Branden ( 2006: 4 ) points out that ‘A undertaking is an activity in which a individual engages in order to achieve an object, and which necessitates the usage of linguistic communication. ‘ When instructors design a undertaking in the course of study, they must see the usage of mark linguistic communication in the activity. Harmonizing to Nunan ( 2004 ) , he gives the rules and patterns:
A needs-based attack to content choice.
An accent on larning to pass on through interaction in the mark linguistic communication.
The Provision of chances for scholars to concentrate non merely on linguistic communication but besides on the acquisition procedure itself.
An sweetening of the scholar ‘s ain personal experiences as of import lending elements to classroom acquisition.
The linking of schoolroom linguistic communication larning with linguistic communication usage outside the schoolroom. ( Nunan, 2004: 1 )
In the description, Task-based attack is non merely instructor ‘s instruction but besides concentrate on student-driven. The attack provides an environment for pupil that they can pattern the mark linguistic communication in a more reliable state of affairs in the schoolroom. Students have to accomplish the undertaking with their personal experiences or by sharing each other ‘s experience. Therefore, pupils need to negociate in mark linguistic communication in the category.
Willis ( 2004: 133 ) defines that TBL ( Task-based Learning ) is basically different from another linguistic communication learning – that of presentation, pattern and production ( initials as PPP ) . A lesson should be proceeded as the three phases. During the lesson, pupils get the grammar, vocabulary through the undertaking.
Furthermore, Richards & A ; Rodgers ( 2001: 228 ) besides notes that ‘tasks provide both the input and end product processing necessary for linguistic communication acquisition ‘ . In the Task-based lesson, larning is non merely approximately linguistic communication, but besides intending sharing. By conversation, scholars can hold more stimulation of input and end product information.
Task-based attack to primary school pupils in Taiwan
In Taiwan, the Ministry of Education released the Trial Curriculum Standards for the Grade 1-9 Curriculum in 1998, foremost announced in 2004 and amended in 2006. Since 2001, English has been a compulsory topic for 5th and 6th graders and a batch of schools even implemented English instruction for 3rd graders ( Tseng, 2006 ) .The Standards stress more on listening and speech production, the communicative accomplishments, than on reading and authorship. Therefore, it adopts Communicative Language Teaching ( CLT ) as guideline for English Teaching.
Tseng ( ibid. ) claimed that ‘Task-based attack merely benefited high winners, and low winners in their speech production accomplishment… most participants in TBI ( Task-based Instruction ) agreed non merely their four-skill public presentation but besides their affectional development and societal accomplishments had improved. ‘ We can see that the benefits of Task-based Approach are limited, but it is still a pick for English instructor. Teachers in Taiwan prefer teacher-centered attacks in 30- student-class because it is easy for instructors to command the clip and subject. If the instructors try to utilize another attacks, it takes clip for primary school pupils to accommodate new manner instruction activities within 40-minute session. It besides takes extra clip for instructors to plan plentifulness of undertakings in the course of study before category. Although Communicative Language Teaching is popular in Taiwan, the Task-based attack has been implemented in high schools and colleges sometimes, but non at primary schools ( Tseng, ibid. ) .
Material pick for task-based instruction
Richards & A ; Rodgers ( ibid: 236-237 ) points out that ‘Instructional stuffs play an of import function in TBLT ( Task-based Language Teaching ) because it is dependent on a sufficient supply of appropriate schoolroom undertakings. ‘ When the undertaking interior decorator considers about the activities, they need to see the proper stuffs they will utilize in pattern every bit good. Richards & A ; Rodgers ( ibid. ) besides shows that ‘TBI advocate favour the usage of reliable undertakings supported by reliable stuffs wherever possible. ‘ Everything in the existent universe could be the stuffs in the task-based category if it is meaningful and associated with the instruction content. Teachers may utilize newspapers, postings, merchandise tickets, telephone, telecasting and cyberspace as their task-based stuffs. Students may be asked to seek the information of the merchandises and question latest monetary value and maps to the store by phone.
Multimedia for task-based instruction
Schrooten ( 2006: 129 ) provinces that ‘ICT ( information and communicating engineering ) is a general term, embracing a diverseness of applications runing from the cyberspace, e-mail and video-conferencing to educational package… “ Multimedia ” refers to a peculiar feature of an ICT-applicationaˆ¦..including picture, exposure, text, artworks, life, sound. ‘ He argues that the capable affair must be interesting and relevant and the undertakings are reliable. The package may be the important component of the instruction. If we can non happen out the proper package that is associated with the undertaking, the activity will go less meaningful. Taiwan pupils are normally excited at utilizing computing machine as their acquisition tool in English category.
However, the construct of “ ICT ” is given and practiced in recent old ages ; it seems non easy to happen out the proper package for Taiwan ‘s kids. Most of the package was designed as computing machine game for pupils, but there is no associating with the learning stuff. Recently, some package ( e.g. Labcommender ) was written for English schoolroom. With this package, a instructor can inquire the pupils proceed brace plants or group plants by random agreement or instructor ‘s determination. After the undertaking, the instructor may project the pupils ‘ work on the screen or electric whiteboard. Although the system is really convenient and interesting, it takes clip for instructors to accommodate the uses.
Appraisal for task-based instruction
Willis ( op. cit. : 143 ) points out that ‘pair and group undertakings are normally used to prove a pupil ‘s ability to pass on and co-operate in spoken interactionaˆ¦reading and listening undertakings based on reliable stuffs. ‘ In this statement, pupils were assessed talking accomplishments during the undertakings instead than traditional paper test. The appraisal agrees with learning. After the lesson, pupils non merely learned English from reliable stuffs, but besides assessed by similar resources from existent life.
Analysis and Discussion
Advantages and disadvantages of Task-based Approach
Gordon ( 2007: 176 ) suggested that ‘complex role-plays, scientific discipline experiments, or fixed signifier composing are illustrations of aided pattern. Children can see success in the activities merely if the instructor scaffolds their action through waies, or oppugning, or in writing organisers. ‘ When we discuss about ideal task-based acquisition, we may wish pupils have high involvements in the undertakings and everyone learns English successfully. Actually, it happens in many conditions. Make a contrast with teacher-centered attacks, Task-based instruction is more interesting. Task-based provides pupils more chances to pattern communicating accomplishments. If the undertaking is proceeded fluently, pupils may bask in the more reliable activities.
Gorp & A ; Bogaert ( 2006: 89 ) argue that ‘If the undertaking presents no troubles, chances for acquisition may be minimum. ‘ Tseng ( op. cit. ) besides claims that ‘TBI benefits high winners merely or whether all pupils enhance their affectional development and societal accomplishments needs farther probe. ‘ By their statements, foremost of all, instructors need to cover with the grouping and place agreement. When the degree of undertaking tantrum with high pupils, it may be an interesting and exciting challenge, but non for the others. Therefore, the undertaking needs to incorporate the flexibleness to assorted degrees of pupils.
Even though the instructors arrange proper undertakings that are suited for every pupil, the job is, how the primary school pupils aware their duty in the undertaking? Could all of the pupils involved in the undertakings? It depends on the age and adulthood of the pupils ( Tseng op. cit. ) . When the persons have a small motive to analyze, they may bury the mark during the undertakings and dressed ore at reasoning. Gordon ( ibid: 175 ) references that ‘A careful appraisal of a linguistic communication scholar ‘s demands is required before the instructor can set up whether or non the immature pupil is ready to manage a undertaking. ‘ More extension, if the pupils have adequate societal abilities, they may manage the undertaking really good and play the function as leaders in group work. It seems that the pupils must hold adequate societal ability to negociate and collaborate, otherwise the instructor may give them pair work or single undertaking. It may do the instruction procedure easier.
How do instructors better pupils ‘ truth during the undertaking?
As mentioned above, undertakings focus on communicating, that is intending exchange, and been put more dressed ore on intending instead than linguistic communication signifier. For ‘output ‘ eloquence assisting ‘intake ‘ , there should be another acquisition phase after the undertaking. Students have to utilize mark linguistic communication during the undertaking, which may take to more grammar errors. How could a teacher better the pupils ‘ truth? Willis ( ibid: 36 ) suggests that ‘learners are more familiar with the characteristics of written linguistic communication, and frequently feel that they should talk in perfect sentences. But even native talkers speaking in existent clip back-track, hesitate, and compose in short balls ‘ . It seems we may maintain the balance between over emphasize perfect grammar and some errors with eloquence, the pupils need to be corrected during or after lesson. Therefore, the instructor can inquire the pupils to be cognizant of some mark grammar before the undertaking and pattern the sentence forms at pre-task phase. If pupils make error when they are covering with the undertaking, the instructor should non disrupt their concentration, instead than rectify the mistakes in the spread between stairss of undertaking.
At the closing phase of the lesson, the instructor generalizes the distribution of the pupils ‘ undertaking and so corrects the most common errors once more. If there is adequate clip, the instructor may inquire the pupils make sentences and portion them by brace work. As the lesson is about to complete, the instructor may delegate the feedback of the lesson as prep, which contains the grammar pattern and self-evaluation. This prep could besides be seen as the pre-task phase of following lesson. When pupils come to the category following clip, the grammar should be reviewed and involved the new undertaking. Therefore, the process will go as a undertaking rhythm. The most common grammar mistakes that pupils make may be involved in the undertaking more often. Therefore, the reappraisal of the specific sentence should be designed in the undertaking more often every bit good. And the pupils can remember after undertaking.
The reading undertaking including the grammar that pupils normally make errors is necessary. By reading a batch of stuffs every twenty-four hours, pupils will truly get the English. Most of English instructors may experience that rectifying pupils ‘ mistakes does non truly work. Even instructors have told the pupils for many times, the pupils will still do the same errors. If the scholars are cognizant of the grammar as a wont, errors will cut down. Equally much as pupils read, they will acquire more grammar and vocabulary cognition. It is one of the ways that improve the pupils ‘ truth.
Class direction of 30-students-class
In Taiwan, the usual sum of pupils in a category is 30. Although the category size is much smaller than a decennary ago, it is still a hard work for an English instructor to manage with such a immense category of task-based instruction. When the undertaking starts, the schoolroom will be noisy and be lost of control easy. Willis and Willis ( 2007: 223-224 ) suggest that ‘introduce set modus operandis for different activity types and do certain they know what the regulations are ‘ , ‘Try to learn from the dorsum of the category sometimesaˆ¦spend more clip at the dorsum when monitoring group work ‘ . The English instructor demands to fix before the undertaking, and do certain if the pupils have the abilities to cover with the undertaking. In add-on, the instructor must delegate simpler undertaking to younger scholars and maintain the regulations simple. As the regulations are set, they may complete the activity in a short clip. The instructor has to pull their attending for come ining following phase.
Furthermore, in the same category, pupils may prefer to sit with their friends to discourse. But, the treatment may go to chat and do the schoolroom nosier. The pupils will acquire used at the same sentiments from their spouses bit by bit and deficiency of stimulation. Willis and Willis ( ibid: 224 ) besides notes that ‘encourage pupils to blend up a spot aˆ¦This means they will be in different pairsaˆ¦ and they will larn different things from different people. ‘ With the assortment of pupils ‘ spouses, the pupils will hold more consumptions and maintain more dressed ore on the undertaking.
Learners ‘ feedback to task design
What is a good undertaking? Is it judged by the instructor or pupils? When a instructor evaluates the undertaking of pupil, the course of study should besides be evaluated by pupils, excessively. After the lesson, micro-adjustment of the course of study course of study is necessary. Whatever the learning procedure meets the instructor ‘s anticipation, the chief acquisition topic which is the pupils provides their sentiments and experiencing to the instructors. During the undertaking, instructors evaluate the pupils ‘ behaviour and the undertaking itself by observation. Harmonizing to Breen ( 2009: 349 ) , ‘Learners will put attempt in any undertaking if they perceive benefit from it. ‘ ‘If a undertaking confronts a scholar with psychological and societal uncertainness or disequilibrium, that scholar will endeavour to cut down the uncertainness and reconstruct personal equilibrium. ‘
Recommendations & A ; Conclusion
Solutions for the pupils who can non follow the gait of the category
There are ever pupils who can non follow the direction of the instructor in a category. The more low winners, the worse of the instruction procedure will be. However, they should non been considered as jobs. Alternatively, the instructor should believe if the undertaking is suited for every pupil. If non, how can the instructor do for assisting the pupils? Here are my suggestions below:
First of wholly, the instructor must see every pupil as planing the undertaking. Every pupil ‘s personality, involvements and behaviour in the category must be concerned. Therefore, the undertaking will be designed for the pupils need.
Second, the instructor should blend the pupils with high winners, in-between degrees and low winners by grouping. Every pupil receives a mission to play a function in the group. The high winners are encouraged to non merely do their occupations but besides help the low winners in their group. When they are covering with their work, the instructor walks around to assist the pupils for doing certain that every scholar is with others.
Third, the lower winners should be arranged to the front place for assisting them concentrate on the instructor ‘s direction which before the undertaking.
Team learning for task-based instruction