Before the eighteenth Century persons who were felons were treated with terrible and barbarian anguish and bulk of them were viciously executed in the public sphere, this was called ‘bloody codification ‘ . Near the terminal of the 1700 ‘s, persons who committed condemnable activities were dealt with really otherwise from the bloody codification epoch. Foucault developed the construct of preparation and commanding the felons, this was called the ‘enlightment epoch ‘ . ( Foucault 1991 ) .
Throughout the biggest portion of history, imprisonment was merely a signifier of captivity and segregation from society until capital penalty was ordered on the felon for assorted aberrant activities.
Merely in the nineteenth Century was the modern prison system founded, this was aided and guided by from Jeremy Bentham. Jeremy Bentham was respected philosopher and jurist born in London. After trying to analyze jurisprudence, Jeremy Bentham became highly disillusioned with the jurisprudence, particularly after hearing assorted talks analyzing the current jurisprudence. ( Richardson 1986 ) .
Jeremy Bentham after several months of analyzing jurisprudence decided alternatively that he would compose about the jurisprudence of the land and the penal system. Jeremy Bentham spent bulk of his life knocking the ways of the jurisprudence outlined by the taking lector of the jurisprudence, Sir William Blackstone. For over 40 old ages Jeremy Bentham produced manuscripts to propose ways of bettering the penal system that was governed. ( Richardson et al 1987 ) .
Jeremy Bentham believed in the philosophy of Utilitarianism, and focused all of his manuscripts on the theory that most rules are the greatest felicity of the greatest figure. This moral theory fundamentally determines the construct that rightful or unlawful actions of an person could be analysed by the person ‘s balance of good over evil. ( Bentham 1948 ) Jeremy Bentham proposed several alterations for society and legal reform and was seeking to better the designs and constructions of prison edifices to build a construct of National Penitentiary that the authorities would develop and make a Governor based function for Bentham. ( Bentham 1948 ) . This thought was ne’er implemented, but Gallic Philosopher Foucalt criticised this thought and this merely emphasised nineteenth century disciplinary reforms within the penal system
Prison is a topographic point in which persons are incarcerated and deprived of personal freedom for committed condemnable activities in society and is a legal punishment that is imposed by the jurisprudence of the land.
aˆ¦.. ” Her Majesty ‘s Prison Service serves the populace by maintaining in detention those committed by the tribunals. Our responsibility is to look after them with humanity and to assist them to take jurisprudence staying and utile lives in detention and on release ” aˆ¦.. ( Cavadino & A ; Dignan, 1997 P 114 ) .
The above quotation mark emphasises the importance of the maps and ends of imprisonment for any person who commits a aberrant activity and is so incarcerated in prison.
Harmonizing to UK Prisons ( 2008 ) , England and Wales has one of the highest rates of imprisonment in Western Europe along with Scotland. In 2011 an norm of 152 people in every 100,000 were incarcerated. Prisons in England & A ; Wales have exceeded their functional capacity with merely over 82,000 captives ( UK Prisons 2008 )
The primary map of imprisonment is to penalize the person for perpetrating the aberrant condemnable activity in society. Imprisonment in today ‘s society is the most popular penalty for persons who commit offense throughout the universe. Without a uncertainty, persons who commit aberrant condemnable Acts of the Apostless should be giving a tutelary sentence. The person ‘s aberrant behavior may interrupt society ‘s societal stableness and therefore could hold a serious consequence on other jurisprudence staying persons. Another factor in captivity for persons who commit aberrant offenses, these persons might hold an consequence on the state ‘s economic position. These aberrant persons who commit offense may hold a damaging consequence on society and persons who are seeking to better themselves through jurisprudence staying constructs.
Imprisonment can be seen as a governed relationship between the province and the person who commits a aberrant condemnable activity, imprisonment can be seen as society ‘s method of covering with single ‘s who commit offense. Criminals who commit offenses must be managed in an environment that can be managed in an orderly manner to continue society. Imprisonment of an person is primary based on the simple signifier of want of an person ‘s autonomy.
By the method of captivity and hence, want of their autonomy is important for those who commit aberrant condemnable activities. However, harmonizing to Sykes ( 1958 ) , captivity is a topographic point in which persons are physically confined and hence deprived of personal freedoms. The construct of “ the strivings of imprisonment ” have analysed through many decennaries within prison sociology. Sykes ( 1958 ) states that one of the most obvious strivings of imprisonment is the want of autonomy, with this want being dual sided, persons are non merely confined to captivity. Bing sent to prison can be highly traumatic for persons who could happen it impossible to set to regulations and rough governments in the penal system. Some persons may experience that their jobs are escalated and perchance more than they can physically and mentally get by with. The experiences of captivity might hold a psychological consequence on the person such as, self-destruction and self-harm.
Some captives feel that being incarcerated was painful plenty but Christmas and New Year made this hurting intolerable. The lone writer to do specific mention to such strivings is an antique captive named Boil 1985 ( Sykes 1958 ) , he writes on Boxing twenty-four hours 1980
aˆ¦.I ‘m locked up and closing all of the emotions of this juncture maintaining myself integral and together, I see everyone here fighting what is evidently a hard period for the other prisoners’aˆ¦..
By the single being imprisoned and hence segregated from society Incarceration of an person could be seen as a rough signifier of penalty, but certain persons might really perpetrate condemnable activities, if there is no imprisonment or jurisprudence enforcement at all.
Another map and ends of imprisonment is the single being segregated from society by being incarcerated, this could hold a traumatic consequence on the person such as physical uncomfortableness and/or psychological agony. This is highlighted through ‘the strivings of imprisonment ‘ ( Sykes 1958 ) . The accommodation to segregation of imprisonment can be highly hard for the captive and can impact the psychological idea procedures of the person. This can be dysfunctional during the imprisonment of an person ‘s construct of accommodation. The psychological effects on segregation and imprisonment demand to be managed by the penal system ‘s authorization martinets who are commanding the captivity procedure. Prison service throughout England uses a attention planning system called ACCT ( Assessment, Care in Custody, and Teamwork. The ACCT papers provides a tool to supervise the emotionally disturbed captive closely, affecting and prosecuting the captive in implementing ways of minimalizing the captive ‘s jobs and helping the captive to use channels of existent support. ( Ministry of Justice 2012 ) . The prison system can larn from self-harm behavior and is polar in collating and understanding captive ‘s form of behavior whilst being segregated from society. The analysing and close monitoring of captive ‘s behavior gives an indicant into forms, such as, triggers, timing, badness and psychological temper alterations of the captive. The person ‘s that are most vulnerable are the captives that find ‘the strivings of imprisonment ‘ intolerable to physically get by with. The captives that are in high hazard class are those who of all time ne’er been incarcerated, the captive with a drawn-out tutelary sentence, and besides captives that have been targeted by other inmates who are fundamentally asseverating their maleness other the much weaker, vulnerable captive.
It is non merely the captive who suffers from being imprisoned. Some theoreticians might reason that the person who commits aberrant condemnable activities deserves to be segregated and incarcerated from society. But ( Codd 1998 ) emphasises that penalty such as captivity of a condemnable, will bring down emotional agony to the wrongdoers household members, who have non being found guilty of any condemnable activity.
In Conclusion the rule maps and ends of imprisonment are to penalize an person who commits a aberrant condemnable activity by the method of imprisonment, therefore taking on to segregation from society. The following end is so to rehabilitate the captive to avoid the single reoffending and stoping back being incarcerated. Today ‘s penal system is wholly different from Victorian penal system and even though it is without mistake, it aims to handle all captives with humanity and self-respect that every homo being is entitled to. Even though the person ‘s committed the aberrant condemnable act, the rule map and ends of imprisonment are in topographic point to protect society, the captive excessively needs protecting and guided from “ the strivings of imprisonment ”
Bentham. J. ( 1948 ) . The Principles Of Ethical motives And Legislation. New York: Hafner Publishing Company.
Cavadino, M. & A ; Dignan.J. ( 1997 ) . The Penal System. An Introduction. 2nd Edition. SAGE Publication.
Cavadino, M. & A ; Dignan.J. ( 2007 ) . “ Justifying Punishment ” . Cited in Cavadino, M. & A ; Dignan.J. ( 1997 ) . The Penal System: An Introduction. 2nd Edition. SAGE Publication.
Foucault. ( 1991 ) . Discipline & A ; Punish: The Birth Of The Prison.
Richardson. M. ( 1986 ) . “ Bentham And Bodies For Dissection ” . The Bentham Newsletter. 1986. Pp 22-33.
Richardson. M. & A ; Hurwitz. ( 1987 ) . “ Jeremy Bentham ‘s Self-image: An Exemplary Bequest For Dissection ” . British Medical Journal. Pg 295. ( 1987 ) .
Minister of Justice ( 2012 ) . National Offender Management Service.
Sykes, G. ( 1958 ) . The Society Of Captives. Princeton. New Jersey. Univerity Press.