Sausage is a homogeneous mixture which comprises of minced thin meat, fat and assorted with additives which include salt, spices and flavoring ( Girard, Denoyer, & A ; Maillard, 1988 ) . Besides the physical facets of treating like softening and rub downing can besides take to alterations to the construction of the meat ( Astruc et al. , 2006 ; Labas, Astruc, Taylor, Martin, & A ; Vendeuvre, 2006 ; Theno, Siegel, & A ; Schmidt, 1978 ; Tyszkiewicz & A ; Jakubiec-Puka, 1995 ) .
In certain preparations different salts have been incorporated particularly sodium chloride as they improve the overall functionality of the merchandise. The effects which are observed are better gelation, higher water-holding capacity and keeping of fat, lower cookery losingss and cut downing microbic growing during storage ( Desmond, 2006 ) . Besides Hamm ( 1972 ) and Offer and Knight ( 1988 ) have shown the relationship of salt with meat thereby assisting in H2O binding and cut downing cooking loss. Surveies have shown that Na chloride has added values such as spirit foil which improves the flavour feature of the meat merchandises ( Gillette, 1985 ; Matulis, McKeith, & A ; Brewer, 1994 ; Ruusunen, Simolin, & A ; Puolanne, 2001 ; Ruusunen et al. , 1999 ) .
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High force per unit area processing ( HPP ) is another interesting technique by which the functional belongingss of the musculus proteins can be improved. Studies utilizing this technique have shown to increase the solubility of certain myofibrillar proteins ( Macfarlane, 1974 ; Macfarlane and McKenzie, 1976 ) and besides the binding between the meat atoms of the sample have been increased after subsequent heat denaturation ( Macfarlane, McKenzie, Turner and Jones, 1984 ) .
In a peculiar survey of HHP with assorted salts and concentration on porc sausages, it was observed that with low-salt degrees of 1.5 % and force per unit areas of 100 to 200MPa resulted in decreased cookery losingss and enhanced texture, while the effects were the highest in low-fat, i.e. , 7 % preparations ( Mandava, Fernandez, and Juillerat, 1994 ) . The other utilizations of HHP intervention are that it can be used as an option to heat intervention for saving ( Gould, 1995 ) and besides for its possible to demobilize microorganisms and shelf-life extension ( Ledward, 1998 ) . In commercial processed ( cooked or cured ) meat merchandises, HHP intervention is presently being implemented in order to better the shelf-life, eliminate infective microorganisms, obtain greater sensory belongingss and improved safety ( PFV, 2009 ) .
The present survey is to look into the possibility of using assorted degrees of high force per unit area to sausages with low salt concentration in order to accomplish similar or better properties as when compared to a normal sausage holding normal salt concentration. Since salt has several added values apart from leaving flavour feature, the purpose of this survey is to find if HHP intervention is sufficient plenty to fulfill the decrease of salt degrees without cut downing any functional belongingss of the sausage. Besides centripetal analysis of the merchandise is carried out to guarantee if the merchandise can be accepted for commercial blessing. Harmonizing to Tuomilehto et Al. ( 2001 ) high Na consumption can ensue in increased opportunities of shot and premature decease from cardiovascular diseases. Hence it is rather good to develop a novel-food merchandise which is healthy and has improved features.
Materials and Methods:
Meat Samples and Formulations
The meat samples used for this undertaking were purchased from a local meat provider ( Jennings of Caversham, Reading ) on two separate occasions. The thin meat was obtained from the natural meat sample ( Pork leg – deboned and rolled: low fat and high class quality ) after all the hypodermic, intramuscular fat and the seeable connective tissues were removed. And the fat used was from porc back-fat. The flavorer used was from Kerry Foods and the composing of it is given as follows:
Rusk ( Prepared from Wheat Flour ) ,
Raising Agent E503 ( two ) ,
Stabiliser [ E451 ( I ) ] , where stabilizer E451 – Sodium tripolyphosphate,
Preservative ( E223 ) , and,
Antioxidant ( E300 ) .
The thin meat and the back fat were individually minced and ground through a 9-mm home base utilizing the Kenwood sociable ( Major Ti theoretical account ) . The minced samples were so placed separately in polythene bags, labelled, vacuity sealed utilizing a vacuity packaging system and stored at 4A°C until required. The meat hitter preparations used throughout was chosen so that the differences between interventions, i.e. , force per unit area, would be the most apparent. This was achieved by explicating two types of hitter mixtures, one incorporating the normal salt concentration ( control ) and the other ( trial ) holding a decreased salt concentration and the composing of both are shown in Table 1. The control hitter was prepared utilizing 2.2 % Na chloride ( 2.2g NaCl/100g merchandise ) and the trial hitter samples were made utilizing 1.5 % Na chloride ( 1.5g NaCl/100g merchandise ) . The natural meat hitters were prepared by blending the thin meat ( 50 % ) , back fat ( 30 % ) along with the specific NaCl concentration depending upon the mixture utilizing the Kenwood sociable ( Major Ti theoretical account ) . After the mixture has been blended in so that the protein extraction is completed ( 3-5 proceedingss ) , ice/water ( 20 % ) is added along with the flavoring to obtain a proper mixture. During the commixture procedure, the hitter was maintained at a temperature of less than 12A°C. The hitters were so filled into sausage shells and linked every 90 millimeter. The full processing was carried out in a pilot works in an sterile environment and the equipment used were sterilised in order to keep hygienic status.
Soon after the readying of the sausage preparations, the sausages were separately labelled, packed, and sealed in polythene bags and kept in 4A°C prior to the HHP interventions. The HHP interventions were carried out after 24hrs of their devising.
Cooking of hitters and HPP interventions
The control samples ( no force per unit area intervention ) were placed in two separate trays with tissues ( so as to absorb the fat loss ) so that replicates could be obtained. And they are cooked straight in a fan-assisted oven in 190A°C/374A°F for a period of 30-35 proceedingss till an internal temperature ( of the sausage ) of 72A°C is achieved. The force per unit area interventions were carried out utilizing Mini FoodLab high force per unit area vas and the compaction fluid which was used in the sample chamber was made up of 30 % 1, 2-propanediol in H2O ( v/v ) . The trial preparation sausages were subjected to assorted force per unit areas runing from 100MPa to 300MPa for a specific clip period runing from 10min to 30 min. In entire there were 9 different types of force per unit area interventions as given in the Table 2. After the trial samples were given force per unit area interventions, they were cooked utilizing the same temperature scenes as the control samples. The samples were cooled and packed in labeled polythene bags and were placed in the 4A°C electric refrigerator until required for farther analysis.
After cooking and chilling the sausages, they were so analysed for the cooking loss. The initial weight of the natural sausage was calculated after the hitters were stuffed into the shells. After cooking at 190A°C for 30-35 proceedingss, the cooked samples were cooled and so kept at 4A°C overnight and so their weight was observed and the cooking loss was calculated ( Lee et al. , 2008 ) . The expression used for calculating is
Weight of natural sausage ( g ) Weight of cooked sausage ( g ) Cooking Loss ( g/100g ) 100
Weight of natural sausage ( g )
Coloring material measurings
The coloring material of each sausage was determined utilizing a tintometer ( calibrated with a white home base, L* = 94.25, a* = -0.83, b* = 0.79 ) . Six measurings for each 10 samples were taken. Lightness ( CIE L* -value ) , inflammation ( CIE a* – value ) , and yellowness ( CIE b*-value ) values were recorded.
Texture profile analysis
At room temperature the sausages were analysed with a texture analyzer ( TA-XT2i, Stable Micro Systems Ltd. , Surrey, England ) for the Texture Profile Analysis ( TPA ) . The meat hitters were prepared and so stuffed into the shells followed by cooking for the control sample and for the trial samples ; they were foremost subjected to coerce intervention and so cooked. The cooked samples were so cooled to the room temperature and so kept at 4A°C overnight. Prior to the analysis, the samples were allowed to stay outside so that its temperature is about equal to that of the room temperature. The samples were cut ( 20mm ) from the sausages and the values for hardness, give, coherence, cohesiveness, and chewiness were determined as described by Bourne ( 1978 ) .
All the trials conducted were recorded and the values were reported. An analysis of discrepancy was performed on all the variables utilizing Minitab package ( version 16 ) .
Consequences and Discussion:
Tables and figures:
Table 1. Meat hitter preparations ( units: g/100gram )
Pork meat ( thin meat )
Salt ( NaCl )
Table 2. Pressure Treatments