Mass is a belongings of affair equal to the step of an objects opposition to alterations in either the velocity or way of its gesture. The mass of an object is non dependent on gravitation and therefore is different from but relative to its weight.

Speed is the clip rate of alteration of place of a organic structure without respect to way. Linear velocity is normally measured in such units as metres per second, stat mis per hr, or pess per second. Velocity represents velocity but harmonizing to the organic structures way. We can cipher from a distance clip graph with dy/dx.

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Acceleration describes the clip rate the speed is altering at. The relationship between acceleration and speed is similar to the relationship between speed and supplanting. Acceleration is a vector measure, so a = 0 for unvarying speed. The entity is thought to be uniformly accelerated if the invariable of ‘a ‘ is a non-zero. The mean acceleration of an entity is defined as:

Average acceleration = alteration in speed / clip taken

In my probe, I will take to happen the consequence of increasing mass on acceleration.


I will make this be puting up an setup which will mensurate the rate of acceleration. First, I will put up a tallness of 15cm and length of 227cm incline. At this tallness, I do non hold to use a force to the streetcar to speed up the streetcar because it will be able to skid down due to the force of gravitation. This manner, the force of gravitation can be kept changeless. Then, I will utilize a heart machine and heart tape to mensurate the rate of acceleration. I will lodge the heart tape into a streetcar of 850g and allow it fall. Each 10 grade on the heart tape represents 0.2 seconds so I will cut the heart tape in strips of 10 Markss. By plotting the strips onto a graph, it would state us the velocity in which the streetcar travelled. From this, we can cipher the acceleration of the streetcar:

Acceleration = concluding speed – initial speed = iˆ i?„ V

Time T

I used a heart machine to cipher the rate of acceleration because it would demo the rate in which acceleration alterations. If we merely timed how long it takes for the streetcar to make the terminal of the streetcar, it would merely give us the mean acceleration. It would non be possible to mensurate the alteration in acceleration.

I chose 15cm tallness incline because from our preliminary consequences we found the Markss on the heart tape appeared most clearly at this tallness. Previously, the tallness of the incline was 43cm and it was excessively high of the Markss to look clearly and because of this, my consequences were n’t every bit accurate.

The mean angle of the incline was 3.87 IS . I chose this angle because I found from preliminary consequences that if the angle is excessively high, the Markss on the heart tape would non publish accurately. Before, the mean angle was 10.7 IS and we found it hard to read the heart tape.

I clamped the incline in topographic point because this manner, the tallness of the incline is less prone to alter so its acceleration will merely be affected by the mass of the streetcar. This will do our consequences more accurate.

I added 400g of mass each clip because from preliminary trials, I found that the scopes of the consequences were excessively close to each other to see a correlativity when we added 100g each clip. So to do the consequences more clear to see if aggregate affects acceleration, I decided to add more weights. This manner, there would be a greater difference in the consequences and it would be clearer to separate a correlativity.

I chose a streetcar of 850g because the streetcar was light weight and the wheels were reasonably smooth. Because it was light weight it would be easier to add mass on and be less affected by clash. Because the wheels were smooth, the frictional force would be less. This will do our consequences more accurate.

To maintain my probe carnival, I will merely alter one factor- the streetcar ‘s mass. I will maintain everything else the same such as the tallness of the incline and the incline itself because these factors would impact the consequences if they ‘re are non kept the same.


I predict that the mass of the streetcar will non impact the rate of acceleration. This is because harmonizing to Galileo ‘s Torahs of gesture, all organic structures accelerate at the same rate regardless of their size or mass. For illustration, the fact that a plume falls slower than a steel ball is due to amount of air opposition that a plume experiences ( a batch ) versus a steel ball ( really little ) .

Besides harmonizing to Newton ‘s 2nd jurisprudence, the acceleration and gravitative force of a organic structure is straight relative to each other. He adds to Galileo ‘s jurisprudence of gesture by stating everything falls at the rate of 9.8m/s.

He calculates this by:

( F=force, m=mass of Earth ( ) , a=acceleration, r=radius of Earth, G=gravitational invariable ( 6.7-10?a¶?a¶? Nm?/kg? ) , g=gravitational force )

If F=ma and F=gm


So you can call off m to acquire a=g

Factors which affects the rate of acceleration:

Friction would impact the rate of acceleration because it increases the loath force by bitching on the wheels and increasing the clip it takes for the wheels to turn. Sometimes this can be good because it makes autos easier to maneuver. To demo that clash affects the acceleration, we could transport out the same experiment, but alternatively of altering the mass, we would add different stuffs to the incline. This would demo us how surface country affects acceleration.

The gradient in which the organic structure is going would besides impact the acceleration because some of the force would travel into the other way alternatively of traveling down so it experiences more retarding force. This would increase the clip it takes for the organic structure to fall. We can demo this in our experiment by increasing the angle of the incline alternatively of mass.

The form of the organic structure will besides impact its acceleration because the more broad it is the more air resistance/ drag it will hold. Air opposition slows down an object because it opposes a force in the opposite direct to gravitation, so the force of gravitation is less. We can demo this by altering the size of the surface country of the streetcar but maintaining mass the same.


Average Acceleration

From the graph, we can see that by and large, as the mass additions, so does the acceleration. There ‘s a steep additive gradient from 850g-1650g, and acceleration increased by 4.82ms?? . Even though the existent consequences shows a lessening in acceleration between 1650g-2100 by 0.53 ms?? , the line of best tantrum tells us it is really increasing. Overall, acceleration increased by 0.2m/s?? every 100g that was added.

Average Speed

The mean velocity shows as the mass increased, so does its velocity. There is a additive gradient between 850g-1250, and the velocity increased by 1.7cm/s. From 250g-2050g, the velocity decreases by 0.75cm/s. However, from 2050g-2450g, the velocity additions once more by 0.66cm/s. Overall, although it decreases, the line of best tantrum shows that it increases greatly from 850g-1250, so the line starts levelling out from 1250g-1450g.

Accuracy Rating

To mensurate the truth evaluation, we drew a gradient line from our initial velocity to our concluding velocity in each set of informations. If our consequences were accurate, the line should match with our consequences since the velocity of the streetcar should hold been reasonably changeless. To cipher this, we counted the squares the tape was above the drawn line or below it. This would give us an appraisal of how precise our consequences were.

The truth evaluation by and large shows that as the mass additions, the degree of truth besides increases. This graph shows the higher the figure of truth, the lower the degree of truth. There is a immense autumn in the figure of truth evaluation between 850g-2050. It went from 38.67 to 29, a difference of 9.67. From 850g-2050g, the figure of truth kept diminishing and overall, it decreased by 14.3. However, from 2050g-2450g, it increased by 2.

This may be because as mass additions, the bigger the clash is on the wheels. The larger the clash the better the wheels can grip on the surface so travels more accurately and is less likely to skid. This tells us, the consequences of acceleration and velocity for 850g is really likely to be an outlier because the degree of truth is really low.


When we compare the consequences of the mean acceleration to its velocity, we can see it ‘s straight relative because as the acceleration increased, so did the velocity. This is because acceleration shows how speed alterations.

When we compare the degree of truth to the acceleration and velocity, it tells us the consequences for 850g is really likely to be anomalie and perchance 1250g every bit good. If that were true, the graphs would demo that there is no connexion an object ‘s mass to its acceleration. This would turn out Galileo ‘s jurisprudence of gesture and Newton ‘s 2nd jurisprudence that the rate of acceleration is changeless and is non affected by size or mass.

However, our experiment does turn out their theories are right because our experiment shows that the less attendant forces oppose to gravitation ( more clash in this instance ) , the faster the organic structure accelerates and does non depend on its mass.


I believe my experiment went reasonably good because I felt I could warrant the grounds why I obtained these consequences and although I have some anomalousnesss, most of the consequences were reasonably accurate.

However, there were some defects in my experiment such as:

I found it difficult to put off the streetcar at the same place on the incline each clip because it was non marked clearly.

I did non wipe/grease the incline after each experiment, making this would hold do the clash of the incline more consistent

When I plotted the strips of heart tape on the graph, I did non line them accurately on the squares. This made some of my consequences inaccurate.


To better my experiment, I would hold made the tallness of the incline lower because it would see more clash for the wheels to grip on. I would hold besides used streetcars with different multitudes but the same denseness. This manner, drag/air opposition be more likely to be the same so there would merely be one factor impacting the consequences. This would do out consequences more accurate.

To obtained accurate consequences, we can execute this experiment in a vacuity. This is because in a vacuity, you would non see any attendant force as you do in Earth so you could accurately cipher acceleration. However, we can merely see a vacuity in infinite.

In Earth, to diminish attendant forces, we can transport out this experiment in:

Under H2O

High height

Air tight conditions