This paper aimed the attack of societal and economic dimensions of rural development at the degree of North-Eastern Rumanian Region, in order to place the chief jobs and positions of the part, offering suited solutions for the execution and betterment of the existent development scheme of the part. The methodological analysis has used SWOT analysis, in order to foreground the existent dimension and position of sustainable development for this part. Besides utilizing of the conventional GNP and income as the primary indexs of economic advancement, the methodological analysis used an altered regional Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare ( ISEW ) developed by economic expert Herman Daly and theologian John Cobb ( 1994 ) , and a new version made by United Nations Development Programme ( 2010 ) . The methodological analysis besides used a three old ages research undertaking developed in the all six counties of the part is supplying the scientific support for this article. The research consequence indicated development of agro-tourism and non-agricultural activities as the chief solution for socio-economical jobs of the part. The development of this part, can be assured in the close hereafter by bettering the substructure of the part, which will guarantee the support of increasing investings in the rural countries and the development of economical activities, based on reach cultural heritage of the part.
Keywords: North East Region, Romania, Rural development
The Northeast Region is the most of import portion of Romania, in footings of figure of dwellers in rural countries ( 22.3 % of entire rural Rumanian population in 2008 ) . ( Table1 ) . It is besides The Rumanian part with one of the lowest GDP per capita. This research is seeking to explicate what are causes that determinate this state of affairs, and what can be the solutions for a better hereafter development in the rural countries in the North East Region of Development.
Rural development and planning job is one of the most complex subjects of the modern-day universe, because, in kernel, means accomplishing a balance between economic, environmental and socio-cultural preservation of countryside of the state, on the one manus and tendency of modernisation of rural life, on the other manus. [ Otiman ( 2010 ) ]
Romania ranks last or following to last topographic point on many indexs on the population ‘s living conditions and rural countries lies heavy on unfavorable balance in its instance. [ Alber ( 2004 ) ]
For Romania, the rural countries, both in size and construction every bit good as sing its map have a particular importance. Rumanian rural infinite size as measured by the portion of rural population is an component of mention in specifying the function of this district in all national district. [ Bold ( 2004 ) ] Rumanian rural country comprises 93.7 % of Romania ‘s surface and in this infinite reside about half of the population.
Dona ( 2010 ) said “ The deficiency of a realistic vision of the hereafter of the Rumanian small town, of the new businesss and makings required in the procedure of variegation of activities – to set up a multifunctional rural development is going more acute ” .
The Rumanian small town is no longer able to boom merely through nature ‘s gifts, the complex capitalisation of presently stored wealth, of the scientific accomplishments in bring forthing new material goods every bit good as religious and cultural values adjusted to the alterations that take topographic point at planetary and regional degrees, should represent a scheme taking at consolidating a comfortable hereafter of the Rumanian rural community. [ Hera ( 2006 ) ]
One of import issue in The Northeast Region is rural sustainable development and publicity of agro-tourism which is portion of the fifth precedence axis in the “ ‘Regional Operational Program ” approved by The European Commission for Romania for the period 2007-2013 whose overall nonsubjective consists in back uping the economic, societal, territorially balanced and sustainable development of the Rumanian parts. ( Table 2 )
Material and Methods
The chief preliminary stuffs used for the socio-economical analyse of The Rumanian North East Region of Development were the statistic database provided by Rumanian National Institute of Statistics and The Regional Development Plan 2007-2013 for The North East.
Amplification of SWOT analyses are based on field research certification in the part as portion of a national research undertaking conducted by the writers of this paper.[ 1 ]The SWOT analysis are structuring the collected information in order to demo strengths, failings, chances and hazards assumed by sustainable rural development in the North-East country of Romania and are offering the development solutions for the part, get downing from the aims of the part ‘s rural development scheme.
The methodological analysis is utilizing diagnostic analysis of sustainable rural development societal and economic facets in the part of development, in order to place existing resources and how they are recovered now. The aggregation of informations, information and preparation of thoughts, premises and decisions are done through questionnaires and interviews adapted to this specific part.
The appraisal of rural development tendencies for the North East Region of Development is made utilizing the new coevals indexs of economic advancement developed by United Nations Development Programme: Human Development Index ( HDI ) ; and by economic expert Herman Daly and theologian John Cobb: Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare ( ISEW ) .
Consequences and Discussion
Adaptation schemes specific to rural communities in Romania, and implicitly in the North East part of development, were through empirical observation grounded on a traditional natural and economic potency, advancing endogenous chances with societal visibleness. [ Gavrilescu ( 2007 ) ]
The functions and places of a part and its histrions are invariably altering supplying chances for new future waies: a part must be sensitive to those alterations. Therefore, one can non overemphasize the comprehension of the altering techno-economic paradigm. It is besides of import to larn from the yesteryear, comparison what has been done in other parts, and seek to make some benchmarking. [ Harmaakorpi ( 2006 ) ]
The Rumanian North-East part of development is the largest part of Romania, with an country of 36,850 square kilometer. ( 15.46 % of the entire district ) . It has external boundary lines with Ukraine and Moldova. In its composing are six counties: Bacau, Botosani, Neamt, Iasi, Suceava and Vaslui. ( Table.3 )
The economic system of the North East Region was supported in the yesteryear by forced industrialisation in the 1960s and 1970 ( chiefly petrochemical industry, furniture industry, building stuffs and machine edifice ) . Our yearss, The North East is the most developing part of Romania – the GDP per capita being bellows national norm. ( Table.4 )
The North East Region is characterized by high degree of poorness, employee monthly rewards being besides under national norm. ( Table 5 ) The poorest countries within the part are the southern portion of Iasi county, south-eastern portion of Neamt county, eastern portion of Bacau county, Botosani and Vaslui counties.
The North – East part of Romania has the lowest figure of little and average sized endeavors per 1,000 dwellers ( 14.7 SMEs/1000 dwellers, in 2007 comparative with national mean – 26 SMEs/1000 dwellers ) . ( Table 6 )
The hapless substructure, the low degree of investings in the rural countries, had restricted the development of new activities in the part. In the present, agribusiness is the chief business in the rural countries, over 75 % of peoples being employed in agribusiness.
Sustainable rural development can be achieved merely in the context of accomplishing existent economic growing in rural countries. Specific characteristics qualifying the agribusiness makes this subdivision of the economic system to enter the highest degree of subsidies from the province, which had developed in recent twelvemonth a complex intercession system, adapted to that predominating in European Union states.
The rural environment in the North- East part is characterized by a modest degree of income achieved by the active population, which can guarantee, in most instances, merely the minimal subsistence conditions.
This requires analysis of the specialnesss of the part in the N-E Rumanian part of development, from the economic point of position ( Table 7 ) , in order to happen alternate activities ( handcrafts, agro-tourism, and non – agricultural activities ) that can convey extra income for the rural occupants.
Agro-tourism activities are supported by the chief attractive forces in the Northeast Region such Carpathian Mountains covered with alpine wood and rich in vegetations and zoologies, celebrated painted monasteries from the fifteenth and 16th century protected by UNESCO, salt mines and watering place that has curative usage, national Parkss and natural reserves, angling lakes and other local tourer attractive force.
For the rating of socio-economic dimension of the Rumanian North East Region of development in the rural countries was used the new method of computation for The Human Development Index, measured on a graduated table of 0 to 1, which is taking in history get downing with 2010 the sum of three indexs: Life anticipation at birth ( LEI = a long and healthy life ) ; Education Index ( EI = entree to knowledge – average old ages of schooling and Expected old ages of schooling ) and Income Index ( II =a nice criterion of life: GNI per capita -PPP US $ ) .
These indexs were taken as regional norms and even they do non cover straight with inequalities in wealth distribution, by including length of service and instruction they do reflect indirectly the distribution of resources in the part.
A high mean life anticipation, for illustration, indicates wide entree to wellness attention and equal supplies of nutrient and safe imbibing H2O.
For the constituent of the HDI, single indices were computed harmonizing to the adapted expression for part of development. The first measure was to make sub indices for each dimension, so minimal and maximal values were set in order to transform the indexs into indices between 0 and 1: for life anticipation: ( min =20, max 83.2 ) , ( maxim observed in Japan, twelvemonth 2010 ) ; for average twelvemonth of schooling: ( min=0, max =13.2 ) ( maxim observed in USA, twelvemonth 2000 ) , for expected twelvemonth of schooling: ( min=0, max =20.6 ) ( maxim observed in Australia, twelvemonth 2000 ) , Gross national income ( GNI ) per capita: ( min = 163, max =108.211 ) ( minim observed in Zimbabwe, twelvemonth 2008, maxim observed in United Arabs Emirates, twelvemonth 1980 ) .
1 ) Life Expectancy Index ( LEI ) = , where LE = Life anticipation at birth. The life anticipation at birth in the rural countries of the North East part is 73.14 old ages, so:
Life Expectancy Index ( LEI ) for the North East Region Romania ( rural countries, twelvemonth 2010 ) = = 0.84
2 ) Education Index ( EI ) = , where MYSI = ; EYSI = ;
MYS = Mean old ages of schooling ( Years that a 25 twelvemonth old individual or older has spent in schools ) ,
EYS = Expected old ages of schooling ( Years that a 5 twelvemonth old kid will pass with his instruction in his whole life )
MYSI for the North East Region Romania ( rural countries, twelvemonth 2010 ) = = 0.79 ;
EYSI for the North East Region Romania ( rural countries, twelvemonth 2010 ) = = 0.71 ;
Education Index ( EI ) for the North East Region Romania ( rural countries, twelvemonth 2010 ) ==0.78 ;
3 ) Income Index = , where GRI personal computer = Gross regional income at buying power para per capita in the rural countries.
Income Index for the North East Region Romania ( rural countries, twelvemonth 2010 ) = = 0.66, where GRI personal computer for the North East Region of Romania =12.340 ( estimated value for 2010 ) .
Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the old three normalized indices: HDI = , so: HDI for the North East Region of Romania ( rural countries, twelvemonth 2010 ) = = 0.756
The deliberate HDI value for the North East Region of Romania is situated bellow HDI value for Romania in 2010 ( 0.767 ) , which confirm the hapless development in the rural countries of this part, comparative with the national norm and the execution necessity of new rural development steps.
SWOT analyses reveal the following facets sing non-agricultural economic activities and rural touristry in the part:
Strengths: Besides agribusiness, the chief economic activity, there are a batch of other non-agricultural economic activities taking topographic point in rural countries, even if non really extended ; The being of traditional trades and activities such as apiculture, sericulture, woodworking, wool and leather processing, processing of horns and castanetss, clayware ; Rural country in the part has a rich tourer, cultural and religious potency.
Failings: Low degree of rural population preparation ; Poor construction of touristry selling policy ( advertisement and organisation ) ; the figure of handcraft and cosmetic activities is falling ; the province does non sufficiently back up the development of piscaries and aquaculture. It is non yet decently harmonized legislative model for non-agricultural economic activities and rural touristry ; there are holds and hapless direction in denationalization of lake ‘s surfaces.
Opportunities: Most portion of small towns from the North East part has a cultural and religious touristry potency for domestic and foreign tourers. The increasing figure of NGOs that contribute to the development of rural countries and advancing rural touristry through: preparation classs and seminars, preparation in the supply of tourer services. The possible for variegation of rural economic system, that has to be supported by statute law, discriminatory recognition systems and developing of specific promotional actions. Promoting investings to develop and diversify economic activities such as agricultural services, handcrafts, beekeeping, sericulture, aquaculture and agro-tourism, which have the possible to increase employment of rural labor.
Menaces: The diminution in buying power for domestic tourers. In Romania aliens ignore the rural touristry potency. The figure of tourers is increasing, in the conditions of unequal substructure.
Appropriate plans and investings can speed up a part ‘s economic development but geographical location ; administrative position of a small town, which have great influence on the development, can non be changed. [ Lupu ( 2007 ) ]
Developing agro-tourism is portion of the Priority Axis No. 5 – Sustainable development and touristry publicity, of the Regional Operational Programme for the period 2007-2013. So far in this country were funded 32 undertakings for The North Eastern Region, of which 10 were allocated to cultural heritage, 17 for recreational activities and tourer adjustment and other 5 for touristry publicity, the entire allocate budget being of 427 1000000s lei from 2.915,4 1000000s stand foring the entire sum for 2007-2013 period ( Table 8 ) .
Analysis of the societal dimension considers people as base of rural development. Even if The North East part is non facing with a high degree of rural hegira at planetary degree of population, this job appear unluckily for the class of immature peoples, rural countries enduring a replacing procedure of younger coevals with elderly people. [ Zahiu ( 2010 ) ] It besides noted a important decrease in the figure of people actively employed in rural countries in 2008 compared to 2000 ( Table 9 ) .
If the rural infinite from a peculiar part ( as there is in fact in the N-E part ) suffers a monolithic migration of immature people to the metropolis or a big figure of husbandmans have over 60 old ages is really hard to recognize in short-run a strong growing.
So the stabilisation of population in the rural countries it must be seen as a job which can happen replies in steps of pulling the immature age class for rural activities that can guarantee them a nice degree of life. In the North East Region, the per centum of rural population in the entire population of the part has increase from 56.4 % in 2000 to 56.7 % in 2008. ( Table 10 ) Development of the portion of population between the two abode ( urban-rural ) highlights the tendencies recorded in the part: a increasing tendency in the portion of rural population by 2003 ( from 55.87 % in 1998 to 59.23 % in 2003 ) explained chiefly as consequence of the migration that took topographic point towards the countryside, a consequence of industrial restructuring in this period followed by a little lessening in 2004 ( 56.42 % ) largely due to the fact that in 2003 a comparatively high figure of municipalities have been declared metropoliss, particularly in Suceava County, and so a new increasing tendency until 2008 ( 56.7 % ) . In the same period of clip the per centum of peoples with age between 0 and 14 old ages has lessening from 21 % to 17 % and the per centum of people with age over 60 old ages has addition from 18 % to 18.4 % . ( Table 10 )
The societal solutions must affect a diagnosing on the degree of instruction in the rural population from the part, their cultural individuality and societal construction. As Kebir ( 2008 ) said, the cultural resources constitute an progressively important economic issue for regional communities of all types ( rural, urban, metropolitan, etc. ) as they become major constituents of value production.
SWOT analyses reveal the following facets sing civilization degree of the part:
Strengths: Being of strong traditions and a good experience about the cultural life of small towns. There are webs of cultural establishments in the small towns with a great tradition, such libraries, art or cultural Centres, and important figure of instructors, which can presume cultural and voluntary activities in these establishments. The instructors and small town priests are traditionally the chief boosters of cultural life in the small towns, leting the organisation of high-ranking activities. The good tradition in researching cultural rural life ( surveies of folklore, handcrafts, lodging and port ) provides the necessary conditions to back up the small towns with specializers able to resuscitate cultural activities. The small towns have entree to common beginnings of information as overseas telegram or orbiter telecasting, Internet, newspapers, local and national wireless channels.
Failings: Decreasing figure of schools and libraries. It is diminishing figure of instructors with high degree of instruction. Lake of founds for back uping cultural and art activities, no new books purchasing, lake of paid occupations to prolong cultural activities. Buildings depreciation affects cultural activities.
Opportunities: Supplying financess necessary to back up the cultural life in small towns and rural countries from The European Union plans. The cultural Centres can be usage for specific Rumanian small town activities and there is a high involvement for the traditions and cultural activities.
Hazards: Changing finish for cultural activities edifice and pickings over for usage in the commercial activities. Cultural pollution by the urban elements that are imported in the small towns has the consequence of decreased motive for some traditional cultural activities, choirs and assemblies showing reliable public presentations being replaced by jury-rigged sets that pattern cultural kitsch. It might attest a migration of immature coevals in other topographic points that have an advanced cultural life.
Recovery and sweetening of quality human capital must be an indispensable status for the successfully development of the North-Eastern Region. Human resources development and their needed substructure will hold direct benefit to the rural population in the part and is a cardinal requirement for advancement in countries of societal and economic rural planning and implicitly on rural sustainable development.
The sustainable rural development in the North East can be achieved by steps to hike rural touristry and services in the rural countries. This must include steps to rehabilitate the rural countries, bettering the substructure, back uping of private enterprise in the creative activity and development of agro-hostels, development of possible fishing, runing ethnographic or environmental countries.
There are besides needed step of making and retraining of the work force harmonizing to local agricultural activities, supplying preparation for staff included in the service sector, development of preparation plans and calling counsel for immature and unemployed, investings for development of the fabrication procedure.
The consequences are portion of the Project “ Research On Actual Size Evaluation And The Perspective Of Sustainable Rural Development Through The Elaboration Of SWOT Analysis, As Method Of Strategic Planning For The North-East Region Of Romania ” , under a fiscal strategy supported by Rumanian National Council for Scientific Research in Higher Education ( Grant no 114/28.07.2010 ) . Undertaking squad: Undertaking director: Beciu Silviu ; Team members: Popa Oana, Nistor Stefania, Alecu Iulian. Victor Olteanu is voluntary guaranting the web page of the undertaking and has contributed to the article as scientific research worker and PH.D pupil ( POS -DRU/88/1.5/S/52614 ) .