This chapter will explicate the overview of this survey, which consists of the background of the survey, the job statement, aims of the survey, research inquiries, the range of the survey, the significance of the survey, restrictions of the survey and definitions of cardinal footings.
1.1 Background of the Study
The inflow of immigrants has been a job in many states, which includes Malaysia. One of the provinces that are significantly affected by this job is Sabah, as the province is flooded with immigrants from neighboring states, such as Indonesia and the Philippines. Political and economic instability in those states could be among the factors that cause this issue to happen. In fact, the issue of immigrants has frequently been discussed since the 1970s, particularly after the monolithic reaching of Filipino refugees in Sabah ( Sadiq, 2005 ; Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006 ) .
By mentioning to the Statistics Department of Malaysia ( 2011 ) , it was found that the figure of Sabah ‘s population has increased dramatically in the last three decennaries. This might be closely related to the issue of immigrants, since more than 27.8 per cent of the population is non-citizens. Despite that, the statistics merely shows the official figures of non-citizens. The inflow of illegal immigrants is besides a immense issue in the province and their existent Numberss are most likely non included in the statistics. It is estimated that there is a ratio of 1 illegal immigrant to 750 Sabahans based on the old apprehensions ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010 ) .
As shown in Figure 1.1 below, Sabah ‘s coastline is closer to both of the Philippines and Indonesia compared to other provinces in Malaysia ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2008 ) . Hence, it may increase the inclination of immigrants, particularly illegal immigrants, to come to the province.
Figure 1.1 Maps of Sabah and its ‘ Surrounding States
Beginning: Google Maps
In Sabah, immigrants are frequently associated with offense. Until now, it has become more hard to avoid the perceptual experience that linked offense and immigrants, particularly with the extended media attending on this affair. For case, certain offenses in Sabah, such as force, robbery, harlotry and drug maltreatment are by and large associated with immigrants. As a consequence, the Sabahans may comprehend immigrant population negatively, which subsequently may turn into anxiousness of their ain safety.
Even though immigrants ‘ offense engagement has become one of the chief involvements in Sabah, there is still a deficit of surveies conducted on it. Most of old in-migration surveies focused on the migration theories, policies and Indonesian labor in Sabah. To day of the month, the survey by Marquez ( 1988 ) is the lone perceptual experience survey found on immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah. Yet, Wan Hassan and Dollah could be considered as the most active research workers in carry oning surveies about immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah. For illustration, Wan Hassan and Dollah ( 2010 ) had published assorted stuffs on this affair, such as the deduction of metropolis development towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement and immigrants ‘ engagement in sea buccaneering in Sabah.
So far, no survey was found to look into the spread between Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience and the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement. Therefore, it is hoped that the current survey will be able to lend farther on the cognition on this subject.
1.2 Problem Statements
Survey on immigrant engagement in offense in Sabah remains really limited. To this point, merely a survey by Marquez ( 1988 ) was found to analyze Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants in Sabah, in relation to offense engagement. However, this survey merely concentrated on Filipino immigrants. The survey besides examined Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants in general, and merely studied immigrants ‘ offense engagement as portion of the survey. Apart from Marquez ‘s survey, which is clearly outdated, no other survey has been found in relation to Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement. Therefore, it is indispensable to look into Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience of immigrants, particularly in term of offense engagement in Sabah.
Furthermore, merely a few empirical surveies have been carried out on the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah. One of the recent surveies on this affair was conducted by Wan Hassan and Dollah ( 2010 ) . However, their survey was merely based on three old ages data, from 2001 to 2003. Consequently, the survey may merely reflect immigrants ‘ offense engagement in a short clip period. Based on the premise, it is convinced that there is a necessity to farther look into the immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah, particularly within a longer continuance of clip.
In add-on, no empirical survey has been found to analyze the spread between Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience with the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah. Sabahans may comprehend that immigrants are responsible for offenses that occurred in Sabah, particularly with broad media exposure on that affair, while in world, the Sabahans could be the 1 who commits more offenses. Hence, it would be important to look into misconception by the Sabahans on immigrants ‘ engagement in offenses in Sabah.
1.3 Research Aims
This survey seeks to accomplish several aims, which are:
( a ) To analyze Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah.
( B ) To analyze the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah from 1990 to 2010.
( degree Celsius ) To place misconceptions by Sabahans towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah.
1.4 Research Questions
To further back up the research objectives, the undermentioned research inquiries are formulated:
1.4.1 What is the Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah?
22.214.171.124 Department of energies Sabahans with different profile background have the same perceptual experience?
126.96.36.199 What are the types of offense that the Sabahans perceived that immigrants were involved in?
188.8.131.52 Why do the Sabahans have such perceptual experience?
184.108.40.206 What are the grounds of immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience?
1.4.2 What is the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah from 1990 to 2010?
220.127.116.11 What is the form of offenses committed by immigrants?
18.104.22.168 Why did immigrants acquire involved in offenses?
22.214.171.124 How did immigrants acquire involved in offenses?
1.4.3 What are the misconceptions by Sabahans towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah?
126.96.36.199 What are the impacts of misconceptions towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement?
188.8.131.52 How can the Sabahans ‘ misconception be corrected?
1.5 Scope of Study
Sabah is chosen as the focal point of this survey since the province has attracted a big figure of immigrant populations particularly from the Philippines and Indonesia. Choice of respondents from Sabahans who live in the West Coast of Sabah will be equal, as they may come from different parts of Sabah.
Furthermore, this survey will concentrate on immigrants ‘ offense engagement from 1990 to 2010. In this survey, there will be more accent on index offenses, which includes force offenses and belongings offenses, every bit good as other condemnable activities such as engagement in drug maltreatment, drugs distribution and harlotry. While come ining or remaining in this state illicitly is already a offense, it will be excluded in this survey since the focal point is about offenses that have been committed after the in-migration. The clip frame of this survey is from March 2012 to September 2013.
1.6 Significance of Study
First, this survey is important as a feedback to policymakers. By understanding the grounds for immigrants ‘ engagement in offenses, this survey would cast some visible radiation for the policy shapers to be after for disciplinary steps to battle this issue. As a consequence, immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah could be prevented or at least decreased.
The 2nd significance of this survey is to avoid bias towards immigrants. As some immigrants entered this state through legal agencies, it would be unjust for them to be perceived negatively because of some misconceptions. This survey would expose the existent state of affairs of immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah and clear up any bing myths. Therefore, this survey would supply better apprehension and consciousness to the society sing this issue.
Finally, this survey would be indispensable for the organic structure of cognition. Until now, the literature on immigrants ‘ engagement in offenses in Sabah is at best scarce, therefore, this research would lend to the cognition on this affair. Previous researches were concentrating more on the facets of policies, migration theories and the issue of migratory workers. While this issue has frequently been talked about, there were merely few empirical surveies conducted to conform it. Consequently, this research would supply new penetration on this affair. Other than that, this research could besides supply waies for future in-migration surveies in Sabah.
1.7 Restrictions of Study
There are few restrictions that must be considered to guarantee a smooth procedure for this survey. Firstly, even though this research will analyze the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah, the information that will be obtained subsequently may merely reflect those who were reported and prosecuted. Those who got off with it may non be included in the statistics. While the official statistics could still stand for the bulk and supply some contemplation, it would non be that accurate. Therefore, it would be utile to interview some of the experient officers of the Royal Malaysian Police ( RMP ) , Prison Department of Malaysia ( PRIDE ) and some community leaders to foster support the findings.
Apart from that, there is a possibility of by chance passing out questionnaires to immigrants. For that ground, all of the questionnaires will be self-administered by the research worker to do certain that merely local respondents ‘ will be selected as respondents.
1.8 Definition of Footings
Some of the footings that will be used throughout this research proposal should be farther clarified as follows:
In this survey, the term ‘Sabahans ‘ could be used interchangeably with ‘locals ‘ . Sabahans could be defined as Malayan citizens who live in Sabah. The term will besides stand for immigrants who had been naturalized and obtained Malayan citizenship as good.
For the intent of this survey, immigrants could be defined as non-Malaysian who have settled in Malaysia, which include illegal immigrants, migratory workers and Filipino refugees, but exclude those who had already obtained Malayan citizenship ( Canadian Council for Refugees, n.d. ; Special Task Force Report, n.d. ) . Unlike many foreign surveies, citizenship is included in this definition. In other states, it would be easier to separate immigrants from the locals with race and beginning. In contrast, Sabah ‘s population consists of assorted races with complicated beginnings. Therefore, for lucidity, those immigrants who had obtained Malayan citizenship will non be referred as immigrants in this survey.
1.8.3 Crime Engagement
Crime is an offense that breaches the jurisprudence with prosecutions or penalties as the effects ( Malek and Mohamed Kamil, n. d. ; Abas, 1998 ) . In this survey, the focal point will be largely on index offenses, which includes force offenses and belongings offenses. However, other types of condemnable activities such as engagement in drugs abuse, drug distribution and harlotry are considered as suited to be included in this survey. While come ining or remaining in this state illicitly is already a offense, it will be excluded in this survey since the focal point is about offenses that have been committed after the in-migration. Immigrants ‘ offense engagement will be based on statistics by relevant bureaus such as RMP and PRIDE.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter will supply a better apprehension on the research subject. It will get down with relevant literatures on immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah. Then, it will be followed with the development of the conceptual model.
This issue began to be given an attending after the monolithic inflow of Filipino immigrants to Sabah after 1978 ( Sadiq, 2005 ; Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006 ) which cause a immense growing of Sabah ‘s population in the last three decennaries. The figure of population in Sabah has dramatically increased from 929,299 in 1980 to 3,120,040 in 2010 compared to other provinces in Malaysia ( Statistics Department of Malaysia, 2011 ) . Despite of being smaller and sharing similar geographical location, Sabah has higher population compared to its neighboring province, Sarawak, as in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Number of Population in Sabah and Sarawak Harmonizing to Year
Old ages ( Number of Population )
Beginning: Statistics Department of Malaysia ( 2011 )
In 2010 entirely, the official figure of non-Malaysian citizens who live in Sabah is over 27.8 per cent of the overall population of Sabah ( Statistics Department of Malaysia, 2011 ) . While the figure may merely reflect the official figure of non-Malaysian citizens live in the province, it could make concern towards this affair.
Immigrants could be by and large defined as “ individuals who have settled for good in another state ” ( Canadian Council for Refugees, n.d. ) . Contrary to the negative intension of the word ‘immigrant ‘ , non all immigrants are illegal. Harmonizing to the Special Task Force Report ( n.d. ) , immigrants in Sabah could be classified into three classs, viz. illegal immigrants, foreign workers and Filipino refugees as in Table 2.2. Still, motion from legal immigrants to illegal immigrants is really unstable as the legal migrator workers could besides finally be illegal once they fail to regenerate their work license ( Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006 ) .
Table 2.2: Groups of immigrants in Sabah and its description
Group of immigrants
Capable to apprehensiveness and exile
Allowed to work in the province every bit long as they obey province Torahs and ordinances
Need work base on balls or license that must be updated on a regular basis
On human-centered evidences, they are allowed to remain in the province temporarily but are encouraged to travel back to their fatherland every bit shortly as it is safe to make so
Beginning: Particular Task Force Report ( n.d. )
There are assorted grounds for migration such as fiscal or human-centered necessity. In the instance of southern Philippines, political instability occurred with the difference of Moro National Liberation Front ( MNLF ) against Manila for Mindanao in the 1970s ( Smith, 2007 ) . In this respect, it was estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 refugees went to Sabah for security grounds ( Smith, 2007 ) . In fact, Filipino refugees had outnumbered the native Sabahan population in certain countries in Sabah ( Adnan, 2007 ) .
Poverty and unemployment had caused more Filipinos to come in Sabah in the late seventiess onwards, no longer as political refugees but as economic refugees alternatively ( Marquez, 1988 ; Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006 ) . Similarly, occupation chances were limited in Indonesia every bit good ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2008 ) particularly after the Asiatic fiscal crisis in 1997. In add-on, in Sabah, some less skilled occupations in several sectors such as building, logging and agriculture, are widely known to non be favoured by the Sabahans. These sectors are normally associated with 3D syndrome, which are ‘dirty, hard and unsafe ‘ ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2008 ) . As occupation chances were made available in Sabah, aliens may make up one’s mind to immigrate to Sabah either by legal or illegal agencies ( Kaur, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to Hassan ( 2009 ) , migratory workers besides came to Malaysia for a occupation with a higher wage. In fact, supported by Kang ( 2007 ) , the pay rate of the building industry in Malaysia is 10 times higher than Indonesia and comparatively higher than most ASEAN states.
Other than that, many Indonesians choose to immigrate to Malaysia as the societal and cultural background is someway similar to the place state ( APMRN, 2003 ) . Similar linguistic communication, cultural background every bit good as faith may promote many immigrants to migrate.
While the inflow of immigrants in Sabah seems to ever be related to offenses, there are limited surveies being conducted to corroborate the premise. It is common to hear immigrants ‘ engagement in offenses such as force, robbery, harlotry and drug maltreatment.
By and large, offense involves two facets, viz. Torahs and codifications of norms that exist in a civilization. Abbas ( 1998 ) as cited by Gan ( 2007 ) defined offense as an offense committed by a individual with purpose to perpetrate the offense, which so cause the individual responsible to be punished harmonizing to the jurisprudence.
2.2 Sabahans ‘ Perception towards Immigrants ‘ Crime Involvement in Sabah
The concern on immigrants ‘ engagement in condemnable activities was expressed by province leaders and the society since three decennaries ago ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010 ) . The sudden inflow of Filipino refugees in 1970s and more immigrants could hold made the Sabahans to experience overwhelmed in many ways.
In the receiving states, immigrants are normally used as a whipping boy for jobs that occurred, which includes the addition in the offense rate ( Kassim, 2009 ) . As the engagement of immigrants in offense frequently receives broad media attending, it may do the Sabahans to hold negative perceptual experience, which subsequently may turn into fright or anxiousness of their ain safety.
Marquez ( 1988 ) stated that that aliens who seek for safety safety are welcomed, every bit long as they get the understanding of society, has the same sentiment as everyone else and to follow with local ordinances. However, they are less welcome once they become a political menace, and impact the norms and criterions of life of the Sabahans. However, from Marquez ‘s perceptual experience survey, it was found that the Filipino refugees were blamed for the addition of offense rate, particularly on killing, stealing and house-training. The Sabahans besides perceived the Filipinos to ignore the province Torahs.
It is non surprising to happen the media as an influence on the Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants. For case, a survey by Goodall et Al. ( 1994 ) found that the media produces stereotypes on minority migrators as a violent and condemnable community. The every night intelligence, overseas telegram telecasting and conservative wireless negotiations spend considerable clip discoursing the issue, doing it seems serious ( Caldwell and Sacks, 2007 ) . Local media besides tend to actively publicise offenses committed by immigrants compared to the offenses committed by locals. This could easy be seen by the Numberss of intelligence articles published in day-to-day newspapers on immigrants ‘ offense engagement.
2.3 Immigrants ‘ Crimes Involvement in Sabah
Poverty could be the implicit in cause for immigrants ‘ engagement in offense. Harmonizing to the UNODC ( 2005 ) , offense is both the cause and effect of poorness, insecurity and under-development. In Sabah, immigrants could be seen as hapless and willing to take occupations with lower rewards compared to the locals. Harmonizing to Wan Hassan and Dollah ( 2010 ) , in Kota Kinabalu, the immigrants ‘ best income was merely approximately RM20 to RM30 a twenty-four hours. In Pulau Gaya, Kota Kinabalu, hapless people was used as tools by affluent groups to transport out condemnable activities affecting drugs and smuggling activities ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2005 ) . To run into life necessities, immigrants may necessitate to prosecute in any activity to gain money ( DBKK, n.d. ) .
In 2003 entirely, it was found that 41.9 per cent or 1,545 foreign captives who have been convicted were gaining around merely RM250 to RM499 a month ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010 ) . Chiu and Madden ( 1998 ) suggested that persons rationally choose to perpetrate or non to perpetrate a offense based on expected net income of the two options. Therefore, there seems to be a relationship between income earned and the committee of offense.
Harmonizing to Bersani ( 2010 ) , vicinities of immigrants ‘ colony were frequently characterized by high offense rates, which led to the decision that in-migration and offense were causally related. In Sabah, many activities could be linked to immigrants in the homesteader settlements ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2005 ) . Those activities include syabu smuggling and distribution, harlotry, bogus paperss and forge money mobs, every bit good as goods and weaponries smuggling from neighboring states. Apart from that, H2O and electricity larceny were besides rampant in the homesteader settlements ( Wan Hassan, Omar and Dollah, 2010 ) . This is supported by Wolfgang and Ferracuti ( 1967 ) , who found that force can go a normal and expected agencies of difference declaration in economically disadvantaged countries.
Apart from that, the constitution of amusement Centres in Kota Kinabalu may besides do many foreign adult females to be involved in immoral activities such as harlotry. As the local adult females tend to comprehend such occupations as disgraceful, it leaves occupation chances for the financially destitute immigrants. On this footing, the Sabahans would presume immigrants perpetrate offenses more in order to carry through their fiscal demands.
Based on a survey by Wan Hassan and Dollah ( 2010 ) , immigrants were involved significantly in certain type of offenses such as slaying, effort to slaying and drug distribution in 2001 to 2002. In colza instances, Sabahans were involved about every bit with immigrants. While the figure of immigrants ‘ engagement in larceny was high, the figure of Sabahans perpetrating this type of offense was even higher.
Furthermore, offenses occurred non merely because of the map of economic sciences such as poorness, but besides civilizations such as the subculture of force. For case, there could be a clang of civilizations between the place states and host states ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010 ) . Immigrant population brought in some civilizations that could non be accepted by the local community. These civilizations may promote immigrants to ignore Malaysian Torahs and local norms. One of the ways to explicate this state of affairs is with the construct of martabat, in which the Filipinos believe in retaliation ( East, 2010 ) .
However, it would merely be fairer to non presume every immigrant to be prone to perpetrate offenses. This logical thinking was supported by Griswold ( 2009 ) who found that immigrants would prefer to remain out of problem in order to gain more money and direct remittals to their place states.
2.4 Conceptual Model
Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement?
Gap between Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience and the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement ( misconception )
Immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah?
Clash of civilizations
Lack of occupation chances
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework of the Study
As in Figure 2.1, the chart presents a conceptual model that shows univariate variables that would be involved in this survey.
2.4.1 Sabahans ‘ Perception towards Immigrants ‘ Crime Engagement
Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement could be influenced by several chief factors. The first factor is experience. Experience may act upon Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants sing offenses. For case, they could hold seen immigrants ‘ offense engagement or victimized by immigrants themselves.
The 2nd factor is knowledge. As in a survey by Xia ( 2012 ) , persons with different degree of surveies are most likely to hold different perceptual experiences towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement.
The last factor is environment, which includes media coverage, community leader influence and society influence. It could impact Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience as these exposures could determine their apprehension of who to be blamed for offenses that occurred.
2.4.2 Immigrants ‘ Crime Involvement in Sabah
Immigrants ‘ offense engagement could be influenced by several factors. First, there could be a clang of civilizations between the place states and host states where the immigrant population may convey in some civilizations that disregard Malayan Torahs and local norms ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010 ) .
Second, deficiency of occupation chances may besides impact immigrants ‘ offense engagement. So far, migratory workers are merely allowed to work in several sectors of employment, such as in industry sector, in plantation sector, in agribusiness sector, in building sector and in service sector ( Immigration Department of Malaysia, n.d. ) . These sectors, on the other manus, are by and large known to supply little rewards for heavy labors. Illegal immigrants may confront greater trouble happening occupations. Therefore, immigrants will be willing to work for improper occupations such as being a cocotte or drug trader.
Third, poorness could besides be one of the grounds for immigrants ‘ offense engagement. Immigrants are known to gain less rewards compared to the locals ( Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010 ) and may non even be sufficient for the criterion of life. Therefore, immigrants may perpetrate offenses in order to gain more money so that they could direct remittal to their household in their place state.
Finally, immigrants may besides see some chances to be involved in offense. There might be some demands over some improper Acts of the Apostless. For case, stolen points such as auto accoutrements, trim parts or the vehicle itself could be sold with cheaper than the market monetary value. Furthermore, as illegal immigrants are undocumented, it is more hard to track them down after a offense is committed. As a consequence, these chances increase the likeliness of immigrants to perpetrate offense.
2.4.3 Misconception towards Immigrants ‘ Crime Engagement
From Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement and the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement, the spread of both facets could be identified. This spread could besides be translated as misconception by Sabahans towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement.
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter will depict the research design, unit of analysis, sample size, trying techniques, research instrument, informations aggregation processs and informations analysis. Other than that, the construction of research will besides be included to further exemplify the research methodological analysis.
3.1 Research Design
This research is a cross-sectional survey, as the information will be gathered merely one time in a period of clip ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . Furthermore, methodological triangulation attack will be considered as suited for this survey. Qualitative method of informations aggregation will be chiefly used in this survey, while quantitative method of cross-sectional study will be conducted to back up qualitative findings, particularly on Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement.
3.2 Unit of Analysis
Unit of measurement of analysis in this survey will be in single unit. The respondents will be interviewed separately, while the questionnaires will be distributed per house.
3.3 Sample Size
For qualitative method, 10 to 30 respondents will be interviewed until impregnation point, or no new construct could emerge from the interviews ( Corbin and Strauss, 2007 ) . For quantitative method, Roscoe ‘s ( 1975 ) regulation of pollex suggests that a minimum sample size of 30 is acceptable for statistical analysis. The quantitative survey site, which is Taman Teluk Vila, Putatan, Sabah, has a sum of 500 houses. Therefore, 50 respondents will be considered as appropriate for this survey, since the intent of quantitative method in this survey is to back up the qualitative findings with the diverseness of respondents ‘ background.
3.4 Sampling Techniques
In look intoing Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah, two trying methods will be used in this survey.
3.4.1 Qualitative Method
The interviewees will be selected utilizing purposive sampling. This trying method involves choice of interviewees based on which territories they came from, business, degree of survey and age. The survey will concentrate on Sabahans who live in the West Coast of Sabah as respondents. Semi-structured interviews will be used to let flexible ordination of inquiries ( Barbour, 2008 ) . Furthermore, the interviewees ‘ perceptual experience could be explored in deepness.
3.4.2 Quantitative Method
This quantitative method is necessary to back up the qualitative determination. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill ( 2007 ) emphasise that roll uping informations from a sample that represents the full population is a valid option, particularly when there is a clip and budget restraint to study the full population. By taking a lodging country as the survey site, perceptual experiences of respondents with assorted backgrounds could be obtained. In add-on, quantitative method will besides vouch the respondents ‘ namelessness.
For this method, systematic sampling will be used to keep entropy. First, a get downing figure will be selected indiscriminately. After that, the figure of the population will be divided by the sample size to obtain the sampling fraction. The trying fraction will so be used as the changeless difference between houses, from the get downing figure onwards ( Castillo, 2009 ) .
3.5 Research Instrument
Structured questionnaires will be used as the research instrument in the quantitative survey. The questionnaire will be developed by the research worker to accommodate the research scenes and let the appraisal of respondents ‘ demographic information and perceptual experience. It will be divided into three parts, which the research worker will categorise as Part A, Part B, and Part C.
First, for Part A, the research worker will bespeak some information on respondents ‘ profile and background, such as their citizenship, age, gender, faith, race, degree of instruction, occupation and other necessary information. The measuring that will be used in this portion will be Category Scale, which merely required the respondents to click on the reply that suits them the best.
For Part B, the research worker will include several inquiries that are related to the respondents ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants. For this class, Likert Scale will be used as the measuring in order to ease the respondents, as they merely have to rate their replies. Furthermore, Likert Scale besides provides more options for the respondents to take for.
Last, for Part C, the research worker will supply an unfastened ended inquiry for the respondents to portion suggestions on how to rectify misconceptions of immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah.
3.6 Data Collection Procedures
The information for this survey will be obtained in several ways harmonizing to the type of informations.
3.6.1 Primary Data
Primary informations will be obtained from the respondents by carry oning in deepness interview in order to cognize their perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement. The research worker will besides manus out some questionnaires to farther corroborate the qualitative findings.
Other than that, some interviews will besides be carried out with RMP officers, PRIDE officers and community leaders on the existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah.
3.6.2 Secondary Data
Secondary informations will be gathered from the cyberspace, newspaper cuttings every bit good as old research. Besides that, the research worker will obtain some statistics studies from RMP and PRIDE in Kota Kinabalu central office sing offenses committed by immigrants.
3.7 Data Analysis
For the qualitative informations, the consequences of the perceptual experience interviews will be transcribed every bit shortly as the interviews ended and be categorised based on subjects emerge. Then, the findings could be analysed and reading could be made. A similar procedure will be carried out to the interviews with RMP officers, PRIDE officers and community leaders. The informations obtained from certifications and statistics studies, on the other manus, will be categorized and combined if necessary to ease the analysis procedure.
For the quantitative informations, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) package will be used in the information analysis. Descriptive analysis will be used to analyze Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ offense engagement harmonizing to the respondents ‘ age, gender, faith, race, degree of instruction and occupation. Apart from that, descriptive analysis will besides be used to analyze which factor influences the respondents ‘ perceptual experience the most.
Identify research jobs
Write literature reappraisal of immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah
Sabahans ‘ perceptual experience towards immigrants ‘ engagement in offense in Sabah
The existent immigrants ‘ offense engagement in Sabah
( Data analysis )
Documents, statistics studies and interviews
( Data aggregation )
( Data aggregation )
( Data analysis )
( Data aggregation )
Using Descriptive Statisticss
( Data analysis )
Figure 3.1 Flows Chart of Methodology
As a decision, it is hoped that this research proposal would steer the survey to accomplish its aims. Not merely that, it is besides hoped that this research proposal would foreground its significance and supply an penetration to the readers.