Based on the 2005 US $ 1.25 poorness line, the worsening tendencies in planetary poorness can be seen clearly between 1990 and 2008, since the poorness head count rate fell significantly from about 43 per centum to around 24 per centum. Nevertheless, the figure of people in utmost poorness is still high at 1.2 billion ( Baker, 2008 ; Barrientos, 2013 ) . Furthermore, it is undeniable that poorness is one of major societal jobs that should be rapidly eliminated, since poorness is non merely a personal job that affects one individual, who confronts with money deficit. The impact of poorness can besides take to other jobs in society, every bit good as a figure of hapless people have spread to the metropoliss. The per centum of urban population in the universe increases bit by bit and more than half of the world’s population life in metropoliss since 2008 ( UNFPA, 2007 ; World Bank, 2014 ) [ 1 ] . Even if a portion of the urban growing has come from natural population growing, it is inevitable that new chances in the metropoliss encourage a figure of rural hapless migrate to urban countries, and this is an of import incidence that leads to increasing in the per centum of urban population.
It is non surprised that a rapid growing of urbanization can be seen clearly in most underdeveloped states, since there is no bound to how many hapless people in rural countries can travel to happen a better topographic point to populate. However, Jerve ( 2001 ) claims that urbanization is non the mark of human advancement, since the per centum of urban slum [ 2 ] additions dramatically at the same clip. Similarly, World Bank ( 2008 ) indicates that among about half worlds’ population who populating in metropoliss and towns, tierce of them have low life criterions. Hence, it is interesting to look into the grounds behind migration through understanding the nature and supports of rural and urban poorness.
This survey is organised into three cardinal parts. The first portion will sketch the nature and the causes of rural and urban poorness, based on a literature hunt. The 2nd portion will concentrate on the differences between rural and urban poorness in assorted facets. The 3rd portion will take poorness decrease program into consideration, and so measure it is better to be hapless in rural or urban contexts, before summarizing all of the information in the decision.
- Overview rural and urban poorness
One defect in rural-urban poorness analysis is that both definitions of rural and urban countries can be defined variously among different countries ; and it is, hence, degree of urbanization has been used to specify the different types of countries. However, in order to warrant the differences between rural and urban countries ; the nature of rural and urban poorness should be clarified. Even if the linkages between rural and urban poorness make more complex to place the differences between them, it is necessary to understand how rural and urban contexts affect hapless people ; before measuring it is better to be hapless in rural or urban country ( Tacoli and Satterthwaite, 2002 ; Baker, 2008 ) .
1.1 Natures and causes of rural poorness
Sing rural poorness, even though the official definition of rural countries is different from state to state, the cardinal constructs of rural poorness related to several Scopess as follows: rural supports are linked to natural capital, since their economic system based on agricultural sectors. For illustration, Macours and Johan ( 2007 ) indicates that in many South East European, the Caucasian, and Central Asian states, around 40 per centum of rural income come from agricultural sectors.
In world, whereas it is evident that biological assets are of import factor that help rural hapless flight poorness, accessing land for agriculture is strongly limited ; furthermore, farm income is instable, since agricultural income is to a great extent depending on conditions conditions. These grounds are major causes that conveying approximately rural poorness. Furthermore, spread population and distances to major urban Centres are the ground why many hapless people who live in distant countries have limited entree to public services and substructures, which are the most of import feature of rural hapless ( Chambers and Conway, 1992 ; Cotula, Toulmin, and Quan, 2006 ; European Commission, 2008 ) .
1.2Natures and causes of urban poorness
Baker ( 2008 ) notices that the nature of urban hapless is different among different metropoliss ; nevertheless, it is obvious that most urban hapless do non affect in agricultural sector, which is the cardinal differentiation between countryside countries and metropolis countries. Furthermore, it is easier for urban people to run into great occupation chances. In the same manner, UNFPA ( 2007 ) advocates that metropoliss generate more opportunities to do money and chances in entree to public and private services, such as, clean H2O, instruction, and health care.
However, disadvantages of life in urban countries can be seen clearly every bit good. Apart from hapless lodging conditions, the deficient handiness of lodging is the major job in overcrowded urban countries. Due to a rapid growing of rural-to-urban migration, the per centum of slum inhabitants rises significantly ; UNFPA ( 2007 ) identifies that around one billion people live in slums. There is a limited infinite in metropoliss and some hapless people are unable to pay for low-priced lodging units, while rural hapless do non hold a job of entree to land for lodging ( Baker, 2008 ) . Furthermore, whereas rural people can populate off what they can bring forth, such as farm animal merchandises ; urban supports need hard currency to pass on nutrient and life disbursals ( Baker, 2008 ) .
Obviously, positive and negative effects can be seen in both being hapless people in countryside and metropoliss. Therefore, it is excessively early to do a determination which country is better for the hapless, when understanding the nature of rural and urban poorness individually ; and it is, hence, following subdivision will deeply analyze the differences between being hapless people in rural and urban countries in specific positions.
2. Appraisal and rating: the differences between being hapless in the urban and rural contexts
Harmonizing to different nature of rural and urban poorness, the differentiation between rural hapless and urban hapless can be seen in assorted facets. Specific supports models should be defined clearly before measuring hapless people’s supports in rural and metropolis contexts ; and it is, hence, the possibility of acquiring a high income, accessing services, and confronting hazards and exposures, have been used as standards for measuring the supports of hapless people in different countries.
2.1 Income and employment
Obviously, occupation chances are the chief ground why people traveling from countryside to metropoliss. However, Baker ( 2008 ) argues that some hapless people are unable to take advantage of occupation chances in urban labor market, because of deficiency accomplishments and negative stigma. Therefore, most urban hapless have to work for informal sectors, and face unsatisfactory on the job conditions ; for case, deficiency of societal insurance and more exposure to economic dazes in the same manner as working in agricultural sector in rural countries.
This statement has been supported by assorted mentions ; for illustration, Glinskaya and Rayan ( 2006 ) indicate that India has non sufficient figure of occupations that can back up estimated 1 million workers, who move out of agricultural sectors in countryside every twelvemonth. As a effect, kids from urban hapless families are besides miss chances to come in a higher instruction, despite life in the metropoliss ; since they have to get down a occupation at early age, particularly in Sub-Sahara Africa, where has the highest per centum of kid labor.
However, jobs of child labor will be reduced by the Millennium Development Goals [ 3 ] , since all kids would have primary instruction by 2015 ( Hasan, Patel, and Satterthwaite, 2005 ) , but it is undeniable that being hapless kids in metropoliss gain advantage over being hapless kids in rural countries. Debertin and Goetz ( 1994 ) explain that apart from class mandated by authoritiess, most schools in urban countries offer a broad scope of classs that importance to prosecute a higher instruction. Besides, Khan ( 2001 ) and Tacoli and Satterthwaite ( 2002 ) emphasise that more educated people will hold more chances to acquire high-paying occupations ; and it is, hence, it can be implied that hapless kids populating in metropoliss will hold a better lives in the hereafter.
Even though it is a fact that most urban families have populating costs higher than rural families, Ravallion, Chen, and Sangraula ( 2007 ) find that 75 per centum of hapless people in developing states live in rural countries. This result affirms benefits of being urban hapless every bit good, since it can be implied that most urban hapless earn adequate money to get away poorness, though they have high cost of life.
2.2 Infrastructure and services
Apart from entree to land, Tacoli ( 2003 ) points out that entree to urban markets, which consists of physical substructure ; connexion between manufacturers, bargainers and consumers ; and market information, including consumer penchants and monetary value fluctuations, are the cardinal constituents that lead to increasing agrarian income. But, in world, a figure of rural hapless have to trust on metropolis Centres for entree to agricultural and farm equipment, secondary school, infirmaries, and many services, including fiscal services.
Due to hapless entree to recognition, husbandmans can non put in high-value harvests to acquire more benefits, therefore poorness can non be reduced. Besides, Tacoli ( 1998 ) points out that the function of local merchandisers act upon rural cultivators’ incomes in many states, since many agriculturists have to trust on informal recognition from local merchandisers. Large local merchandisers have power to command agriculturists in many ways, such as handiness of transit, information, and market places. Because of power that they have, it is non surprised that some local merchandisers can put the monetary value of agricultural merchandises that give them maximal net income, while the vicinity does non acquire any benefits from a higher value of merchandises.
Because of these grounds, it is non easy to get the better of poorness through increasing merchandise monetary value or puting in high-value harvests. Consequently, big Numberss of people, particularly immature rural people, choose to migrate for better chances in metropoliss ; since farm incomes in rural countries tend to be diminished.
On the other manus, hapless entree to services besides can be seen in urban countries. Tacoli and Satterthwaite ( 2002 ) demonstrate that urban hapless besides face deficiency of entree to fiscal services ; for illustration, husbandmans populating in Paraguay’s capital are besides unable to do more income by spread outing their production or puting in high-value harvests, since they do non acquire a loan.
Furthermore, whether because of unable to pay or unwillingness of private suppliers to function urban hapless, in some instances, entree rates in rural countries is higher than in urban slums ; for illustration, sing basic services, some hapless people in metropoliss have to pay for H2O supply at a higher rate than non-poor, and non everyone can afford to pay expensive services ( Baker, 2008 ) .
However, Macour and Swinnen ( 2007 ) affirm that life in urban countries can entree substructure and services easier than countryside in general. Thereby, it can be concluded that if authoritiess have effectiveness to supply efficient substructures and services to urban people at the same criterion, urban hapless will derive more benefits than rural hapless.
2.3 Hazardsand exposures
Pryer ( 1993 ) and Cattaneo, Galiani, Gertler, Martinez, and Titiunik ( 2009 ) demonstrate that there is a positive relationship between hapless lodging conditions and exposures ; therefore, populating with hapless sanitation installations in both rural and urban countries contribute to a figure of hazards.
Sing wellness attention services, though urban people are available to acquire better information and a better entree to wellness attention services, there are some groundss demoing the increasing of exposure in wellness attention for urban hapless ; for illustration, hapless quality of the houses in urban countries in Bangladesh contributes to wellness jobs among urban hapless who live in slum ( Pryer, 1993 ) . In add-on, Baker ( 2008 ) discover that the prevalence of HIV in urban countries is higher than rural countries in some Africa metropoliss, and in those states, mortality and morbidity rate for rural inhabitants are often lower than that of urban abodes.
Harmonizing to above information, it seems that hapless people might acquire a better wellness if they live in rural countries. However, when the Millennium Development Goals has been taken into history, it is obvious that urban hapless would acquire more benefits ; since the Millennium Development Goals, have many marks that provide benefits to hapless people populating in little urban Centres, and those marks would be achieved by 2015 ( Tacoli, 2003 ) .
3. Poverty relief and policy planning
It is obvious that good administration and effectual policies are of import factors that influence poverty decrease in both rural and urban countries ( Chamber and Conway, 1992 ) , thereby poverty relief programs should be taken into consideration before make up one’s minding a better topographic point to populate.
On the one manus, Cotula, Toulmin, and Quan ( 2006 ) comment that rural poorness decrease is highly related to entree to land and agricultural development. It can be implied that hapless people would be better off than they used to be, if land redistribution and effectual agricultural policies have been occurred by authoritiess. However, Tacoli and Satterthwaite ( 2002 ) describe most authoritiess in developing states do non detect the positive relationship between comfortable agribusiness and urban development. Governments in many states concentrate on industrial policies instead than agricultural policies. For illustration, most Asiatic authoritiess pay attending to spread out their industrial production, whereas those states have comparative advantage [ 4 ] in agricultural merchandises.
Similarly, Baker ( 2008 ) realizes how hard to contend against poorness in countryside and stresses that although the per centum of rural poorness addition at a slower rate than urban poorness, poorness is still much more terrible in rural countries in the hereafter. Furthermore, a strongly addition in rural poorness can be seen in states that deficiency of attending to rural poorness decrease ( Macours and Swinnen, 2007 ) .
On the other manus, it can be seen clearly that drawbacks of being hapless people in metropoliss, which have been explained in this subdivision, would be resolved in the close hereafter owing to the Millennium Development Goals. Hasan, Patel, and Satterthwaite ( 2005 ) reference that many marks of the Millennium Development Goals focal point on development in service proviso peculiarly for urban inhabitants ; for case, halving the proportion of people who lack of entree to safe imbibing H2O ; diminishing the spread of HIV/AIDS and other major diseases ; cut downing the maternal mortality rate by three-fourthss ; and increasing figure of persons in family with proper sanitation and equal nutrient ingestion.
Even though rural countries have a lower portion of hapless population, the rural poorness is higher than urban poorness in general ( UNFPA, 2007 ; Baker 2008 ) . Similarly, Khan ( 2001 ) points out that the terrible want can be seen in rural countries in about all states.
Because of above statements, it can be implied that it is better to be hapless people in metropoliss, since urban hapless would acquire advantages when authoritiess treat urban people every bit, and poorness decrease programs for urban hapless have more precise policies to relieve poorness.
To reason, the proportion of rural poorness will increase, when income from farming is decreased, since most rural hapless rely on agricultural sectors. Due to miss of factor of production, particularly land, including deficiency of entree to services ; a figure of rural people have to endure from poorness. Consequently, an increasing of employment chances and the handiness of services in metropoliss are the chief grounds that attract rural hapless doing determination to travel countryside. However, in malice of life in metropoliss, some urban hapless might non acquire any benefits, if authoritiess have non provided public substructure and services to urban people adequately. Furthermore, urban hapless have to pay for a higher cost of life compared to rural hapless. Nevertheless, although urban hapless have to confront overcrowding and have to passing a higher proportion of income for lodging than being rural hapless or have to populate in slums, urban countries have a lower per centum of population below poorness line on norm ( UNFPA, 2007 ) .
However, many strong groundss conclude that supports of rural hapless are more terrible than urban hapless usually. Lack of income is the chief ground that leads to poverty in urban countries, while rural hapless are more related to both income and service want ; nevertheless, it is easier to happen high-paying employments in metropoliss. Furthermore, most authoritiess pay attending to industrial development more than agricultural development, which is the cardinal component that contributes to rural poorness decrease. Therefore, it is rather hard to get away poorness while populating in rural countries.
Furthermore, due to advantage of propinquity, undeniable that urban hapless can have more efficient instruction, wellness attention, and other services than rural hapless. Similarly, it is evident that the Millennium Declaration that the international community pledge to turn to poorness relief by 2015, focal point on hapless people populating in metropoliss. Hence, it can be conclude that it is better to being hapless in metropoliss.