The present scenario in tube metropoliss has restricted the horizontal growing, which led to the perpendicular growing for edifice building. Today, fast path building is a quickly brings wellness and safety issues at the building site.

This paper presents a survey on, wellness wise safety, clip and cost wise feasibleness of steel framed composite floor edifice. A instance survey considered for this work is a big portal framed farm edifice which was collapsed during building in 1993. The edifice measured 64m in length by 24m in breadth and 4.4m to the eaves. There were 15 portal frames doing up the edifice length. The frame was intended to be stabilised in its concluding province by concreting the legs of each portal frame into the land. As a effect of this design there were no base plates provided to the portal legs, nor was there any longitudinal brace detailed which causes collapsed the edifice and have the potency for serious hurt or decease.

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The Microsoft Project-2003 used for clip programming and the optimal clip required at different phases of this edifice are calculated. The entire cost of each construction is calculated as stuff and building costs of each structural component merely.

The key to accomplishing healthy and safe on the job conditions at portal frame edifice is to guarantee that wellness and safety issues are planned, organized, controlled, monitored and reviewed. Everyone commanding site work has wellness and safety duties.

Continuing betterment relies upon the good will and cooperation of all those who are affected by the statute law. One of import rule underlying the statute law is that by conveying all parties in the workplace into advisory and decision-making procedures, there will be greater committedness to workplace wellness and safety.

One of the biggest revolutions came with debut of hot-rolled steel subdivision and cold formed steel adorning as a building stuff for high-rise edifices. Steel framed constructions with the composite floor would convey considerable economic systems to the overall cost of the undertaking during its life-time


The method of hard-on adopted was to unearth the foundation holes and topographic point blinding concrete to organize a flat base in each. This work was done by a separate contractor before the steelwork erector arrived on site.

Each portal frame was assembled level on the land ( i.e. the columns and balks were assembled into one piece ) and was so erected utilizing a Crane.

The terminal frame was erected foremost with its stableness being achieved by attaching cat ropes at four locations along the balk. The cats were fixed by 20mm steel pins about 600mm long driven into the land. Subsequent portal frames were stabilised by binding them back to old frames utilizing four lumber purlins. The lasting eaves beams, detailed on the drawings prepared by the storyteller, were non incorporated.

Wind brace was placed between the first two portal frames. When the last frame was erected, bracing cats, similar to those placed at the other terminal, were attached.

The frame was so aligned ( i.e. the procedure whereby it is checked that the legs all lined up and were degree ) ; this was achieved by utilizing a maul to travel the steelwork. It was so intended to concrete the portal frame legs.

During the procedure of this alliance exercising nevertheless the whole frame collapsed lengthways.

Hazard Appraisal

A hazard appraisal or judgement is nil more than a proper manner of scrutiny of what ground behind safety of worker in danger and cause injury to work. Risk assessment/judgment should be a practical exercise, directed at acquiring the right manner of controls of safety in topographic point – maintain it simple and set the results into pattern

2.1 Asbestos

Asbestos-related diseases kill more people than any other individual work-related cause. All types of asbestos can be unsafe if disturbed. The danger arises when asbestos fibers become airborne. They form a really all right dust which is frequently unseeable. Breathing asbestos dust can do serious harm to the lungs and cause malignant neoplastic disease. There is no known remedy for asbestos-related diseases.

The Asbestos ( Licensing ) Regulations ( NI ) 1984 ( as amended ) prohibit contractors working on asbestos insularity or asbestos surfacing unless they have a licence issued by HSENI.


Regular exposure to high noise degrees causes deafness – the longer the exposure and the higher the noise degree, the greater the grade of hearing loss which consequences.

The makers and providers of equipment have a legal responsibility to supply information on the noise equipment produces.


Many occupations in building involve the usage of handheld power tools such as pneumatic surfs and phonograph record bombers. The quiver from such equipment can impact the fingers, custodies and weaponries and, in the long term, do lasting harm. Partss of the fingers go white and asleep and there is a loss of touch.

The Construction ( Head Protection ) Regulations ( NI ) 1990 brand specific demands about difficult chapeaus – see HSE s publication44 for elaborate counsel on the Regulations. Hard chapeaus are required where anybody might be struck by falling stuffs or where people might hit their caputs at working portal sites.

Electricity –

Electricity can do non-fatal dazes, falls from ladders caused by contact with operating expense or belowground power overseas telegrams. Poor electrical installings or installations and faulty or faulty electrical appliances can take to immense fires and sometimes blast consequence in decease or danger to safety and wellness to others.

Fallss from a tallness –

Fallss from ladders consequences serious injury to people and to protect falls from tallness, the work is planned or designed and conveyed out by capable people and follow the hierarchy for pull offing and covering with hazards.


This subdivision gives advice about other equipment which may be required to protect against hurt. [ HSE book: 1996 ] .

Hard chapeaus

The Construction ( Head Protection ) Regulations ( NI ) 1990 brand specific demands about difficult chapeaus – see HSE s publication44 for elaborate counsel on the Regulations. Hard chapeaus are required where anybody might be struck by falling stuffs or where people might hit their caputs at working portal sites.

Some of the jeopardies to see:

loose stuff being kicked into an digging ;

stuff falling from a scaffold platform ;

stuff falling off a burden being lifted by a Crane or goods hoist or carried on a site dump truck or truck ;

a scaffolder dropping a adjustment while raising or leveling a scaffold.


Boots with toe caps and soleplates may be needed to protection from nails and other crisp stuff drooped

Goggless and safety eyeglassess

To protection against:

Flying objects, flickers, for illustration, when disc-cutting ;

Ultraviolet radiation from welding ; specialist goggles or shields are required ;

Chemical splashes.

Baseball gloves

To protection against bantam dusts atoms, cuts and matchwoods when managing bricks, steel and wood which can do dermatitis [ HSE book: 1992 ] .

CDM Regulations

If the constructional portal edifice work involves five or more figure people or more than 30 on the job yearss, CDM ordinances applies. This means that husbandmans should officially name a individual or people who are competent ( a ‘competent individual ‘ or CP ) to program and supervise the work for wellness and safety long before it starts. Reputable contractors should be familiar with the demands of CDM.

CDM may non use for smaller undertakings. If it does non, husbandmans should still do certain that the contractors are capable to transport out the work they are pursued to make.

Steel hard-on, nevertheless extended, is high hazard work and requires specialised accomplishments which most husbandmans are improbable to hold themselves. In most of the instances, planned work before get downing work on building site, and should include guaranting that:

a Free from ambiguity and elaborate bit-by-bit building way is available every bit early as possible, that it is equal and is understood before work starts.

Support of constructions have been cast in conformity with the explicitly ;

impermanent stableness demands and useable necessary stuffs are available on site before the starting of work ;

Well trained, experient and capable workers.

The CP may necessitate to amend or magnify the provider ‘s written inside informations of methods of building to run into on-site demands as the work progresses. Any alterations to the method of building should be checked with the steel provider before get downing the work.

CDM ordinances

Set out the duties of those involved in the design, planning and executing of the building procedure

Major commanding factor in set uping Health & A ; safety Systems in building

Order the actions required and set up a clearly auditable trail of paperss in the Health & A ; Safety system

Integration of Health & A ; Safety

CDM Regulations recognised the function & A ; duty for H & A ; S went beyond existent edifice work and should be addressed during the planning and design phases of the building procedure.

Emphasis has turned to bar, doing houses proactive to better H & A ; S, non simply legislate & A ; prosecute

CDM Regulations highlight functions, responsibilities & A ; duties of cardinal forces in procedure

CDM has 4 Key Players

Employers or Clients

Clients are non required to pull off the work themselves but to do certain that others have agreements in topographic point to command the hazards associated with building sites. This responsibility is non delegable and consequently as stated above ; the revised duties impose much wider duties upon employers and clients.

Consequently clients and employers must go more actively involved in guaranting a healthy and safe environment on site. Although a client can still name an agent to help it with conformity with the ordinances, liability for any breach of the client duties will stay with the client. In undertakings where there is more than one client, for illustration pools or joint ventures, clients can elect in composing that merely one will be treated as the client for the intents of the ordinances. If no election is made they will all be treated as a ‘client ‘ under the Regulations. Remember that the client has overall duty for look intoing that all parties, including workers who carry out the building work, are competent to execute their responsibilities.

The client must besides guarantee that the CDM co-ordinator, interior decorator and contractor receive all information relevant to their undertakings so as to extinguish hazards to wellness and safety and besides to run into the responsibilities under the Regulations. Previously the client merely had to provide information to the planning supervisor.

On notifiable undertakings, the client is required to guarantee

the assignment of the CDM Co-ordinator every bit shortly as is operable after initial design work has begun and

that the building stage of the undertaking does non get down unless the principal contractor has prepared a compliant building stage program and the client is satisfied that the demands for agreements to be made for the proviso of public assistance installations have been satisfied.

The Regulations do non use to domestic undertakings. For illustration, if you are holding work done in your ain place, they will non use to you. However, they will use to the contractor transporting out the plants.

The Co-ordinator

The chief function of the co-ordinator is to rede and help the client in following with their responsibilities under the ordinances. If a undertaking is notifiable so a CDM-co-ordinator and a chief contractor must be appointed. In peculiar, the co-ordinator must:

Give aid the client with the naming of competent contractors and interior decorators ;

Co-ordinate the design work and other planning ;

Advise HSE about the undertaking ; and

Produce or update the wellness and safety file.


The function of the contractor remains basically the same. The contractor must guarantee that suited agreements are in topographic point for the direction of wellness, safety and public assistance issues. This may include developing duties. The contractor must besides see the extent to which the sub-contractors are besides following with the Regulations and their ain wellness and safety duties.

Further, the contractor should retrieve that all members of the undertaking squad are under a responsibility non to name anyone, for illustration a interior decorator, under the Regulations who is non competent. Equally if you know you are non competent to set about the necessary function under the Regulations you are under an duty non to accept the assignment.

Other method of hard-on adopted

The bing steel framed composite floor construction is designed and constructed by other two ways ;

Precast concrete frame with precast concrete floor.

Steel frame with precast concrete floor.

Steel Framed composite Floor

In the first instance, the structural members of the edifice viz. column, beam and slabs are designed and constructed as precast concrete members with Siporex slab panels. All the structural members are designed and constructed harmonizing to Eurocode-4 and IS. For precast edifice, an extra column is introduced in between two columns of the whole span. In 2nd instance, the structural members of the edifice viz. column and beams are designed and constructed as similar to instance survey and the building of slab as a precast concrete floor with Siporex slab panels. Two important factors are considered for measuring composite floor and pre-cast floor edifice, i.e. optimal clip required for the building and the entire cost of edifices. The building of each construction is divided into assorted activities, which provide the comparative clip salvaging and the optimal clip for building.

Time Scheduling

Steel Framed with Composite Floor:

Time programming is done utilizing Microsoft Project 2003. In clip scheduling some get downing activities such as PCC ( 7 yearss ) , Footing ( 15 yearss ) , and Pedestal ( 7 yearss ) goes separately but after finishing column and beam hard-ons for first lift ( 33 yearss ) , activities for composite floor building goes at the same time with 2nd lift hard-on. Likewise whole construction can be erected with ; so many plants faces unfastened together.

For the building of composite floor for all degrees, requires 118 yearss as per clip programming. It shows that land and first floor slab activities and for all staying floors activities are same as first floor. Considering clip required for all floors, the edifice is completed in 180 on the job yearss. Entire 210 yearss are required including vacations.