The topographic point of civilization in learning English as an international linguistic communication ( EIL ) is a complex issue given the diverseness of contexts in which English is presently being used globally. Constructing on the sociocultural theory that linguistic communication usage is unfastened to dialogue and context-dependent ; this paper argues that the design and content of ELT text editions should reflect multiple positions built-in to EIL. The paper presents the findings from an scrutiny of the current international ELT text edition. The survey selected 7 series of internationally distributed ELT text editions, for a sum of 25 and analyzed contents of the text editions. We identified the being of the cultural position of the EIL paradigm sing localized content in the internationally distributed ELT text editions and so investigated the deepness of the cultural presentation in the text editions in footings of raising scholars ‘ cultural competency. Finally, the findings are discussed in visible radiation of bing surveies and some recommendations for future text edition authors and schoolroom pattern is suggested.
Keywords: Culture ; EIL paradigm ; ELT textbooks ; ESL/EFL schoolroom ; intercultural communicating ; text edition authors
The turning figure of second-language talkers of English, which has already surpassed the figure of native talkers, has influenced the position of English in the universe today ( e.g. , Kivisto , 2005 ; McKay, 2003c ) . The new position of English as an international linguistic communication ( EIL ) poses major challenges to the hegemony of British and American native-speaker norms in English-language instruction ( ELT ) patterns ( Modiano, 2001 ) . Simultaneously, the EIL paradigm has made a alone part to cultural, rational and economic subjects in international contexts ( Jenkins, 2005 ; Taki, 2008 ) . It is non surprising that the ELT research field has besides been challenged by the emerging paradigm of EIL. However, there is a scarceness of literature on EIL to help ELT professionals in the development and effectual usage of resources to heighten direction ( Seidlhofer, 2003 ) . As Ndura ( 2004 ) submits, the content of instructional stuffs significantly affects pupils ‘ attitudes and temperaments towards themselves, other people and society. Instructional stuffs should incorporate pupils ‘ diverse life experiences and authorise them to place different voices and positions.
The end of this paper is to analyze the manner in which the EIL paradigm is framed within a selected figure of the current international ELT text edition, concentrating on the cultural position. We begin by gestating the EIL paradigm and its relevant issues. Second, we discuss how EIL defines civilization, stressing the significance of the scholars ‘ ain civilization and experiences. Third, we examine the current text edition from assorted parts of the universe, concentrating on cultural issues. Fourth, we evaluate the cultural facets and degrees of cultural presentation in some of the current international ELT text edition. Finally, we discuss the findings in visible radiation of bing surveies and suggest some recommendations for future text edition authors and schoolroom pattern.
Conceptualization: English as an International Language ( EIL )
As mentioned, the paradigm displacement in ELT patterns and research rejects the high quality and authorization of native talkers and their civilizations. The new paradigm, termed EIL, accepts the linguistic communication authorization and norms of English-language scholars ( Phillipson, 1997 ) and accepts English as a tongue franca, and a medium of intercultural communicating. Although these interchangeable footings define the attitudes, outlooks, and norms of EIL otherwise, they negotiate the authorization and individuality of English-language talkers. Furthermore, universe English ( Es ) , has late emerged and is more progressive in stressing the function of EIL talkers as to the full involved agents and non mere receivers ( Seidlhofer, 2003 ) .
Several nucleus issues of EIL have been identified: attending on non-native talkers of English, inquiries of linguistic communication individuality and linguistic communication ownership, regard for diverse civilizations, and concerns approximately English as a agency of cross-cultural communicating between non-native English talkers ( Gilmore, 2007 ; Liu, 2008 ) . These issues have played a function in the classification of English talkers and the assortments of English. Kachru ( 1985 ) categorizes the usage of English to inner, outer, and spread outing circles to specify EIL. Inner-circle states, such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand, are distinguished by assortments of native-speakers. The outer circle comprises states, such as India and Nigeria, where English is an official linguistic communication in the historical context of colonisation. Finally, the spread outing circle refers to states such as Korea, Japan, and China, where English is spoken as a foreign linguistic communication. McKay ( 2002 ) states that the inner and outer circle of English assortments make up the EIL. Furthermore, Seidlhofer ( 2003 ) believes that states in the spread outing circle could come in the mainstream circle as good.
However, some research workers argue that Kachru ‘s theoretical account does non suit the current model of EIL ( Bruthiaux, 2003 ; Kirkpatrick, 2007 ) . For illustration, Kirkpatrick ( 2007 ) argues that Kachru ‘s categorization for outer and spread outing circle states assumes a native-speaker theoretical account of English. For this ground, Modiano ( 2001 ) suggests a conceptual theoretical account of English talkers that places fluid international English talkers who use English for cross-cultural communicating in the centre circle without sing if they are native or non-native talkers. Modiano ‘s theoretical account is noteworthy because it shifts the focal point from the interior circle of native talkers to an international interior circle of non-native talkers ( Kivisto , 2005 ) . However, since most of the ELT text editions still use a native talker theoretical account, Kachru ‘s theoretical account which delineates ‘inner circle ‘ states from ‘outer ‘ and ‘expanding ‘ is more applicable to our analysis.
Culture in the EIL paradigm
Cortazzi and Jin ( 1999 ) specify the term civilization as “ the model of premises, thoughts, and beliefs that are used to construe other people ‘s actions, words, and forms of thought ” ( p.197 ) . Over the past 40 old ages, linguistic communication professionals have increased their accent on larning the civilization of English-speaking societies every bit good as larning the linguistic communication itself. Surveies of the function of civilization in linguistic communication instruction have been conducted from a assortment of point of views ( Paige, Jorstad, Siaya, Klein, & A ; Colby, 2000 ) . Presently, there is a turning organic structure of literature stemming from needs analyses of scholars in a learner-centered context that inside informations the significance of the scholars ‘ civilization. Furthermore, the scholars ‘ ain experience in the usage of linguistic communication is encouraged to ease effectual acquisition ( Alptekin, 2002 ) . The research has shown that scholars improve their linguistic communication accomplishments when they have the chance to show their ain civilization.
The cultural context of the British and American English can differ greatly from the cultural context of non-native talkers, which adds to the trouble of get the hanging English. It has been argued that it is non necessary for linguistic communication scholars to internalise the cultural-specific norms of native talkers when English is used to ease the communicating of scholars ‘ thoughts and civilization to others ( McKay, 2003a ) . Similarly, Alptekin ( 2002 ) carefully points out that it is non necessary to adopt specific cultural facets of a mark linguistic communication to be effectual with the linguistic communication. Alptekin asks: “ how relevant is the importance of Anglo-American oculus contact, or the socially acceptable distance for conversation as belongingss of meaningful communicating to Finnish and Italian academicians interchanging thoughts in a professional meeting? “ ( 2002, p. 61 ) . He argues that specific cultural features of native talkers of English do non improve-or even influence-meaningful communicating between non-native talkers of English.
More to the point, research workers note that it is possible to divide the mark culture- American or British-from the English linguistic communication ( e.g. , Murayama, 2000 ) . McKay ( 2003b ) nowadayss penetrations into how to divide EIL from a given civilization: ( a ) the cultural content of EIL stuffs should non preponderantly reflect the native talkers ‘ scene ; ( B ) an appropriate EIL teaching method demands to be centered on local outlooks sing the functions of the instructor and pupil ; and ( degree Celsius ) the strengths of non-native English instructors need to be identified.
Further support for NNS assortments of English as the pedagogical mark can be found in sociocultural theory. In this theory the societal context of linguistic communication acquisition plays a important function and linguistic communication is seen as being learned through the medium of interaction in context. As Pavlenko and Lantolf ( 2000, p. 155 ) , point out, 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is ‘a battle of concrete socially constituted and ever situated existences to take part in the symbolically mediated lifeworld… of another civilization ‘ . Harmonizing to sociocultural theory, scholars are to the full fledged participants actively taking portion in their 2nd self-chosen universe. In EIL scenes, most of the interaction occurs between NNSs instead than between a NS and a NNS. Therefore, scholars ‘ civilizations and experiences need to be validated in the instruction stuffs and instructional patterns. From a sociocultural theory, scholars ‘ English discrepancies and local contexts have legitimacy and should non be relegated to a fringy position. Textbook authors and stuff developers should take history of this variableness and integrate pupils ‘ diverse life experiences in the instruction and larning procedure in order to ease scholars ‘ designations with different assortments of English and its associated civilizations.
Cultural Content in ELT Textbooks
As pointed out by McKay ( 2002 ) , the usage of English is non longer connected to the civilization of Inner Circle states. EIL involves traversing boundary lines, as non-native users of English interact in cross-cultural brushs. With mention to EIL, understanding one ‘s ain civilization in relation to that of others is overriding ( McKay, 2000 ) .
Many research workers agree that most EFL textbooks concentrate on elements of American or British civilization ( Alptekin, 1993 ; Renner, 1993 ) . The major grounds for utilizing elements of target-language civilization seem to be the undermentioned: ( a ) it is more cost-efficient for publishing houses to bring forth and print text editions utilizing these societal and cultural contexts ; ( B ) it is hard for native-speaker writers to compose texts that are free from the influence of their ain Anglo-American civilization ; and ( degree Celsius ) historically, target-language direction has emphasized its ain civilization ( Alptekin, 1993 ) . Boriboon ( 2004 ) examined that the disparity between pupils ‘ day-to-day lives and the discourse in the text stuffs they used. He compared examples about shopping and culinary art from a current popular English text edition, New Headway, with scholars ‘ lives in rural Thailand. The disparity between Thai civilization and the scenarios presented in the text edition created an obstruction in the scholars ‘ English comprehension. As one solution, the writer suggests that instructors encourage their pupils to modify or make duologues based on their personal connexions or experiences.
Table 1 below summarizes recent surveies that have examined cultural contents in ELT text edition. The tabular array contains two notable characteristics. First, in footings of methodological analysis, content analysis and critical discourse analysis were used in several surveies. For illustration, Murayama ( 2000 ) analyzed the cultural contents of 10 EFL text editions in Japan in footings of ‘aspect ‘ and ‘level ‘ of civilization to find which civilization was presented and how profoundly the civilization was delivered in texts. Garcia ( 2005, p.61-62 ) created a ‘cultural analysis tabular array ‘ that included ‘cultural aims, cultural content, the methodological analysis of the cultural constituent, and measuring civilization ‘ . Each of these classs was farther subdivided. Based on critical discourse analysis, Taki ( 2008 ) examined the content, societal dealingss, and capable places in text editions.
Second, research findings have shown that the internationally distributed and locally produced ELT textbooks both contained lacks. The analysis of internationally distributed ELT text editions determined that the stuffs were dominated by American and British point of views ( e.g. , Ilieva, 2000 ; Ndura, 2004 ) . Ilieva ( 2000 ) argues that this might impede scholars ‘ socialization because it does non assist them spread out their ain cultural awareness vis-a-vis their new society. Similarly, other research workers have found that locally produced English text editions besides contained largely American and British civilizations and values, instead than including globally oriented stuffs. On the other manus, Majdzadeh ( 2002 ) found that locally produced Persian ELT text edition tended to concentrate more on Persian civilization and faith. This deficiency of mark cultural positions can make a barrier for pupils seeking to better their intercultural competency and mark linguistic communication accomplishments. Similarly, Garcia ( 2005 ) besides concluded that the Spanish ELT textbooks he analyzed provided small chance to develop intercultural competency.
Table 1. Summary of research on civilization and ELT text editions.
Victor ( 1999 )
Matching the cultural content of text editions and pedagogical issues, the ends of larning English of Gabonese pupils, and cultural contexts of Gabon in text editions used in Gabon
Two widely used text editions in Gabon: Imagine You ‘re English & A ; L’anglais Vivant
English text editions used in Gabon were non compatible with scholars ‘ demands
Ilieva ( 2000 )
Culture in grownup ESL texts designed in Canada ; ( 1 ) what is cultural cognition? ( 2 ) whose point of view of civilization is used? and ( 3 ) can pupils reflect their ain cultural experiences in the new immigrant society?
Critical discourse analysis
Canadian text edition for grownup L2 scholars: Canadian Concept 3
( 1 ) Culture in the selected texts adhered to mainstream constructs ; ( 2 ) the texts were dominated by mainstream point of view ; and ( 3 ) the texts were more likely to estrange scholars than assist them incorporate into their new environment.
Murayama ( 2000 )
The content of cultural characteristics in EFL text editions in Japan
Document analysis ; analysis of the cultural content of text editions utilizing the classs of ‘aspect ‘ and ‘level ‘ of civilization
Ten EFL text editions for upper-secondary school in Japan
The contemplation of EIL seemed different in each text edition ; the cultural content of text editions examined seemed to remain in the traditional knowledge-oriented degree
Majdzadeh ( 2002 )
The disjunction between English and the civilization of English in Persian English text edition
Twenty one lessons in 8th and 9th grade public school text editions and 24 lessons from the same degree text editions in a private linguistic communication school in Iran
( 1 ) The text editions decidedly espoused Islamic traditions and civilization ; ( 2 ) the text editions need more stuffs to present Western civilization for the international intents
Aliakbari ( 2004 )
The function of civilization in Persian English text edition for pupils ‘ intercultural competency
Four degrees of Persian high school text editions:
English Book 1-4
The Persian text editions were non sufficient to better pupils ‘ intercultural competency
Ndura ( 2004 )
Cultural prejudices in ESL text editions used in the U.S.
Six ESL text editions used in simple and secondary classs in the U.S.
The major cultural prejudices of stereotyping, invisibleness, and unreality were found
Garcia ( 2005 )
International and intercultural facets in EFL text editions in Spain
Qualitative attack ;
a cultural analysis tabular array
Fourteen foremost and 2nd class Bachillerato textbooks in Spain
Textbooks did non show a cross-cultural and incompatible attack
Taki ( 2008 )
Ideology and power relationships in ELT stuffs used in Iran
Critical discourse analysis ;
analysis of content, societal dealingss, and capable places in texts
Four internationally distributed ELT text editions: Expresswaies, New American Streamline: Finish, New Interchange 3, and Spectrum 4, plus locally produced ELT text editions for Persian high school pupils: English Book 1-3 and A Preparatory English Course
The internationally distributed text editions included the discourse of the Western consumer economic system based on societal equality ; Persian high school text editions have the undermentioned characteristics: ( 1 ) de-contextualized conversations ; ( 2 ) deficiency of cultural contrast ; ( 3 ) important consumer-oriented issues ; and ( 4 ) a focal point on other people ‘s lives.
Research workers such as Majdzadeh ( 2002 ) and Vitor ( 1999 ) have suggested that text editions need to be localized but should include mark and planetary civilization to ease scholars ‘ intercultural competency. In the schoolroom, instructors should be encouraged to utilize two sorts of complementary text editions. For illustration, ELT instructors who use local text editions could besides supply their pupils with some international ELT stuffs incorporating planetary positions, and frailty versa. Cortazzi and Jin ( 1999 ) believe the cultural information that can be used in linguistic communication text editions and stuffs can be of three types: ‘source civilization stuffs ‘ that draw on scholars ‘ ain civilization as content, ‘target civilization stuffs ‘ that use the civilization of state in which English is spoken as the first linguistic communication, and ‘international stuffs ‘ that include a assortment of civilization around the universe. Finally, they argue that more research is needed from assorted states, with a more brooding attitude toward cultural content and methodological analysis, with the end of bettering cultural consciousness and the EIL position ( Cortazzi & A ; Jin, 1999 ) .
The chief research aim in this survey was to analyze how the current international ELT text editions reflect the cultural position of the EIL paradigm. To make this nonsubjective, we identified the being of the cultural position of the EIL paradigm sing localized content in the internationally distributed ELT text editions and so investigated the deepness of the cultural presentation in the text editions in footings of raising scholars ‘ cultural competency. Based on this, the undermentioned research inquiries were formulated. First, do the internationally distributed ELT text editions reflect the cultural position of EIL paradigm? A positive reply led to the 2nd inquiry: How comprehensively do the internationally distributed ELT textbooks present the cultural position of EIL paradigm?
The sample consisted of 7 series of internationally distributed ELT text editions, designed for ESL/EFL contexts and being used in several Asiatic states, for a sum of 25. The text editions were selected based on the recommendations of ESL/EFL instructors, ranking as best Sellerss from the publishing houses ‘ one-year catalogues, and their handiness at the clip of this survey. The sample text editions are listed in Table 2.
Table 2. Textbook sampling.
Books examined in this survey
Side by side
Steven J. Molinsky & A ; Bill Bliss
( beginning-high intermediate )
Level 1-Level 4 ; a sum of four books
Susan Stempleski, Nancy Douglas, & A ; James R. Morgan
( low beginning-high intermediate )
Intro-Level 3 ; a sum of four books
( New ) Headway English class
Liz & A ; John Soars
Oxford University Press
Starter-Level 1 ; a sum of two books
Warren Wilson & A ; Roger Barnard
( low beginning-high intermediate )
Intro ; Level 2 ; a sum of two books
Jay Maurer, & A ; Irene E. Schoenberg
4-level ( beginning- intermediate )
Basic-Level 4 ; a sum of five books
Jack C. Richards with Jonathan Hull & A ; Susan Proctor
4-level ( beginning- intermediate degree )
Intro-Level 3: a sum of four books
4-level ( beginning- high intermediate degree )
Level 1-Level 4: a sum of four books
Data aggregation and informations analysis
The text edition analysis was conducted based on the attack recommended by Murayama ( 2000 ) and modified to spread out his regional survey to an international range. Kachru ‘s ( 1985 ) theoretical account was besides used to define the inner and outer/expanding circle contexts. This survey employed a mixed-method attack for text edition rating in which qualitative information was quantified utilizing content analysis, a tool that makes illations from informations through aim and systematic content classs ( Holsti, 1969 ; Stemler, 2001 ) . In add-on, inter-rater dependability by two independent raters was added as an analytical measure. The inter-rater dependability for the raters was found to be Kappa = 0.85 ( P & lt ; .0.001 ) , 95 % CI ( 0.504, 0.848 ) . In order to get by with the 15 % of the information of inconsistent cryptography, we reviewed them together once more to make a consensus.
To reply the two research inquiries, the research workers examined contents of the text editions from the two point of views, ‘aspects of civilizations ‘ and ‘levels of cultural presentation. ‘1 ( Murayama, 2000 ) . The analysis of ‘aspect ‘ was so subdivided into ‘inner circle, ‘ ‘outer/expanding circle, ‘ and ‘others, ‘ based on Kachru ‘s widely-used theoretical account ( 1985 ) noted earlier ; and the analysis of ‘level ‘ was subdivided into ‘knowledge-oriented content ‘ and ‘communication-oriented content. ‘ Some illustrations are presented in the undermentioned subdivisions.
Some contents with World Link series explicitly showed illustrations of ‘aspect ‘ of the content. Contented refering to Western vacations such as Christmas, Valentine ‘s Day and Easter in World Link Intro ( Unit 8-A ) was judged as ‘inner circle. ‘ However, content related to the Nebuta festival in Japan, Holi festival in India, and Chusok in Korea in World Link 1 ( Unit 7-B ) was judged as ‘outer/expanding circle. ‘ ‘Others ‘ pertained to the content chiefly related to phenomenon or knowledge in natural scientific discipline, such as information on the Earth and the natural universe in World Link 3.
The undermentioned illustration taken from chapter 12 in Fifty-Fifty 2 illustrates the ‘level of cultural presentation. ‘ It is considered as ‘knowledge-oriented content. ‘
Hong Kong, Tokyo, Moscow, Senegal, Nepal, Cairo
Where have they been?
Why did they travel ______ ?
A 2nd illustration, from Chapter Nine in New Headway Pre-intermediate, clearly shows ‘communication-oriented content ‘ :
Speaking: “ What do you believe? ”
In groups, compose what you think are the 10 largest metropoliss in the universe. Compare your list with the category. Your instructor will state you the reply. Make a list of some of the jobs that these metropoliss face. Decide what the three most of import jobs are. Compare your thoughts with the category.
The text helps pupils better communicating accomplishments and promotes intercultural competence through the treatment of universe metropoliss.
The informations were analyzed based on the undermentioned processs. When the major content of a lesson was found to be in either the ‘inner circle ‘ or ‘outer/expanding circle, ‘ the unit in which it was found was assigned a full point. However, when ‘inner circle ‘ and ‘outer/expanding circle ‘s civilizations were represented every bit in a individual unit, each class received one-half of a point. For illustration, this was the instance in Lesson 1 in True Colorss Level 1, so 0.5 point was given in each class. The per centum of ‘others ‘ was the staying of 100 % after the tax write-off of the inner and outer/expanding circles ‘ parts.
To reply the 2nd research inquiry, a similar process was applied to the characteristic of ‘level. ‘ In this subdivision, the cultural content in each lesson-if any-was categorized into ‘knowledge-oriented ‘ and/or ‘communication-oriented. ‘ The amount of the two classs added up to 100 % ( See table 3. )
Table 3. Sample analysis.
Aspects of civilizations
Degrees of Cultural Presentation
Unit of measurement
Research inquiry 1: Aspects of civilization
The purpose of ‘aspect ‘ analysis was to look into whether internationally distributed ELT text editions trade with the cultural position of the EIL paradigm.
Figure 1. Aspects of civilizations in current text editions
Figure 1 shows that the cultural content related to the ‘inner circle ‘ compared to outer/expanding circles dominated the cultural content covered in all these text editions. More than half of the content of Side by Side covered the ‘inner circle ‘ civilization. For illustration, Western vacations such as Christmas, Valentine ‘s Day and Easter was judged as ‘inner circle. ‘ Similarly, American Headway involved ‘inner circle ‘ civilization in more than half of its content. Although the ‘inner circle ‘ cultural content dominated the World Link series every bit good, this series addressed the cultural content related to outer/expanding circle to a greater extent compared to other text edition series. Interestingly, each unit of the World Link series consisted of two sub-lessons under a individual subject. In each unit, most of lesson A was related to Western civilization and lesson B to international civilization.
In add-on, some text editions had a separate subdivision on cultural facets. For illustration, the revised edition of Side by Side had a new characteristic under the cross-cultural subjects, Gazette pages, which contain characteristic articles, function playing exercisings, and e-mail exchanges among planetary English talkers. As for the World Link series, harmonizing to Stempleski, Douglas, and Morgan ( 2005 ) , the subjects and subjects were designed to focus on around cosmopolitan subjects that can ease English-language larning with a planetary position. In peculiar, this text edition series had a alone subdivision, titled World Link, which introduced planetary cognition and information. For case, one subdivision introduced tipping, a pattern common in many states, showing the instance of the U.S. , Egypt, Mexico, Italy, and Thailand.
The analysis showed that even though still the ‘inner circle ‘ cultural content dominates the content of most of the ELT text editions analysed, there is some effort to both localize and globalise the texts. Analyzing the inclusion of cultural content in text edition was one of the aims of this survey, the other aim was to analyze ‘levels of cultural presentation ‘ and look into whether text editions go beyond the cognition degree presentation of cultural issues and advance intercultural communicative competency among scholars. For this ground, ‘the degrees of cultural presentation ‘ of text editions was examined every bit good in order to research whether text editions can ease intercultural communicating of scholars ( Murayama, 2000 ) .
Research inquiry 2: Degrees of cultural presentation
The ‘levels ‘ of cultural presentation analysis was intended to analyse how deeply the internationally distributed ELT textbooks present the cultural stuffs.
Figure 2. Degrees of cultural presentation in the current textbooks.2
As seen in Figure 2, the text edition seemed to to a great extent stay at the ‘traditional knowledge-oriented degree ‘ of cultural presentation. This survey found that Fifty-Fifty did non hold ‘communication-oriented degree ‘ of cultural presentation perchance because of its focal point on structural facets of linguistic communication. Furthermore, none of the text editions were found to hold a balance between ‘the knowledge-oriented degree ‘ and ‘the communication-oriented degree ‘ of cultural presentation.
In add-on, some lower-level text editions for get downing scholars tend to be more ‘knowledge-oriented ‘ while intermediate or higher-intermediate text editions tend to integrate more intercultural communicating characteristics. Figure 3 shows that the content of degree 1 in Side by Side was more likely to hold ‘knowledge-oriented ‘ characteristics. However, the degree 4 content was more likely to hold ‘communication-oriented ‘ characteristics.
Figure 3. Degrees of cultural presentation in Side by Side.
The text edition writers took different attacks in traveling to ‘levels of cultural presentation. ‘ Under the subject of travel, for illustration, the writers of the Fifty-Fifty book included assorted states. However, the conversations tended to present ‘knowledge-oriented information. ‘
On the other manus, World Link, New Interchange, and World View provided the ‘communication-oriented degree ‘ under the subject of travel. First, in its reading subdivision, New Interchange 1 ( Unit 11 ) dealt with celebrated metropoliss. For illustration, after reading about three celebrated metropoliss, scholars are asked to fit the metropolis to its description. The pupils so do charts to compare each metropolis and discourse it with their spouses. Second, in Worldview 1 ( Unit 11 ) pupils view two images of the Coliseum in Rome and a campaign in Kenya and discourse travel programs with their spouses. In add-on, Worldview 1 ( Unit 3 ) had a quiz that asks each scholar if he or she is an international individual by bordering the inquiries related to international affairs such as leisure activities, nutrient, and famous persons at the national or international degree. World Link 3 ( 5B ) dealt with cultural accommodations made by fledglings under the subject being different. This content addresses real-life issues of civilization daze and the job of acclimatization to a new state and civilization. This unit enables scholars to dispute their ain experiences and worldviews by believing critically and showing their thoughts. The content of these three text editions under the same subject was formulated in different types of undertakings, treatment subjects, and assorted literary genres.
Overall, unluckily, most ‘communication-oriented ‘ texts remained at the degree of cultural touristry, showing cultural facts merely. The challenge is to supply chances to concentrate on beliefs and values within a civilization at a deeper degree, aiming English-language scholars at the intermediate and higher degrees.
With the position of English as an international linguistic communication, the inquiry of whose civilization to learn becomes complicated and raises a figure of of import issues. As an international linguistic communication, English is no longer tied to the civilizations ‘inner circle ‘ states. When English is being taught and used in states that are socially, culturally, and geographically distant from Kachru ‘s Inner Circle, inquiries related to cultural rightness become paramount.
Recognition of the international position of English means that pedagogues should advance the scholars ‘ ability to pass on their thoughts and their civilizations in a assortment of state of affairss. The worlds of diverseness and versions are recognized and the international map of English is reflected in the pedagogical attack. A new impression of communicative competency, which encompasses both local and international contexts as scenes of linguistic communication usage, is needed. As mentioned by Alptekin ( 2002 ) , both native-nonnative and nonnative-nonnative discourse participants will be considered and developing successful bilinguals with intercultural penetrations and cognition will be our pedagogical end.
Kramsch ( 1993 ) recommends that instructors set up in their schoolrooms, a domain of interculturality, a state of affairs where pupils and instructors approach civilization reflectively. Cortazzi and Jin ( 1999 ) position cultural acquisition as a duologue between instructors, pupils, and text editions. The instructor acts as cultural go-between, holding pupils dig into the beliefs, values, and cultural patterns they embody and so utilizing those contemplations to associate to other civilizations. The sociocultural context of linguistic communication acquisition, the developmental degree of scholars, plan aims, and consideration of state of affairss where scholars might utilize their linguistic communication should be considered when doing curricular determinations.
To better understand motive in EFL instruction, bookmans have besides studied factors that demotivate scholars. Sakai and Kikuchi ( 2009 ) , for illustration, argue that larning stuffs can be a major de-motivator. Many English linguistic communication scholars do non happen the acquisition stuffs culturally responsive since they lack pupils ‘ mundane experiences. Many text editions contain cultural mentions that are unfamiliar to English scholars across the Earth. To do the course of study more culturally antiphonal and relevant, “ Learners ‘ Lifes as Curriculum ” can be used as a model. Harmonizing to Weinstein ( 1999, p. 2 ) , “ Learners ‘ Lifes as Curriculum ” creates larning “ stuffs that speak to scholars ‘ most urgent concerns and issues. ”
The issue of cultural content in EIL instruction stuffs is non an easy affair to decide in an EIL context. Educators should near all cultural content in EIL stuffs reflectively. There are cases in which learning a mark civilization is appropriate ; in others, a local civilization or international mark civilization attack might be more advantageous. A balanced combination of local, mark, and international mark civilization approaches represents yet another option. However, cultural content represents merely one portion of the issue. Of equal importance are the ways in which these stuffs are used in the EIL schoolroom.
Unfortunately, most of the ELT textbooks we examined reflected a knowledge-based degree of cultural presentation. Alternatively of supplying facts about other civilizations, scholars must be given “ the agencies of accessing and analyzing any cultural patterns and significances they encounter ” ( Byram, 1997, p. 19 ) . Culture learning hence becomes much more than a simple presentation of cultural facts. ELT text editions and course of study should supply a lens through which scholars expand their cultural consciousness to include planetary and multicultural positions. The chief end of cultural instruction is happening understanding to develop antiphonal action ( Menard-Warwick, 2009 ) .
As antecedently noted, ELT stuffs in nonnative English-speaking states should concentrate on fixing pupils to pass on in English with both fellow nonnative talkers and native talkers ( Tomlinson, 2005 ) . Based on this research, we recommend the undermentioned couple scheme design for EIL course of study development: a localizing but globalising scheme.
First, we should place our stuff by utilizing scholars ‘ experiences and doing our text editions culturally antiphonal. We besides should develop instructors ‘ manuals that include specific suggestions for how the texts can be used in scholars ‘ ain cultural contexts. It is possible that we may hold to replace unfamiliar cultural contexts with familiar and utile 1s ( Cam Le, 2005 ) . As the literature reappraisal brings to attending, nevertheless, the current localised text editions have their ain restrictions. One of their cardinal issues is the ability to associate the English linguistic communication to the civilizations of other states in order to accomplish planetary communicating. This restriction can be overcome by showing stuff about planetary civilizations ( Nault, 2006 ) .
Second, in footings of globalizing, we should retrieve to put equal value on both non-native and native talkers ‘ cultural cognition sing mark and local elements in learning stuffs. Both ELT text edition and the ELT course of study should supply a lens through which scholars can spread out their cultural consciousness to include planetary and multicultural positions. Baker defines cardinal characteristics of cultural consciousness as:
“ ( a ) an consciousness of the function civilization and context drama in any reading of significance ; ( B ) an consciousness of civilization that goes beyond facts ; ( degree Celsius ) the ability to compare civilizations for similarities and differences ; ( vitamin D ) an consciousness of the comparative nature of cultural norms ; ( vitamin E ) an consciousness of how persons relate to civilizations ; and ( degree Fahrenheit ) the ability to use these accomplishments in intercultural communicating ” ( 2008, p. 141 ) .
Our recommendations for future text editions are that we should: ( a ) focal point non merely on cultural facts, but besides on deeper beliefs and values ; ( B ) integrate a assortment of “ Englishes ” into learning stuffs ; ( degree Celsius ) promote non-native speech production pedagogues to compose text editions ; ( vitamin D ) promote both place and native civilizations ‘ specific norms ; ( vitamin E ) rise publishing houses ‘ consciousness of intercultural competency, and ( degree Fahrenheit ) promote instructors ‘ effectual integrating of local and planetary civilization.
Mediation by engineering should besides be considered. Integrating current media, movies, and the Internet into larning state of affairss provides pupils with English-language stuffs from different contexts and vicinities. Furthermore, telecommunications such as electronic mail, chat suites, and on-line treatments can supply interactions with both native and non-native talkers of English ( Baker, 2008 ; Nault, 2006 ) . Web-based exchanges demonstrate that intercultural apprehension can be achieved through dynamic, synergistic procedures.
With mediation from their foreign equals, scholars construct their cognition and apprehension of the other civilization, and instructors play the function of a facilitator of self-reflection and self-construction ( Furstenberg, 2010 ) .
This paper analyzed and discussed the cultural positions of EIL in the current internationally distributed ELT text editions. The proportion of cultural positions of EIL was dominated by “ interior circle ” cultural content in all the text edition we examined. What seems to be conveyed is the valuing of “ interior circle ” civilizations above those of outer and spread outing circles, even though the bulk of English users use English in international contexts.
Furthermore, in many text editions, the relevant texts remained at “ the traditional knowledge-oriented degree. ” It is recommended that text edition authors and pedagogues consider how they may try to make a domain of interculturality in the schoolroom so that scholars can derive some degree of intercultural communicative competency that allows existent communicating between people from different states through the usage of English as an international linguistic communication. In footings of cultural content, it should be noted that mass-produced text editions showing a individual mark civilization no longer run into the demands of pupils larning an international linguistic communication. Each state in which EIL is being taught should take ownership of the linguistic communication, taking content and methodological analysis deemed appropriate for the local context ( McKay, 2003b ) .
In the context of globalisation and internationalisation, there are unprecedented chances for contact between civilizations. As pointed out by Jenkins ( 2006 ) , an EIL attack to English should be a pluricentric attack. It should be one that recognizes that while talkers of English around the universe need sufficient sums of linguistic communication in common to enable them to pass on, they are besides entitled to utilize English assortments, which undertakings their individualities and protect their linguistic communication rights in international communicating.
Our recommendations for future text editions are that we should: ( a ) focal point non merely on cultural facts, but besides on the deeper beliefs and values ; , ( B ) integrate a assortment of “ English ” into learning stuffs, ( degree Celsius ) promote non-native speech production pedagogues to compose text editions, ( vitamin D ) promote the home/native civilization specific norm, ( vitamin E ) rise publishing houses ‘ consciousness of intercultural competency, and ( degree Fahrenheit ) promote instructors ‘ effectual integrating of local and planetary civilization.
1. Murayama ( 2000 ) used the footings ‘aspects of civilizations ‘ and ‘levels of cultural understanding ‘ to measure of cultural content in text edition. However, this survey used a modified term ‘levels of cultural presentation ‘ alternatively of ‘levels of cultural apprehension. ‘
2. Figure 2 has 3 % of losing informations.