‘Price Floors, Surpluses, and the Minimum Wage ‘ , The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, Foundation for Economic Education, vol 48, December, issue 12
- Low Pay Comission ( 2001 ) , The National Minimum Wage Making a Difference: The Following Steps, Third Report of the Low Pay Commission, Volume Two, London
- Low Pay Commission ( 1998 ) The National Minimum Wage First Report of the Low Pay Commission, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowpay.gov.uk/lowpay/rep_a_p_index.shtml [ 6 Nov 2009 ]
- Low Pay Commission ( 2009 ) National Minimum Wage Low Pay Commission Report 2009, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowpay.gov.uk/lowpay/rep_a_p_index.shtml [ 10 Nov 2009 ]
- The Low Pay Unit ( 2002 ) Minimum Wage Formula The Low Pay Unit expression for the minimal pay, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowpayunit.org.uk/minwage/NMWminwageformula02.shtml [ 12 Nov 2009 ]
- Metcalf, D. , ( 1999 ) ‘The Low Pay Commission and the National Minimum Wage ‘ , The Economic Journal Vol. 109, No. 453, Features ( Feb. , 1999 ) , pp. F46-F66
- Metcalf, D. , ( 2007 ) ‘Why Has the British National Minimum Wage Had Little or No Impact on Employment? ‘ , Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper. 781. April.
- Moser, C. and St & A ; auml ; hler, N. ( 2009 ) Spillover effects of minimal rewards in a two-sector hunt theoretical account, Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Surveies, No 01/2009, Bundesbank: Germany
- Neumark, D. , ‘Schweitzer, M. and Wascher, W. ( 1999 ) Will Increasing the Minimum Wage Help the Poor? , Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Research Department: Cleveland
- Odny, M. ( 1998 ) Why Minimal Wage Hikes May Not Reduce Employment, Economic Review, Second Quarter, Federal Reserve Bank: Atlanta
- Office for National Statistics ( 2009 ) ‘National Minimum Wage Ten Years of the National Minimum Wage ‘ , [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp? ID=2163 & A ; Pos=1 & A ; ColRank=1 & A ; Rank=224 [ 6 Nov 2009 ]
- Office for National Statistics ( 2009 ) ‘Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings ‘ , [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/ashe1109.pdf [ 12 Nov 2009 ]
- Office for National Statistics ( 2009 ) , ‘Inflation CPI rising prices 1.1 % , RPI rising prices -1.4 % ‘ , [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp? ID=19 [ 14 Nov 2009 ]
- Riley, G. ( Sept. , 2006 ) ‘Macroeconomics / International Economy ‘ , [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-macro-natural-rate-of-unemployment.html [ 9 Nov 2009 ]
- Sloman, J. and Hinde, K. ( 2007 ) Economics for Business, 4th edition, Essex: Pearson Education ltd,
- Smith, L. ( 2007 ) , ‘Exploring The Minimum Wage ‘ , [ Online ] , Available: Investopedia hypertext transfer protocol: //www.investopedia.com/articles/07/minimum_wage.asp? partner=aol-d [ 4 Nov 2009 ]
- Tulip, P. ( 2004 ) , ‘Do Minimum Wages Raise the NAIRU? ‘ , Subjects in Macroeconomics, vol. 4: I. 1, Article 7, April 1, 2004
- Weale, M. ( 2009 ) October 2009 Estimates of Monthly GDP, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.niesr.ac.uk/pubs/searchdetail.php? PublicationID=2489 [ 12 Nov 2009 ]
- Wikipedia ( 2009 ) , ‘Minimum pay ‘ , [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum_wage [ 4 Nov 2009 ]
- Zavodny, M. , ( 1998 ) ‘Why minimal pay hikings may non cut down Employment ‘ , Economic Review, 2nd one-fourth, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta