Microeconomic is a behaviour of single economic unit. Microeconomics surveies income distribution and resource allotment as the employee affect by the free working of the monetary value system and specific authorities policies. Microeconomic study how a start-up concern follow the consumer demands and pick, and the competition of market and other fiscal or economic expressions to find the competitively successful and unsuccessful monetary value of the merchandise good and services. Microeconomic besides study supply and demand how does it consequence on consumer spend and concern decision-making. In the theory of merchandise monetary value will affect the comparative monetary values of goods and services depend upon the force of demand and supply. The house will bring forth the supply for the consumer by their demand demand. Microeconomic besides surveies how does find rewards, rents, involvement, and net incomes affect from the pricing of factor services in the market. The finding of factor monetary value is analyzed through the demand and supply of the factor of production. For another country in microeconomic is to affect efficiency in production, efficiency in distribution and overall efficiency in the economic efficiency.

1.1 Monopoly

Monopoly is a market construction in which there is a individual marketer and big client or purchasers. It sell merchandise have a high entry and issue barrier and have no close permutation. Examples of merchandises in monopoly market are such as electricity, H2O, overseas telegram telecasting, local telephone service. That all illustrations in Malaysia who we merely can travel is Telekom Malaysia ( TM Berhad ) . Telekom Malaysia is a monopoly market in our state. If we have assorted options to take from when we need to utilize telecommunication services, so the industry is non a monopoly market once more and it will alter to other type market.

1.2 Features of Monopoly

One marketer and big figure of purchasers:

Monopoly being that when there is merely one marketer of a merchandise. Monopoly house is the house merely house in the universe of concern selling merchandise with no close permutation. Monopoly market is an country where the monopoly house to run it concern. So, in fundamentally it is no any difference between houses with it industry in the monopoly as there is merely one marketer. The monopolizer is a monetary value shaper for one marketer and manufacturer and it has the power of market to command over the monetary value of the merchandise.

No close permutation:

Monopoly house will sell the merchandise without any close replacement. That means all the consumer and purchasers could non happen any more replacement for the merchandise. For the illustration, if the public local utility of electricity which has no close replacements. But the purchasers can happen anyone replacements for the electricity like solar energy. Then the merchandise will is non being monopoly already. Other words, the monopoly can non be that mean there is a competition or has any utility merchandise.

Restriction of entry of new houses:

In the monopoly market, if need to entry a new houses that will acquire a rigorous barriers to entry. Barriers to entry are natural or legal limitations that restrict the entry of new houses into the concern universe. A monopolizer faces no any competition, that all because the barriers of entry. All the type of barriers will be discuss in item on the following subdivision.


Ad will depends on the merchandise sold in the monopoly market. If the merchandises are luxury goods like an imported auto so the monopoly demand do some advertizement to inform the consumers on the goods. Local public public-service corporations such as H2O, electricity and place phone services that all no demand to make the advertizement by the monopolizer because the consumers know from where to obtain the merchandise.

1.3 Diagram of Monopoly


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A monopoly market will therefore mean that the market supply curve is indistinguishable to the individual house ‘s supply curve and that the market demand curve is indistinguishable to the house ‘s Average Gross ( AR ) curve.

Monopoly Equilibrium

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We must corroborate once more place where net income maximization is achieve where the line MC=MR. This MC=MR status is certain and require in the house by theory. If fringy gross is greater than fringy cost, the house will increase end product since any addition in end product will increase gross more than increase the cost, hence increasing net income. Converse, if fringy gross is lower than fringy cost, will cut down end product and will assist the house cut down its losingss. In the short-run, the monopolizer will bask normal net incomes when it is produce at end product measures where MC=MR and that its AC=AR.

1.4 Decision

2.0 Introduction Market Structure

Difference markets will do the difference determinations on the finding of measures and the merchandise monetary values. Basically we understand the term of market is a topographic point where to allow the purchaser and marketer meet and minutess of goods and services. Each market construction has a alone set of features such as perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic. Perfect competition in the market is has many Sellerss and monopoly merely a individual marketer in the market construction which are polar extremes of each other. Examples of goods in perfect competition are veggies, fruits, rice, wheat, primary trade goods, gold, Ag and other. And the illustration of monopoly is Telekom Malaysia ( TM Berhad ) . An oligopoly market portion similar features of a monopoly when some house work together to map as one marketer. For the illustration in this market are coffin nails, cars, electrical equipment and cement. Monopolistic market is characterized by some house or Sellerss viing with one another through non-price competition. For the illustrations are places, apparels, books, tickers, toothpastes, soaps, ice-cream, cocoas and other.

2.1 Number of Sellers

Perfect competition has a big figure of purchasers and Sellerss in the market. An of import characteristic of prefect competition is the being of big of purchasers and Sellerss. The measure a individual marketer sells in a market is so little comparison to the overall industry. For the illustration, in the domestic fowl concern, there are 1000s of poulet manufacturers in Malaysia. Every house produces merely a little fraction if the entire domestic fowl concern.

Monopoly merely has one marketer but has a big figure of purchasers. Monopoly exists when there is merely one marketer of a merchandise. Monopoly market is the topographic point where the monopoly house operates. So, fundamentally there is no difference between a house and industry in monopoly as there is merely one marketer.

Under oligopoly, the figure of houses is little but the size is big. The market portion of each house is big plenty to rule the market. Some houses will command the overall industry under oligopoly. Example for this market are coffin nails, cars, electrical equipment and cement.

Monopolistic competition is same with the perfect competition ; there are a big figure of Sellerss and purchasers in the market. For illustration, in toothpaste concern, the monetary value for a 250 milliliter toothpaste scope among trade names such as Colgate, Darlie, Fresh White and other houses as good.

2.2 Product distinction

One of the conditions in the perfect competition market is that the house must sell standardised or homogeneous merchandises. The purchasers do non distinguish the merchandises of one marketer to another marketer. Example, the purchasers can non distinguish the poulet sold in Firm A and Firm B. Because the house can non bear down different monetary value for the same merchandise in market.

Monopoly house would sell a merchandise which has no close replacement. It means consumers or purchasers could non happen any replacement for the merchandise. Example, electricity supply from local public public-service corporation which has no close replacements. If the purchasers find any replacements for the electricity like solar energy so that merchandise is no more in monopoly.

The merchandise sell under oligopoly can be either a homogenous or differentiate merchandise. For the illustration, cement or electrical contraptions produce by one house are indistinguishable to another house. It is same intending like the old sell in Malaysia is indistinguishable to the oil sell by Middle East state such as Kuwait, Iran and Saudi Arabia.

In monopolistic competition, the house will bring forth bests which are different from its rival. Everyone marketer would utilize assorted methods to distinguish their merchandise from other Sellerss to intrigue purchasers or consumers. Example, if eggs are sell in unfastened shelf so the egg are in perfect competition market. But if the same merchandise and bundle in a box and label the name so this merchandise is in monopolistic competition.

2.3 Barrier of entry and issue of house

Under perfect competition, there is no restraint to entry of new houses to the concern or issue of the houses from the concern. A house can easy come in and exits the perfect competition any clip. Example, any house or company who wish to open a lily-livered farm can run the concern if he or she has the necessary factors of production.

In a monopoly market, there are rigorous barriers to the entry of new company. Barriers to entry are natural or legal limitations that restrict the entry of new company into the concern. A monopolizer faces no competition because of barriers of entry. Types of barriers will be discussed in item in the following subdivision.

Under oligopolistic market, there are assorted barriers to entry. Lapp with the monopoly market, the oligopoly houses will restrict new entrants into the market. The types of barriers to entry are control of certain resources, ownership of patent and right of first publication, sole fiscal demands and other legal barriers. Furthermore, big company will take drastic action to forestall the entry of new company by deluging the market. Those all big company will bring forth the merchandise at extra production containment which would drive the monetary value down. Once the new companies are out of the market, these big houses cut down the production capacity and increase the monetary value.

Under monopolistic competition is same like perfect competition but monopolistic competition is non easy than perfect competition to entry and issue because of the being of merchandise distinction. All new company would come in the concern must happen some distinction with the bing trade names. For illustration, if ‘Maju Soap ‘ privation to come in into the bathing-soap concern. This company must happen some different in term of quality, odor, form or labeling in order to be in monopolistic competition.

2.4 Ability to put monetary value

In the perfect competition market, the function of non-price competition is undistinguished since many Sellerss sell the merchandises at a fixed monetary value and furthermore, the merchandises are indistinguishable. In other footings, non-price competition besides can be referred as selling cost. Selling cost are the outgos spent to increase the sale of a merchandise or increase the demand for that merchandise. In perfect competition market, houses have no control over the monetary value and their goods are indistinguishable so there is no merchandising cost. For illustration, we do non see any ad in telecasting about poulet or veggies particularly without any trade name.

Ad in monopoly market depends on the merchandises sell. If the merchandises are luxury goods such as imported auto, so the monopoly needs some advertizement to inform the consumers on the goods. Local public public-service corporations such as H2O, electricity and place phone service do non necessitate advertizement by the monopolizer because the consumers know from where to obtain the merchandise.

Company in an oligopolistic market ever considers the reaction of their challengers when set the monetary value, gross revenues mark, publicizing budgets and other concern policies. This is one of the most of import features of an oligopoly company which differs from other market construction. Because the figure of houses is little, alterations in monetary value or end product by one house can hold direct consequence on another house. For the illustration, Honda change its design and increase the monetary value, its challengers Toyota and Nissan will besides react by alter their design and monetary value.

In monopolistic competition market its universe be stiff competition among the houses for their merchandises and non for the monetary value of the merchandise. Monopolistic competition houses do non vie use the monetary value as the merchandise in market has many replacements. Type of non-price competition patterns in monopolistic competition market is advertizements, publicity, price reductions, after-sale service, free gifts and others.

2.5 Decision