The research on exile compensation has been scarce although many other facets related to international transportations have been dealt with rather often ( Briscoe, 1995: 128 ) . Bonache and Fernandez ( 1997: 457 ) province that compensation is the facet of exile which has received least attending ( see besides Suutari and Tornikoski, 2000 ) . On the other manus, expatriate compensation is a complex issue both for single exiles and for international companies. Hamill ( 1989: 26 ) provinces that the compensation bundle is one of the most hard elements in exile policy. The complexness is linked to the diverseness of the ends, which should be taken into history in the development of international compensation policies and patterns, as will be discussed subsequently. Harmonizing to Stone ( 1986: 69 ) , holding exiles is a dearly-won concern, but holding a bad international compensation programme is black. A well-designed and maintained programme can guarantee that costs are controlled and that expatriates remain motivated and productive. Furthermore, the importance of expatriate compensation has increased because foreign assignments are seen as a normal portion of a concern calling instead than as an exclusion in a calling in international companies ( see e.g. Schell and Solomon, 1997: 114 ) .

Problems related to deport compensation can be seen in the high degree of dissatisfaction of international employees with their compensation bundle. Black ( 1991 ) has reported that 77 % of the exile directors were dissatisfied with their exile wages, their benefits and their international compensation bundles in general. In line with this, Harvey ( 1993a ) studies that 80 % of the exiles find the accomplishment of equality in their wage in comparing with their co-workers to be a really important job. In add-on, many writers describe assignment failure ( i.e. return to the place state before the terminal of the assignment ) as one of the biggest drawbacks companies have to face. In that connexion the function of compensation has besides been brought up. Hamill ( 1989: 24 ) found that premature return is typically a effect of many different factors including ill designed compensation bundles ( for a more elaborate treatment of these factors, see Scullion, 1991 ; Solomon, 1996 ) .

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It has besides been recognised that compensation scheme is one of the most powerful agencies of concentrating attending in administrations: it sends clear messages to members of the administration, informing them about expected attitudes and behaviors ( Schell and Solomon, 1997: 116 ) . In line with this, Bailey ( 1995: 148 ) provinces that the challenge for a planetary company is the design of compensation programme that span the universe and back up the administration ‘s strategic ends and aims. If separately tailored expatriate compensation bundles were possible in the yesteryear, new planetary corporate schemes have forced many companies to develop compensation policies and programs that guarantee consistence across boundary lines, equity and transferability throughout the full on the job life of the new nomadic work force ( Bailey, 1995: 149 ) .

Expatriate compensation programme are besides often re-estimated because of assorted alterations in the companies. Harvey ( 1993a: 787 ) identified five chief grounds for modifying bing international compensation programme: dissatisfaction with the present consequences ( i.e. pulling, actuating and retaining international directors ) , the increased figure of employees in international assignments, the increased figure of subjects and TCNs in the administration, the complexness and diverseness of foreign assignments, and the integrating of foreign acquisitions with domestic operations. Due to such varying and different demands across companies, no peculiar attack and no specific bundle constituents could be recommended more than another ( e.g. Stone, 1986: 69 ) .

All in all, expatriate compensation has been found to be a ambitious issue to cover with and, moreover, a great trade of dissatisfaction with bing rules has been reported. This being the instance, the present survey purposes to increase our apprehension of the beginnings of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the compensation of exiles. The aims of the present survey are: 1 ) to depict the compensation bundle design of Finnish exiles, 2 ) to analyze the troubles related to deport compensation, and 3 ) to analyze the degree of the exiles ‘ satisfaction with their compensation, the determiners of such satisfaction, and the redesign needs related to compensation. In add-on, expatriates ‘ advice to future exiles sing contract dialogues is presented.

Expatriate compensation attacks and elements

There are different expatriate compensation attacks which companies can take when explicating their compensation policy. Although these attacks are non focused on in the present survey, they are briefly discussed in order to do the different possibilities related to deport compensation understood. At the same clip, different elements of the compensation bundles are dealt with.

The home-country policy, which links the exiles ‘ basic wage to the salary construction of their place state, is the most common compensation attack ( Crandall and Phepls, 1991: 30-31 ; Dowling et al. , 1994: 152 ) . By utilizing this wage system ( basic place wage plus allowances ) the company tends to enable exiles to keep a lifestyle equivalent to that which they would hold in their place state ( Helms and Crowder, 1994: 26 ; Dowling et al. , 1994: 152 ) . Typical allowances include for case the exile allowance ( or overseas premium ) , the cost-of-living allowance, lodging allowance, instruction allowance, adversity allowance, auto allowance, and home-leave allowance ( for a more specific description, see Black et al. , 1999 ) . In add-on to allowances, one has to see inevitable incidental benefits due to the fact that societal policies vary widely across states. Still, the purpose is to protect the benefits provided by the policies to the individual in the homecountry ( see Allard, 1996 ; Dowling et al. , 1994 ) . The compensation bundle can besides include fillips such as a performance-based fillip and a senior status fillip ( see Dowling et al. , 1994 ) . Protection against exchange hazard ( see Helms and Crowder, 1994: 27 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 122 ) and revenue enhancement differences ( see Helms and Crowder, 1994 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997 ) should besides be included.

The popularity of the home-country policy can be justified by the fact that it provides clear and interpretable differences between the wages of exiles who hold tantamount places in different states ( Logger and Vinke, 1995: 261 ) . However, this turns out to be a serious drawback to the attack because it consequences in deficiency of equity as there are salary derived functions between exiles and local directors every bit good as between exiles of different nationalities ( Chadwick, 1995: 236 ; Logger and Vinke, 1995 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 124 ) . As the figure of nationalities in the work force expands, the home-country policy becomes the most expensive program to keep with respect to purchased informations and disposal costs. It has besides been stated that this method works better when all or most of the exiles come from the same state ( Black et al. , 1999: 178 ) .

The other attack is the alleged host-country policy. The chief difference from the old attack is that it considers expatriates as local subjects and links their basic wage to the salary construction of the host state ( Dowling et al. , 1994: 150 ; Crandall and Phelps, 1991: 31 ; Logger and Vinke, 1995: 259-260 ) . It compensates them harmonizing to the policies and programme of the assigned state ( Chadwick, 1995: 242 ) , which makes this attack reasonably simple and straightforward ( Black et al. , 1999: 180 ) . However, the important international extra payments ( such as cost-of-living accommodations, lodging, schooling, going and other premiums ) are normally connected with the footings of the home-country salary construction ( Dowling et al. , 1994: 151 ) . Crandall and Phelps ( 1991:31 ) specify that under this host-country wage system exiles are expected to populate on conditions of the local economic system so the impression of equity with the place state is non an issue. This attack aims non merely at cut downing the salary inequalities perceived by the employees of the same subordinate but besides at cut downing the high costs of expatriate intervention to their lower limit for the company. This policy is comparatively new but progressively popular ( Allard, 1996: 42 ; Briscoe, 1995: 119 ) . Harmonizing to Black et Al. ( 1999: 175 ) it operates best with a comparatively little figure of exiles or with a cell of international exiles. As a consequence of this attack, the obtaining of host-country salary informations can be a job. Second, it complicates the re-entry compensation state of affairs ( Schell and Solomon, 1997: 126 ) .

Harmonizing to Schell and Solomon ( 1997: 124-132 ) , companies have besides introduced alleged intercrossed systems that blend appropriate characteristics from both home- and host-based attacks to react to specific concern challenges. These systems are really diverse and therefore complicated to administrate. The intent of these systems is to stop up with an international exile work force that, while non coming from one location, is paid as though it were. On the other manus, the compensation is besides unrelated to local markets so they provide no equality with local staff. A alleged regionally based wage system has besides been introduced ( Dowling et al. , 1994: 151 ; Chadwick, 1995: 243 ; Black et al. , 1999: 175 ) . It allows companies to counterbalance exiles working in their place parts at slightly lower degrees than those who are working in parts far from their place. Some companies are besides researching the ball amount attack ( Dowling et al. , 1994:68 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 132 ) . The thought of this attack is to pay a entire wage to the exile, who will find how to pass it ( Briscoe, 1995: 120 ) . This is done in order to command costs, extinguish treatment about adequatenesss of allowances, ease the disposal, and authorise exiles to do determinations on their ain ( Schell and Solomon, 1997: 132 ) .

Complexity of expatriate compensation

Many writers have discussed the issues which should be taken into history when doing determinations sing expatriate compensation policies / patterns. In the reappraisal of such Hagiographas, the troubles related to compensation look as the great figure of different issues that should be considered. First, the compensation programme should pull and retain forces in countries where the multinational has the greatest demands and chances to supply an inducement to go forth the place state for a foreign assignment ( Stone, 1986: 64 ; Hamill, 1989: 33 ; Harvey, 1993b: 62 ; Dowling et al. , 1994: 149 ; Helms and Crowder, 1994: 22 ; Briscoe, 1995: 108 ; Logger and Vinke, 1995: 255 ; Logger et al. , 1995: 145 ; Black et al. , 1999: 176 ) . It should besides be sensible in relation to the patterns of rivals ( Briscoe, 1995: 108 ; Logger and Vinke, 1995: 256 ; Logger, Vinke and Kluytmans, 1995: 145 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 118 ) .

Second, it should at the same clip ease the transportation of international employees in the most cost-efficient mode ( Dowling et al. , 1994: 149 ; Briscoe, 1995: 108 ; Logger and Vinke, 1995: 255 ) . The cost of exiles is typically seen to be really high from the company point of position, and therefore there are strong force per unit areas to diminish such cost ( Briscoe, 1995: 125 ; Dowling et al. , 1994: 177 ; Senko, 1991 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 118 ) . For illustration, Dowling et Al. ( 1994: 177 ) have observed a tendency toward cost containment among companies. However, there is a danger that the fiscal force per unit area to cut down the costs of the company may take to an change in the perceptual experience of the abroad compensation bundle in general. The impairment of the expatriate compensation bundle image so makes enlisting an backbreaking undertaking ( Hamill, 1989: 25 ; Senko, 1991: 39 ) and may diminish satisfaction.

Third, the programme should supply stableness in the director ‘s life-style and economic position when he/ she is transferred to a foreign assignment ; in other words, it should keep a given criterion of life for the exile ( Stone, 1986: 64 ; Crandall and Phelps, 1991: 31 ; Harvey, 1993b: 62 ) . Here the influence of different household state of affairss on compensation demands is a typical challenge ( Harvey, 1993a: 792 ) . Furthermore, one has to take into history assorted sorts of revenue enhancement ordinances and rates, and still continue expatriate entitlements at a satisfactory degree ( Dowling et al. , 1994 ; Helms and Crowder, 1994 ; Stuart, 1991 ) . The alterations in currency and rising prices rates ( Daniels and Radelbaugh, 1991: 778 ; Dowling et al. , 1994:159 ; Helms and Crowder, 1994: 27 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 122 ) and the influence of societal security issues have to be considered besides ( Allard, 1996: 40 ; Briscoe, 1995:141 ) . All these issues increase the complexness of the state of affairs and the demand for information with respect to the local context. This is clearly one of the major countries in which expatriates face troubles if the companies do non supply adequate support.

Fourth, the compensation programme should suit the exile ‘s version to the differences in the internal and external environments of the new administration ( Harvey, 1993b: 62 ; Logger et al. , 1995: 145 ) . Fifth, it should be consistent and just in its intervention of all classs of international employees, i.e. it should take at equality ( Hamill, 1989: 33 ; Daniels and Radelbaugh, 1991: 775 ; Dowling et al. , 1994: 149 ; Helms and Crowder, 1994: 22 ; Briscoe, 1995: 108 ; Logger and Vinke, 1995: 255 ; Logger et al. , 1995: 145, Bonache and Fernandez, 1997: 464 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 119 ; Black et al. , 1999: 175 ) . The disagreement among compensation programme for different types of exiles ( PCNs and TCNs ) and between exiles and local subjects ( e.g. Briscoe, 1995 ; Chadwick, 1995 ; Harvey, 1993a ) has been pointed out as one of the major challenges. For illustration, Chadwick ( 1995: 235 ) emphasises how a sense of unfairness can easy develop when comparings of wages are made by exiles. Complexity arises from equilibrating the struggle between the three groups: exiles ‘ equals at place, the local work force and exiles ‘ equals in the international work force at the same location ( Schell and Solomon, 1997: 119 ) . On the footing of these remarks, the equality issue appears to be one of the major troubles faced by the exiles.

Sixth, the compensation plan should besides be consistent with the overall scheme and the concern demands of the company ( Dowling et al. , 1994: 149, Bonache and Fernandez, 1997: 464 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 118 ) . Therefore, the compensation plan should actuate and excite the director to move in the company ‘s involvement and to execute at a degree above/beyond a base-line benchmark established by public presentation ratings ( Hamill, 1989: 33 ; Dowling et al. , 1994: 149 ; Helms and Crowder, 1994: 22 ; Logger and Vinke, 1995: 145 ) .

Seventh, the compensation should ease re-entry into the place state at the terminal of the foreign assignment ( Stone, 1986: 64 ; Crandall and Phelps, 1991: 31 ) . For illustration, Daniels and Radelbaugh ( 1991: 772 ) province that the jobs with repatriation arise in three general countries: those of ( 1 ) personal fundss, ( 2 ) readjustment to the home-country corporate construction, and ( 3 ) readjustment to life at place. Depending on their compensation bundle design ( and for illustration on their revenue enhancement intervention, see e.g. Stuart, 1991: 82 ) , the exiles and their households are used to a certain criterion of populating during their assignment and normally the repatriation includes alterations in their state of affairs. The programme should besides take into consideration directors ‘ calling demands after repatriation ( Harvey, 1993b: 62 ; Schell and Solomon, 1997: 118 ; Stone, 1986: 64 ) . The bing grounds indicates that the world which expatriates face does non fit their calling outlooks ( see Black, 1992 ; Forster, 1994 ; Stroh et al. , 1998 ) . Therefore, the repatriation issues can be expected to be among the major troubles of exiles to be dealt with.

Finally, the programme should offer easiness of disposal ( Bonache and Fernandez, 1996:464 ) and communicating and supply sufficient informations to human resource directors to cut down struggle between the administration and the directors ( Harvey, 1993b: 62 ) .

All in all, assorted sorts of issues have to be taken into history when devising determinations about expatriate compensation. On the footing of this reappraisal, cost decrease aims, information demands with respect to local context, equality challenge and repatriation issues appeared to be among the major troubles related to deport compensation from the point of position of the exiles.

Compensation and satisfaction

Research on satisfaction with job-related factors has long traditions ( see e.g. Locke, 1976 ; Hulin 1991 ) . Locke ( 1976 ) describes occupation satisfaction as a positive emotional province ensuing from the assessment of one ‘s occupation or occupation experiences. Within this literature, a difference has been made between intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction ( Naumann, 1993 ) . Intrinsic satisfaction is related to work public presentation and feelings of achievement and self-actualisation. Extrinsic satisfaction, on the other manus, is related to wagess received by the employee ( i.e. acknowledgment, compensation, and promotion ) . Research on occupation satisfaction includes the analysis of both ancestors and effects of satisfaction. Within this model, the analysis of satisfaction with expatriate compensation can be classified as a survey which focuses on ancestors of one signifier of extrinsic satisfaction, i.e. satisfaction with the compensation.

Very few empirical surveies which have covered exiles ‘ satisfaction with their compensation could be found in the literature reappraisal. What has been reported gives a image harmonizing to which expatriates ‘ dissatisfaction with their compensation is really common ( Black, 1991 ) . One of those few surveies in which other empirical findings on jobs related to deport compensation were reported was made by Harvey ( 1993a ) . Harvey reports that 80 % of the exiles found the accomplishment of equality in their wage in comparing with their co-workers to be a really important job and that 56 % of the exiles saw that compensation /benefit jobs related to repatriation were important. Still, surveies of this sort do non place how different elements in expatriate compensation bundles influence the degree of satisfaction, but instead place contextual variables which may do jobs.

On the whole, the bing grounds of the troubles related to deport compensation and ancestors of expatriate satisfaction with their compensation is really limited. Following, the focal point will be shifted to research methods and the empirical analysis of these issues among Finnish exiles.


In order to be able to roll up representative informations on the compensation of Finnish exiles, it was decided to reach a Finnish brotherhood of university-level applied scientists. This guaranteed that the exiles represented assorted types of administrations and subdivisions of industry and therefore that the consequences would non depict the patterns of a few really international companies merely. Second, it became possible to convey together a clearly more extended sample size than would hold been possible otherwise. Third, the responses were received straight from the exiles and non from the company representatives as in most compensation surveies. On the other manus, homogeneousness of the educational background of respondents should be kept in head when construing the research findings.

During the clip of the informations aggregation, the brotherhood had 1097 members working abroad. Due to the extended figure of respondents working around the universe, a questionnaire study was seen as the lone possible informations aggregation method. The response rate was 41 % . Of the 448 respondents 147 had found a occupation abroad on their ain and could therefore non be classified as exiles, who are sent abroad by their employer. These respondents were excluded since their compensation state of affairs differs wholly from that of the typical exiles. All in all, the responses of 301 exiles were accepted for analysis.

The questionnaire required foremost some background information related to the exiles and their employers. The compensation subdivision was started with inquiries about the predeparture contract-making state of affairs ( whether the company had clear expatriate compensation rules, whether the exiles had adequate information for subscribing a contract, and how hard the state of affairs was for the exiles ) . After this, separate inquiries were asked about the major benefits and troubles related to the compensation and there were some empty lines for written answers. Next, attending was focused on the compensation bundle design ( entire salary degree, allowances/ fillips, and insurance benefits ) . Eight types of allowances and seven types of insurance were specified in the questionnaire ( see the consequences subdivision ) . The choice of these was based on the literature reappraisal and on the experience of the brotherhood representatives with mention to Finnish criterions. Furthermore, an ‘other, what ‘ inquiry was included in order to see if some other types of compensation elements were relevant besides. With respect to vacation payments, inquiries were asked about the length of paid vacations, holiday trips to the place state, and what sort of holiday payment rules were followed ( home-country rules, host-country rules, not-paid-at-all, other ) . Following, the degree of satisfaction with the compensation was measured on a 5-point Likert-scale. In the terminal, the respondents were asked about redesign demands and they were asked to give advice to future exiles, once more with empty lines for written answers.

The respondents were typically males ( 96 % ) and they were married or in common-law matrimony ( 88 % ) . The respondents were typically 30-39 old ages old ( 52 % ) although there were respondents of all age classs. 58 % of the respondents were on their first assignment. The exiles operated in assorted sorts of occupations although because of the nature of the sample, proficient occupations were more common ( 43 % ) than other undertaking types ( general direction 23 % , selling 25 % , other 9 % ) . A clear bulk ( 68 % ) of the exiles operated in managerial places ( top direction 20 % , direction 23 % and in-between direction 25 % ) . The length of the assignment besides varied a great trade but most common were assignments for two ( 27 % ) or three old ages ( 23 % ) or so the contract was impermanent. The assignments were typically to Europe ( 48 % ) , North America ( 25 % ) or Asia ( 22 % ) . The employer administrations were most frequently Finnish private companies or their subordinates ( 78 % ) , or foreign private companies ( 17 % ) .

The consequences of the compensation bundle design and related sentiments are presented depicting the frequence distribution of responses on a Likert-scale or yes/no -scale. In the analysis of how the assorted constituents of compensation bundle influenced on satisfaction with the compensation, t-tests or Anova-analyses were performed. T-tests were used with respect to allowances and insurance benefits in which the response format was on the yes- /no-scale ( i.e. being of the component of compensation as an independent variable and the degree of satisfaction as a dependent variable ) . In the instance of salary-categories, holiday payment classs, holiday day-categories, and holiday travel-categories, an Anova-analysis was performed in a similar mode. Open-ended inquiries were analysed by grouping the remarks of the exiles on the footing of the subjects presented. This was non a hard occupation since typically the compensation-related remarks were really concrete and easy to group into classs such as ‘accommodation-issues ‘ or ‘taxation-issues ‘ . After this presentation of the methods of the survey, the focal point will be shifted to the research findings.


The consequences are presented in three subchapters following the identified aims of the survey. First, the expatriate compensation bundles are described. Second, the major troubles related to deport compensation are presented. Third, the consequences of the degree and beginnings of satisfaction with compensation and of the related redesign demands are described. Finally, exiles ‘ advice to future exiles sing contract dialogues is presented.

Expatriate compensation bundle design

Get downing from the monthly entire wage of exiles ( see Table 1 ) , the consequences indicate that fluctuation in wages is broad, as could be expected because of the extended scope of assignment-related background variables. On mean the exiles earned 34,146 FIM ( 5,743 ECU ) per month. The mean salary among the brotherhood members working in Finland was 20, 266 FIM ( 3,409 ECU ) during the same period of clip.

***Insert Table 1 around here***

When exiles were asked to place the allowances and fillips which their compensation bundle included it appeared that the lodging allowance was the most normally included allowance ( see Table 2 ) . Education, auto / transit and exile allowances were less normally included in the exile ‘s compensation bundles. Cost-of-living allowances and adversity allowances were included in less than 10 % of the instances. When other points were reported, they were for illustration payment for vacation travels ( see below: holiday compensation ) or compensation for the lost wage of the partner. Performance-based fillips were besides comparatively common since 37 % of the exiles were under a performance-based compensation system. Seniority fillips were seldom paid.

With respect to insurance benefits it appeared that the assignment insurance was the most common insurance benefit ( see Table 2 ) . Travel insurance, wellness insurance and accident insurance were received by about 40 % of the respondents. Life insurance, retirement insurance and in peculiar unemployment insurance were less common. In those few instances where other insurances were reported, they were for illustration household insurances. The undermentioned issue covered was holiday compensation ( see Table 2 ) . Almost half of the group did non have any holiday compensation. If such payments were received, the host-country rules were followed more normally than Finnish rules. On norm, the figure of paid vacations was 28 a twelvemonth. With respect to vacation stumble the most common understanding was that one vacation trip per twelvemonth was offered by the company.

***Insert Table 2 around here***

Troubles related to the compensation

Next, the focal point will be shifted to the major troubles related to the compensation. As can be seen from the Table 3, five major troubles appeared from the exiles ‘ studies.

***Insert Table 3 around here***

The most normally reported experience was that revenue enhancement issues are complex and hard to cover with. This is in line with the remarks in the literature, but revenue enhancement is given a more cardinal function than was expected. Normally such remarks concerned the deficiency of lucidity of revenue enhancement issues, changeless alterations in revenue enhancement rules and troubles in acquiring any up-dated information about revenue enhancement. Exiles stated for illustration that “ there was non adequate information available about the rules of revenue enhancement ” and “ the readings of the revenue enhancement Torahs made by the public governments vary a batch from instance to instance ” . Due to this state of affairs, it was really hard for exiles to measure their existent net income degree.

About every bit common as remarks on revenue enhancement were remarks with respect to troubles in acquiring any beforehand information about the local wage and cost of populating degree. It was reported that “ I did non cognize about the high local salary-level when I made the understanding ” , “ the life costs were clearly higher than I expected ” , and “ it was hard to happen any up-dated statistics about local costs and salary-level ” . These findings are once more clearly in line with the image looking from the literature ( i.e. the demand for information on the local context and inquiries of equality ) . As a 3rd major issue appeared jobs with respect to currency rate alterations, which are hard to gauge beforehand and which strongly influence the criterion of life and the value of nest eggs. Exiles reported that “ salary payments in local currency are really hazardous from the nest eggs point of position ” and that “ payments in Finnish currency make a hazard of losing the net value of the wage in local markets ” . In that manner both the usage of local or home-country currency creates its ain jobs.

As a 4th major group of jobs appeared issues related to societal security and pensions. The state of affairs was described as really similar in nature to the revenue enhancement issues, e.g. the exiles found it really hard to acquire up-dated information, and did non ever know where they should pay the costs at that place or in their place state and how much they should pay. Almost as usual were remarks on the spouse-related disadvantages such as the loss of salary and pension points of the partner during the assignment of the exile. Due to these jobs exiles stated for illustration that “ the loss of the wage of the partner should be compensated for by the company ” , and that “ although my salary degree as an exile is comparatively high, the household ‘s income-level is lower than in Finland ” . This is a typical dual-career disadvantage.

On the whole, the troubles were largely related to the care of the criterion of life and to miss of sufficient information ( e.g. on revenue enhancement, the local cost-of-living degree, societal security and currency-rate hazards ) . The equality issue appeared in relation to the local salary-level merely. Tight compensation policies of the companies and repatriation challenges did non look in the present sample. The former is clearly linked to the degree of satisfaction reported subsequently and the latter is likely related to the fact that the exiles were still abroad and had non faced the repatriation jobs yet.

Satisfaction with the compensation

As a background inquiry to assist us understand the predeparture state of affairs of the exiles, these were asked about the procedure of dialogues. The bulk of the respondents ( 66 % ) reported that the company had clear compensation rules, which were followed when their contract was made, and that they had found plenty nesessary information when they made the contract ( 63 % ) . In add-on, about half of them ( 49 % ) reported that it was really easy or reasonably easy to do the contract. Merely 24 % reported that is was hard or really hard. All these figures are in contrast to the image of the complexness of exile compensation which appeared from the literature reappraisal, i.e. the bulk of the companies did hold clear compensation policies and the exiles felt that the understanding state of affairs was non hard for them.

In line with this, the present findings on the degree of satisfaction are in clear contrast to earlier findings: merely a clear minority of the respondents were really disgruntled ( 2 % ) or dissatisfied ( 10 % ) with their compensation contract as a whole. The clear bulk were either satisfied ( 48 % ) or even really satisfied ( 16 % ) . 10 % had no clear sentiment. When exiles were asked in the signifier of an open-ended inquiry about the major benefits which their compensation bundles offered, they saw three major benefits. First, the lower degree of revenue enhancement was reported by 83 exiles as a clear benefit since the Finnish degree of income revenue enhancement is among the highest in the universe. The revenue enhancement issue is therefore one of the factors which explain the high degree of satisfaction of Finnish exiles in comparing with findings elsewhere. The other really normally reported ( n=69 ) benefit was the high basic salary degree in comparing with the home-country salary-level. In instances where this was combined with a lower revenue enhancement degree, the net income degree could be clearly higher than in Finland. As a 3rd group of benefits was classified remarks ( n=29 ) on allowances / premiums. Most normally points such as a auto benefit and free adjustment were mentioned.

Next, the relationships between each compensation constituent and the degree of satisfaction with the compensation bundle were analysed ( see Table 4 ) . The consequences indicated that merely two elements of the compensation bundle had a important relation to the satisfaction expressed: the entire salary degree and the car/ transit allowance. This is in line with the findings on the old open-ended inquiry, but at that place the cardinal function of revenue enhancement appeared every bit good. With respect to the importance of the entire salary degree, the determination could be interpreted by taking the point of position of the exile who may see that it is non of import what are the points behind the entire salary degree. For him or her the of import thing is merely to hold the necessary sum of money to utilize for necessary costs and nest eggs. Therefore, expatriates with few allowances but a large adequate income can take attention of related costs and insurancs by themselves.

***Insert Table 4 around here***

It is interesting that so few variables were found to be clearly connected with the degree of satisfaction. One possible reading of this is that the entire salary-level and the auto allowance may be the two most easy recognised and touchable variables in the compensation bundle. On the other manus, on this footing one could hold expected that the lodging allowance would besides hold a important impact. It was in fact frequently mentioned in responses to the earlier open-ended inquiry. Still, it seems that issues such as insurance benefits are non considered as every bit of import 1s. This state of affairs might be different if we could analyze individually the degree of satisfaction among those who have benefited from insurance benefits such as accident or travel insurance.

With respect to the particular importance of the auto allowance instead than of other allowances, another fact that might be considered in connexion with the findings is the really high degree of auto revenue enhancement in Finland in comparing with mean European criterions. Lower revenue enhancement of autos in Finland is expected due to Finland ‘s rank in the EU and the harmonization force per unit areas related to this. Still, the costs are really high at the minute and a auto is an of import position symbol in Finnish society. This may hold created a state of affairs in which the auto benefit ( and the included possibility of holding a auto of much better quality auto at the same cost abroad ) really clearly influences the degree of satisfaction. Therefore, we could anticipate different findings from other states with a lower degree of revenue enhancement.

The exiles were besides asked to stipulate any points of their compensation bundle with which they were non satisfied. As can be seen from Table 5, such points varied a batch from instance to instance. Even the most often mentioned one was merely mentioned 20 times ( i.e. by 7 % of the respondents ) . The high degree of satisfaction with compensation is the other issue that of course influences these low per centums.

***Insert Table 5 around here***

The most common remark was that the entire salary-level should be higher. This is in line with the findings of the old analysis of the determiners of satisfaction with the compensation bundle. When exiles had further specified the ground for their dissatisfaction it was normally the higher local salary-level than they expected. A few remarks besides appeared refering the high degree of local life costs. The first allowance issue which appeared was the compensation of travel costs. Insurance benefits and repatriation agreements were mentioned by 11 exiles. Exiles mentioned that “ repatriation issues should be more clearly defined in the contract ” , and “ the company should vouch at least a place and a wage of the same degree after the assignment as before it ” . The exiles were therefore already worried about the repatriation although they might non yet have been familiar with the normally reported troubles related to that stage ( see e.g. Black, 1992 ; Black and Gregersen, 1999: 60 ; Forster, 1994 ) .

The spouse-related issues ranked as the following on the list. For illustration, there were issues such as “ the partner ‘s instruction costs should hold been covered by the company ” , and “ the company should besides hold arranged a work license for the married woman ” . This sort of support has been recommended for dual-career twosomes ( Harvey, 1998 ; Pelligo and Stroh, 1997 ; Riusala and Suutari, 1991 ) . Nine expatriates saw besides that their wage should depend more on the consequences which they achieve and therefore called for performance-related fillips. The reported demand for a currency protection understanding with the company is in line with the job of currency rate alterations reported before. This sort of understanding has been widely discussed in the literature ( Dowling et al. , 1994: 159 ; Helms and Crowder, 1994:27 ) . Accommodation related remarks were typically such as “ the adjustment allowance should hold been included in the compensation bundle ” , and “ the negotiated lodging allowance does non cover the existent costs ” . The children-related remarks called for better child-education allowances or support for day-care costs. Since revenue enhancement was experienced as such a debatable issue, as was reported before, there were besides demands for more revenue enhancement counsel from the company.

Exiles ‘ advice to future exiles for contract dialogues

The exiles were besides asked to give advice to future exiles with respect to contract dialogues. The most normally given pieces of advice can be seen in Table 6.

***Insert Table 6 around here***

Clearly the most common piece of advice was related to the demand to seek up-dated information about the local state of affairs so that the exile will cognize what sort of criterion of life can be obtained during the assignment. It was stressed that one should besides seek to place any local revenue enhancement payments or other similar costs that do non be in the place state. The importance of revenue enhancement issues appeared here excessively. Several exiles besides commented that it is easier for the exile if he/she can negociate the net wage and therefore go forth the revenue enhancement jobs to the company. The necessity of holding a elaborate written contract before the going was besides stressed. Exiles ‘ remarks included for illustration recommendations such as, “ insist that all inside informations have to be in a written contract ” and “ do non trust on verbal understandings – the responsible individuals in the company may go forth and therefore you have no understanding ” .

A common experience was besides that one should take a firm stand on a high adequate degree of compensation. It was commented that one should non look at the wage from the point of position of one ‘s earlier salary but alternatively from the point of position of other exiles and local directors. This once more leads us to the job of inequality discussed earlier. The repatriation agreements should besides be specified in the contract. It was commented that in add-on to stipulating the place after the repatriation and the repatriation costs one should negociate about the state of affairs that will originate if one decides to return before the terminal of the assignment. The importance of believing non merely of the exile but looking at the issue from the point of position of the household economic system as a whole in contract dialogues was stressed every bit good. The demand for look intoing that the insurance covers plenty was pointed out by 10 exiles.

Decision and deductions

The present survey aimed to increase our apprehension of the challenges related to deport compensation. The first aim was to depict the compensation bundle design of Finnish exiles. The consequences indicated that the exiles ‘ mean entire salary-level was clearly higher than that of their mean co-workers in Finland. On the other manus, the undertakings are typically more ambitious during international assignments and therefore the salary degrees are non easy to compare. There was besides a broad scope of salary degrees. The most typical benefits were the lodging, instruction, and the auto / transit and exile allowances. Insurance benefits were besides normally offered. Vacation payments varied well from instance to instance, but in every 2nd instance they were non paid at all.

The major troubles were caused by revenue enhancement, the deficiency of information about the local wage and cost-of-living degree, currency rate fluctuations, societal security and pension issues, every bit good as spouse-related issues. These empirical findings sing the major troubles supported the image given in the literature.

The degree of satisfaction with the compensation was clearly higher than could be expected on the footing of earlier research findings. Similarly, the bulk of the Finnish exiles reported that typically their companies had clear compensation rules which were followed, that they had adequate progress information about the compensation issues, and that the contract-making was therefore a comparatively easy undertaking for them. This presents the image that in the present sample the companies had comparatively developed deport compensation patterns. On the other manus, the high degree of development of expatriate direction patterns in Nordic states in comparing with findings elsewhere has been reported elsewhere besides ( Suutari and Brewster, 1998 ) .

The revenue enhancement intervention, the entire salary-level and the auto / transit allowance were found to hold the clearest influence on the degree of satisfaction. The compensation elements with which the exiles were the least satisfied varied a batch from instance to instance, but the findings still provided empirical support to the issues mentioned in the literature. On the other manus, such issues were non as normally reported as was expected. At the top of the list was the entire salary degree. Other issues mentioned more than 10 times included travel costs, insurance benefits, repatriation agreements and spouse-related payments.

The present research findings have several deductions for future exiles and international companies. The list of major troubles related to the expatriate compensation and the demand for a redesign of the compensation bundle reported by the present exiles indicate clearly the key countries which have to be carefully dealt with. The advice presented by exiles pointed out some extra cardinal issues such as the demand for doing a elaborate written contract and for clear uping the repatriation agreements. Previous exiles were recommended as a good beginning of information.

When these pieces of advice and other observations in the survey are analysed from the HRM point of position, it appears that in the bulk of the instances the companies had already been able to make comparatively satisfactory compensation policies from the point of position of exiles. With respect to major challenges faced by the exiles, one of the cardinal issues is to hold updated information about the local context. Furthermore, the HRM-representatives should be able to assist with revenue enhancement issues or at least cognize the governments where up-dated information is available. The same is true of societal security and pension issues. The household state of affairs should be carefully taken into history and, moreover, the exiles should be at least advised about the currency rate hazards involved. The repatriation agreements should besides be planned every bit good as possible in progress so that the exile does n’t hold to worry about his or her hereafter.

In future surveies, it would be interesting to prove the present findings with samples from other European states. For illustration, the high degree of satisfaction among Finnish exiles in contrast to earlier findings was such an unexpected determination that it would be utile to prove in other European states. For the same ground, it would be deserving while to analyze the expatriate compensation policies and patterns of companies through company instance surveies. This would give us a company point of position of the complexnesss, troubles and tendencies related to the expatriate compensation patterns. Second, we would acquire a image of the patterns that companies have used to cover with such jobs every bit good as they seem to hold done in the visible radiation of the present findings.