Solid waste direction in India has become a major environmental issue of survey increasing environmental concerns and involvement in stuff and energy preservation have lead to increasing promotion in direction of solid waste over the past two decennaries. This paper attempts to set together available information and analyze the job of solid waste. Proper direction of solid municipal waste can play an of import function in coevals of societal, economic and environmental benefits. This paper revolves around the urban solid waste besides outlines a solid waste direction in Jalgaon metropolis. This paper discusses assorted future projections for gauging the growing of MSW and the impact of such growing. This paper concludes about aggregation, transit and disposal of solid waste for Jalgaon metropolis. The decision and recommendation will helpful in disposing of solid waste in scientific mode for Jalgaon City.
Keywords: Solid waste direction, Environmental issues, future projections.
In last few old ages in Jalgaon metropolis the addition in solid waste direction plays important function. This is because of rapid economic development and rapid addition in population in Jalgaon metropolis. This tendency is due to alter in the life criterions of Indian peoples, altering life style and nutrient wonts. The municipal council in Jalgaon metropolis hence, confronting the job of reenforcing their available work force, equipments and machineries for first-class municipal solid waste direction.
Solid waste direction is doubtless an progressively of import component in footings of efficiency and profitableness for any municipality, peculiarly in Jalgaon City. Its particularly complex dimension is a consequence non merely of the direct relationship with a figure of factors that originate the populating criterion of a society, but besides of our continuously lifting devouring lifestyle which analogically enhances the bing operational troubles. Waste aggregation & A ; transit is one of the major parts of the procedure of solid waste direction which consists of coevals, aggregation, transit, intervention and concluding disposal [ 3 ] . It is statistically proved that a major proportion of the entire cost for solid waste direction is spent into municipal solid waste aggregation & A ; transit and disposal. Having pinpointed the economic significance of waste aggregation & A ; transit and disposal, it is every bit of import to underscore that it is besides one of the most hard operational jobs faced by local governments in Jalgaon metropolis. The sheer outrageousness of the undertaking dictates that good organized, good managed squads perform the necessary responsibilities on a day-to-day footing, in order to prolong the demanding hygienic criterions that are expected by the Jalgaon metropolis ‘s occupants.
URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Due to rapid industrialisation in urban countries immense measure of municipal solid waste and e-waste is generated. During the mid seventies the per capita solid waste generated prevarications in between 100 to 350 gm/day for Indian metropoliss whereas in late 1880ss, it ranges in between 300 to 530 gm/day. Soon the per capita solid waste and e-waste generated day-to-day in developing state like India ranges about 150 grams in little small towns to 550 gram in big town [ 1 ] . The urban population is presently about one one-fourth of entire population.
The aggregation of waste is boring job as house clasp waste are thrown outside in the streets and besides due to narrow lanes, the smaller vehicles to roll up the waste can make merely to the selected accessible points. Hence, unskilled labors are used to brush the narrow streets and roll up the waste and refuse. Though unskilled labor rates are comparatively less due to big graduated table work force it is estimated that India spends five times every bit much on brushing as on garbage aggregation [ 2 ] . Poor motive of workers, insufficiency of supervisory and direction accomplishments at local authorities degrees are taking causes of low productiveness. The job needs to pay attending at proper degrees.
The three R ‘s of waste direction viz. Reduce, Recycle and Recover. The recycling is achieved through kabaries ( peoples managing waste ) who goes to door to door and roll up bottles, broken plastics, metals, waste documents, etc. this stuff is recycled for fabricating the secondary merchandise.
2.1 Land filling
Like other metropoliss in Jalgaon metropolis most of the waste is used for land filling. The methods followed are non in maintaining with modern patterns for healthful land filling. The municipal solid waste is straight dumped on land make fulling country. This dumping is usually done in depressions which are prone to implosion therapy. Due to this surface H2O taint causes due to deluging of such low puting countries and besides the land H2O pollution causes due to dumping of such waste. Diversion of land for waste disposal is impossible since countries with the largest concentration of solid waste would besides be the countries with serious scarceness of vacant lands. This causes ill-effect on the wellness on the community shacking nearby, causes bad olfactory property and the community nearby apt to fear of detonation of methane gas that can roll up at land fill sites [ 3 ] , which significantly contributes to planetary heating.
The first-class option for solid waste direction is composting for urban solid waste in India [ 4 ] . The composting may be by aerophilic or anaerobiotic decomposition. In urban solid waste in India a immense measure of organic content and wet is present. Conceptually, the thought of composting is appealing as it helps to recycle the foods back to the land. Composting procedure requires segregation of stuff which is achieved by recycling by kabadies.
The composting nevertheless still remains strong option for little and average towns. Semi-mechanized aerophilic composting is suited to cut down the waste volume in the towns.
Incineration is the most of import intervention method for devastation of all high calorific and extremely toxic solid waste. High temperature incineration at 12000C mineralizes all sorts of organic stuff in solid waste [ 4 ] . About 99.99 % of assorted compounds are destructed. Incineration serves double intent of decrease of toxicity and the volume of the waste which is an of import consideration when the disposal of waste is eventually destined for landfills. The engineering for incineration is non available indigenously and import options are extremely capital intensifier.
2.4 Anaerobic digestion [ 4 ]
For high wet and organic content of Indian Wastes, the anaerobiotic digestion is another suited option. However, there are no ready engineerings for treating heterogenous stuff such as urban solid waste. The bing methods are suited to homogenous stuffs. The cost of cleansing and dividing assorted heterogenous wastes are likely to be high.
A good manner to avoid these jobs is to stop suited wastes at the point of coevals before it is assorted with other wastes. Kitchen and vegetable market wastes are mostly suited for this intent. These wastes can be collected and treated at beginning, if infinite licenses. The ensuing bio-gas can be used for confined energy usage such as lighting and cookery etc. few bio-gas systems are presently available to handle wastes of fruit and vegetable beginning. Though presently impracticable as a big graduated table option, bio-gas systems can efficaciously manage localised and specific wastes and contribute to environment friendly disposal of wastes.
THE CASE OF JALGAON CITY
The Jalgaon Municipal bound covers an country of 68.24sqkm, out of which 11.45sqkm is the old municipal bound and 56.79sqkm is the drawn-out extra country. This indicates that the Municipal territorial legal power has increased more than four times i.e. from 11.45sqkm to 68.24sqkm. The overall population denseness of Jalgaon metropolis, harmonizing to 2001 census5 is 53.94 inhabitant/hectares. The population of Jalgaon metropolis will turn from 3, 68,000 in 2001 to 8,55,821 in 2033 as per the tabular array 1 shown below. The population of Jalgaon metropolis will increase about 43 % boulder clay 2033. The municipal solid waste generated in the metropolis is 226 tons/day as shown in Table ( 3 ) .
TABLE ( 1 ) Population Projection [ 6 ]
Geometric rate of addition
With rapid urbanisation, industrialisation and population growing the municipal solid waste ( MSW ) which has been a job in yesteryear has become a serious menace in recent old ages and the state of affairs is traveling to be worst in approaching old ages if appropriate steps are non taken instantly, maintaining in position the earnestness of the issue and its linkages with the economic growing, environmental debasement and wellness jeopardies. Dumping the waste as a waste has two fold negative deductions. On the other manus, it pollutes the air, H2O and land ensuing in diseases and devastation of human home ground. Garbage aggregation and disposal, as SWM was known before, constituted an obligatory map of the municipalities and continues to be so. As per the guidelines of Honest Supreme Court of March 1999 and Municipal Solid Waste ( Management and Handling ) Rules, September 2000, solid waste direction system has been recognized. However, comprehensive regulations at the national degree came to be framed merely after the Supreme Court passed orders in the public involvement. The Ministry of Environment and Forests ( MoEF ) notified the Municipal Solid Wastes ( Management and Handling ) Rules in September 2000 and they are applicable to every municipal organic structure in the state. It was compulsory for the metropolis of Jalgaon besides to revamp its SWM services, since there is a demand to do significant betterment in the SWM patterns predominating in the metropolis to run into the criterions.
It was necessary to turn to this job consistently by traveling into all facets of the Solid Waste Management ( SWM ) and invent a simple but cost effectual system which must guarantee coveted degree of aggregation, transit and disposal. The civic services in the metropolis of Jalgaon are managed by Jalgaon City Municipal Corporation. Pull offing solid waste generated in the metropolis – aggregation, transit and its safe disposal is one of the most priority country of attending for betterment of the Municipal Solid Waste Management in visible radiation of the MSW Rules 2000. Like most of the metropoliss & A ; towns in India, this service falls short of the coveted degree in Jalgaon as the present systems adopted are outdated and inefficient to run into the criterions ( MSW Rules 2000 ) . Lot of factors contribute to this present position, the chief being deficiency of cognition and improper pick of engineering coupled with a deficiency of long term planning. Jalgaon City Municipal Corporation has initiated the procedure of taking disciplinary steps by implementing a new aggregation and transit system along with processing and disposal system comparable to those of modern epoch.
Figure. 1. Solid Waste Disposal Sites [ 5 ]
3.1 Existing Status of Collection and Disposal
The Jalgaon City Municipal Corporation is responsible for aggregation, disposal and direction of MSW within the metropolis. Due to rapid urbanisation and addition in population waste aggregation and its transit and disposal is a disputing undertaking to the urban local organic structures. No specific land was reserved for compost terminal in the sanctioned development program of the old metropolis bounds. The waste generated is disposed in an unscientific mode. The work force and conveyance system is unequal for the waste direction of the metropolis. The solid waste generated in the metropolis chiefly consists of domestic garbage ( including slum country ) , waste from commercial countries, veggie and fruit markets, slaughter houses, bio-medical wastes, wastes from hotels and eating houses and industrial solid wastes [ 7 ] . The waste coevals is big in the high-income groups followed by in-between and low-income group.
TABLE ( 2 ) Physical composing of solid waste in
Jalgaon metropolis [ 5 ]
Income Groups ( % )
The mean aggregation efficiency for MSW in Indian Cities is approximately 72.5 % and about 70 % of the metropoliss lack equal waste conveyance capacities ( TERI 1998 ) . Open dumping of refuse facilitates the genteelness for disease vectors such flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats and other plagues ( CPCB 2000 )
Waste coevals and its impacts in India, the sum of waste generated per capita is estimated to increase at a rate of 1 % – 1.33 % yearly [ 8 ] . The deliberate value of per capita waste coevals in 1997 is 0.468 kilogram. It is estimated that the entire waste measure generated in 2047 would be about above 260 million tones – more than five times the present degree.
Coevals of waste in Jalgaon City
The Jalgaon Municipal country is subdivided in 16 wellness units for aggregation and transit of waste. The mean per capita waste coevals is 0.491kg/capita/day [ 12 ] . The sum of waste generated is about 226 dozenss per twenty-four hours as shown in Table ( 3 ) .
Proposed Technological Inventions
Jalgaon metropolis has lagged behind in footings of following engineerings for solid waste direction. In peculiar, aggregation, intervention and disposal of waste require pressing consideration.
Collection of waste
The preferable option would be to revamp the bing aggregation service construction to supply community with waste bins, handily placed for the people to lodge domestic waste, and door to door aggregation of waste [ 9 ] .
Solid waste intervention and disposal techniques
Disposal is a “ no option ” option because it is the last functional component in the solid waste direction system and ultimate destiny of all waste that are of no farther value. Proper segregation of waste would take to better options and chances for its scientific disposal [ 10 ] . Reclaimable for illustration, could be straightway transported to recycling units, which, in bend, would pay the corporation for it, thereby increasing their income. Finally, the inert stuff that will be required to be sent to landfill would be of much lower measure compared to un-segregated waste, accordingly increasing the life of our bing disposal installations.
Segregation should be done into following ways for Jalgaon metropolis,
Wet organic affair – Composting
Dry organic affair – Fuel bricks
Fictile points – Recycling
Construction waste – Paving blocks
Scrap stuffs – Recycling
Inert & A ; other stuffs – Land filling
Strategic Planning ( Flow Diagram ) For SWM For Jalgaon City
Dry Organic Matter
Inert and other Building Materials
Wet Organic Matter
Waste Disposal Site
Figure 2. Strategic Planning ( Flow Diagram ) For SWM For Jalgaon City
Solid Waste Collection, Transportation Model for Jalgaon City
Home to Home Collection
Mechanical Road Swiping
Manual Road Swiping
Transportation Station ( Compactor )
Processing and Disposal
Processing Unit of measurement
Wet Organic Matter
Wet Organic Matter
Dry Organic Matter
Inert and other Building Material
Figure 3. Solid Waste Collection, Transportation Model for Jalgaon City
Composting is one system which transforms the biodegradable organic stuff into biologically stable stuff and in the procedure cut down the organic volume of waste ; to destruct pathogens, insects eggs and other unwanted beings and weed seed that may be present in municipal solid waste and to retain the maximal food ( NPK ) content and to bring forth a merchandise that can be used to back up works growing and as dirt amendment [ 11 ] .
The solid waste from Jalgaon metropolis has been found to incorporate on an mean scope of 30 to 40 % biodegradable affair. Apart from it, the CN ratio of waste ( i.e. 20 ) on norm is within scope required for composting i.e. 20 to 25 % [ 11 ]
It was estimated that depending on vicinity and clime 450 to 500kg of compost can be produced from 1 dozenss of waste. Based on above treatment it is recommended that composting can be considered as safe, economic disposal method of municipal solid waste generated from Jalgaon metropolis.
Dry organic affair may be used for readying of fuel bricks as energy beginning. After segregation of solid waste reclaimable points are separated out and resource can be utilized for paving blocks.
Solid waste direction may be used to better natural characteristics by raising the degree of low lying land to enable it to be used for cultivation or industrial development. The per centum of inert, inorganic and non-biodegradable organic affair is present in equal measure in solid waste of Jalgaon metropolis and every bit for as this measure is concerned the usage of healthful land make fulling seems alternate to utilize as agencies of disposal land make fulling method is cheapest method of garbage disposal.
TABLE ( 3 )
Entire Waste Generation for Jalgaon City [ 5 ]
Nature of Generators And Expected Quantity in Kilograms – 0.491 / Capita / Day
Road Sweeping & A ; Debris
Generated in Kg
Generated in Kg
Generated in Kg
the Road in Km
Measure of Waste
Generated in Kg
Entire Waste Generation in Tones: 226
Based on physical composing and features of solid waste in Jalgaon metropolis composting can efficaciously manage solid waste incorporating wet organic affair in Jalgaon metropolis. For aggregation of solid waste door to door aggregation system will be effectual one, vehicle. For that purpose Jalgaon metropolis must be divided into 16 wellness units four transportation Stationss are recommended. After segregation of solid waste wet organic affair must be used for composting dry organic stuff to be used for for fuel bricks, fictile points, Fe points, scrap stuff to be used for recycling pupose. Inert and other constructing stuff should be used for land filling.
The literature reviewed in this paper is the portion of ongoing thesis work named “ Solid waste direction techniques for Jalgaon metropolis ” at SGB University, Amravati under the counsel of Prof. M. Iqbal. The writer thanks the Principal, J. T. M. C. O. E. Faizpur, Dist- Jalgaon for widening all installations for carry oning the research work.