The reappraisal of literature in the old chapter has outlined the chief theories of hazard that are relevant for geographic expedition given the findings gained following primary research. Research was conducted to supply penetration and support towards the overall purpose of this paper which is to measure hazard, its causes and eventually what is being done to cut down this hazard.

This chapter will pull mention to retrospective hazard factors encountered by four participants in the sample. By no agency does this research claim to be of sufficient stature to enable generalization, nevertheless it is felt that a rich image has been created of hazards posed in today ‘s society. This chapter will besides turn to the 2nd portion of the research inquiry what is being done to understate this hazard in order to cut down re-offending? To pull an analytical decision this procedure will utilize the triangulation method.

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With mention to the literature reappraisal, the analysis of findings will be discussed under the kingdom of school factors in relation to hooky and disaffection, household factors in relation to rearing manners and condemnable households, neighbourhood factors in relation to want and features, single hazard in relation to drugs and intoxicant and eventually to enable an appraisal of single reform, the effects and barriers to employment will be discussed. Due to the restrictions ( word count and clip restraints ) and interconnected findings in this survey, the findings will be discussed and analysed in a individual chapter.


Understating Risk through Employment

The first method of probe was to explicate a instance survey which was through the agencies of an interview with a practician, stuffs available via their web site and other publications that were sought relevant. Following the interview and the findings gained, permissions were granted to enable a more in deepness informations aggregation utilizing questionnaires, it was through the practician that enabled the usage of the sweet sand verbena technique ; as discussed in the methodological analysis.

The purpose of the instance survey was to place the intercessions that are implemented to cut down recidivism. The overall end promoted within this programme is to prosecute persons with sustained employment which is widely recognised as playing a cardinal function in desistance from offense ( see Farrall, 2002 ; Laub and Sampson, 2001 ; Uggen, 2000 ; Visher and Travis, 2003 ) . Sustainable employment reduces the likeliness of an single reoffending by between one-third and a half ( LGA, 2005:1 ) . As a consequence of this, authorities policy has progressively focused on turn toing the obstructions that ex-offenders face in accessing employment chances. In 2005, the Government published Reducing Reoffending through Skills and Employment, which sought to put employment as cardinal to taking a crime-free life ( HM Government, 2005 ; 2006 ) . These findings suggest that employment is a important counteracting expression in the decrease of recidivism, therefore the findings from the instance survey will be analysed to supply a decision as to its capableness.

The undermentioned subdivisions will sketch the chief hazard factors that need to be addressed in order to prosecute an person into employment and besides to cut down recidivism.

Before transporting out the interview and administering the questionnaires, all permissions were granted and all participants received a full briefing as to the nature of the research. An account was besides given sing the publication of the consequences and an confidence of confidentiality was agreed.

The questionnaire responses were received from four participants[ 1 ]and all are now employed as a consequence of battle with an employment and preparation bureau ( of which the instance survey is based ) The questionnaires draw upon retrospective biographical responses to enable the designation of hazard and the instance survey will supply grounds of minimization techniques.

The chief focal point of this paper is hazard and how outside bureaus can understate this hazard, for the intent of this paper factors such as school hazard factors will be briefly discussed nevertheless, the appendix will be used if farther geographic expedition is required.

School Risk Factors: Truancy and Alienation

The participants in the sample were asked a series of inquiries that were used for retrospective analysis. School hazard factors are deemed relevant for geographic expedition given the literature in this country and besides to make an image of the participant ‘s early life class. However, the instance survey is based on an bureau and practician that works with grownup wrongdoers hence this paper will concentrate on what can be done now.

The findings from the questionnaires show hooky and disaffection to be cardinal concerns during secondary schooling[ 2 ]. Truancy is a mensurable and researched index of pupil disaffection which has a strong association with juvenile piquing. The findings here are comparable with the statement proposed by Graham ( 1988 ) , Graham theorised that disaffection from school was a cardinal declarative characteristic towards the increased hazard of offense and antisocial behavior. In this context, disaffection can be teamed with a deficiency of societal bonds as argued by Ayers et Al ( 1999 ) which was found to be a hazard factor for ulterior delinquency. Further support for this theory is Johnston, ( 1991 ) who argues his findings from an American survey ( in the context of drug abuse ) and conclude that deficiency of committedness to school besides posed as a hazard toward antisocial behavior in adolescence, West, ( 1982 ) besides found similar findings in a comparing survey.

When asked about what participants did during the hours of detachment from school, all of the participants admitted to smoke, imbibing intoxicant and carry oning arch behaviors but did non describe condemnable activity. An illustration of this reads ;

‘we ne’er did anything excessively bad but we would sometimes smoke and imbibe beer and sometimes we would nick motorcycles and muss about ‘ ( Participant C ) .

This determination is taken in the context of arch as oppose to criminal behaviors but does demo the marks and potencies for patterned advance toward more serious and relentless offending. It appears that the nexus between hooky and delinquency is non straightforward, when believing in footings of cause and consequence it is easy to presume that delinquency leads to truancy, this research shows that the events taking topographic point during those hours of detachment are deviant in the context of misdemeanors, nevertheless it is evident that ‘nicking a motorcycle and minor imbibing and smoke ‘ are non considered by the participants as condemnable behavior, which it is by jurisprudence. In short decision these findings reject the theory argued by Graham, ( 1998 ) that delinquency leads to hooky and besides that of Ekblom, ( 1979 ) who found that hooky players seldom offend during school hours.

Educational attainment

When asked about educational attainment, it was clear that minimum makings were gained and participants had no wish to go on onto farther instruction. However, a farther disclosure was reported as an illustration as to why one participant did non go on into farther instruction ;

‘I wanted to travel to college to make plumbing and my caput of twelvemonth told me she would n’t give me a mention to wheel streetcars at a supermarket ne’er mind a college class. So I merely thought why fuss ‘ ( Participant A ) .

This quotation mark signifies the importance of positive function theoretical accounts, the derogative remark received by his instructor was plenty to halt him from prosecuting farther instruction and perchance move to understate his hazard of condemnable behavior. Low educational attainment and hooky are strongly linked as argued by Bosworth, ( 1994 ) . Hibbert and Fogelman, ( 1990 ) concluded that this is besides a strong index of ‘poor life results ‘ which is true to this research when taken jointly.

The practician reports this barrier to be true of most, if non all of the persons which he works with, this determination was besides found in the study conducted by the Social Exclusion Unit, noticing that ex-offenders have low skill-levels and minimum formal makings ( SEU, 2002 ) . The programme offers a broad scope of enterprises runing within the country of farther instruction, hairdressing, security and door work preparation and a series of basic accomplishments classs every bit good as counsel with course of study vitae ‘s and interview accomplishments. It is widely recognised that ex-offenders may miss many of the soft accomplishments that employers demand and the procedures involved such as go toing interviews, composing applications can turn out to be both hard and dashing for persons ( SEU, 2002 ) . This bureau is little in respects to resources nevertheless an tremendous accent was placed on the importance of multi-agency coherence ;

‘The programme would non work without the input and resources from external bureaus, we all have the same purposes and ends which is to supply an ex-offender with a new beginning ‘

The usage of multiagency interplay serves to supply ex-offenders with the much needed accomplishments to prosecute within mainstream society. When inquiring the participants if they felt that any barriers stood in the manner of them and employment it became clear that they felt hopeless in the pursuit for work. The first barrier was the deficiency of educational attainment at school and holding no work experience go forthing a feeling of lower status when using for occupations.

The practician offers a broad scope of ‘in house ‘ work based and educational preparation chances for all campaigners. The practician studies that when the bureau was foremost established they used to inscribe persons onto college classs where the person would be given disbursals to and from the college and were besides provided with the necessary equipment ( books and pens ) . It was shortly found that a big bulk of people were withdrawing from college. When the persons were asked for an account it was found that the ‘school environment ‘ was far excessively intimidating for them and the category Numberss were so high they felt withdrawn. This was shortly changed and the bureau now holds classs on the premises with merely little Numberss of people all with similar backgrounds.

Neighbourhood Risk Factors: Want and Features

Vicinity features and want are all good documented in classical and modern-day literature. Factors refering 1s vicinity is deemed really relevant in the field of criminology due to the direct and indirect effects it can hold on any given person. The characteristics environing delinquent equal groups will be discussed within this subdivision, nevertheless it is felt that it could easy take presence in any figure of these subdivisions. The findings drawn throughout this subdivision were concluded with the bing literature in head.

The findings show that all participants lived in lodging provided by the council as a young person and all but one ( participant D ) of the participants had moved out of their household place at some point after striplings. Those who have moved are still in lodging provided by the council and some on the same estate. It was realised through this research that the four participants were divided between two neighboring countries which were known good as offense prone countries. Following the survey conducted by Park and Burgess, ( 1925 ) it was deemed worthy to look into the features posed by the two chief countries of condemnable acknowledgment. The features hypothesised by the writers are slightly out-of-date ( in relation to cheap theaters ) , nevertheless, the helter-skelter and poorness based elements can be applied to today ‘s societal jobs and in bend this research.

The descriptions were really similar for all participants, happening that hooliganism ; force, packs, deficiency of local comfortss and an inflow of immigrants were cardinal characteristics. Additional to this it was found that all four participants felt that their vicinities were labelled as ‘scruffy ‘ and offense prone countries, as one participant commented ;

‘I merely hold to walk down the street and the bulls would halt me and inquire where I was traveling and what I was making ‘ . ( Participant A ) .

All of the participants described the constabulary as prejudice and unfair, three of the participants had been arrested a figure of times by the constabulary for offenses of burglary and force of which all three denied being portion off.

Further to this it was reported that they felt discriminated against because of their ZIP code and the stigma that was attached. The advisor provided an history of the country ‘s features which reads:

‘these topographic points are n’t nice, they are really daunting topographic points. Most of the local concerns are boarded up and that ‘s largely to make with them acquiring broken into all the clip. The lodging is largely provided by the council and acts as a genteelness land for felons ‘ ( Adviser )

In support of this the local newspaper reported, ‘only four stores are still merchandising at a creaky promenade in the center of Ordsall, Salford. ‘ ( Manchester Evening News, 2008 ) . The Salford one-year baseline reappraisal besides reports that The District is the 3rd most deprived in the state. ‘

This grounds suggests that close propinquity to the metropolis Centre, impairment of lodging stock and societal disorganization in footings of the abolishment of local comfortss are in support of homocentric zone theory. Theoretically, this image of ‘criminal genteelness evidences ‘ is shared by many, Farrington ( 1991 ) and Bursik and Webb, ( 1982 ) concluded that hapless life conditions in economically deprived countries with high unemployment rates acted as a important hazard factor towards condemnable behavior.

The primary research indicates that many of the wrongdoers reside within some of the most troubled and deprived countries which are known ‘hot musca volitanss ‘ for condemnable activity. Shaw and McKay ( 1969 ) reported similar findings, documenting a big per centum of wrongdoers belonging to a comparatively little proportion of vicinities, which is true to these findings. Kolvin et Al, ( 1988 ) found that rates of condemnable and anti societal behavior rose in conformity with degrees of want. Although rates of fiscal want was non recorded we may presume that these countries of reside are non for those with a big disposable income.

Delinquent Peers

As briefly shown earlier, the antisocial behavior that occurs is apparently non conducted in isolation. The participants all report holding a little group of delinquent equals to whom they spent much clip with and committed most Acts of the Apostless with, much of the bing literature study similar findings. Reiss, ( 1998 ) supports the impression that delinquent Acts of the Apostless are carried out in little groups and likewise Thornberry and Krohn, ( 1997 ) . Delinquent equal groups are recognised as an single hazard factor in the Cambridge survey happening that holding such equals has a strong association with perpetrating offense as a immature grownup.

A farther determination which ab initio was non considered during this portion of the research was the impact of stigmatization within vicinities. In support of this determination ( amongst others who? ? ) is the survey conducted by Wilson ( 1968 ) , despite its classical beginning, it is the belief that today ‘s society continues to attach negative labels to an image or stereotyped wrongdoer or possible wrongdoer ( Irwin, 1985 ) . Wilson concludes that lower category persons are targeted by the constabulary for the belief that they commit more offenses hence takes more action to collar them. This determination seems evident in the research conducted here, in a vicinity context as Bittner ( 1970 ) studies, the constabulary tend to apportion more patrols and resources to the countries that are most flush offense prone countries and have a population of lower category persons. The work by Bittner and Wilson is of import to this research as it suggests that the constabulary are more cognizant of these countries nevertheless, as suggested in this research everyone is perceived to be a possible wrongdoer which may take to a ‘wrong topographic point at the incorrect clip ‘ scenario taking to injustice. SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY? ?

There is an outrageousness of grounds that one ‘s vicinity can move as hazard factor ( as already seen ) the statement put frontward to the practician was ‘is employment sufficiency to maintain ex-offenders from offense ‘ the practician studies that in his experience it is excessively easy for an ex-offender to steal back into offense when posed with important hazards. In the context of vicinity hazard factors the practician referred to a spouse company for whom he works with on a regular basis ( this bureau will be referred to as undertaking A ) . Project A works specifically with drug and intoxicant dependence. The practician refers to the hazard appraisal that is carried out for all persons and high spots that the hazard factors are considered in all kingdoms of the person ‘s life. If it is recognised that one ‘s vicinity is presenting as a important hazard so project A is contacted. Project A provides lodging for persons who show committedness to doing positive alterations to their lives and prosecute with preparation and employment. The person is so re-housed in a different vicinity ; the lodging accommodates four ex-offenders and does so until it is decided the person can populate independently. The interviewee refers to an single instance for which he worked with, the client was a 24 twelvemonth old male who was good known by the constabulary as being a diacetylmorphine nut and had a history of non-violent offense. The interviewee recalls his experience with him ;

‘We ‘ve got a chap I got to cognize when I was a policeman 25 old ages ago. He turned his life about after diacetylmorphine and last twelvemonth engaged with us and gained employment. … His vicinity and household place were identified as the biggest hazard factors impacting his drug abuse and condemnable behaviors so we contacted undertaking A. However he went back to heroin last hebdomad. He went place and told his female parent how good he was making… his female parent made a remark that he was n’t making every bit good as he should be and he said he felt so low. He had a 24 hr orgy on diacetylmorphine and about died once more and has now been removed from the undertaking and back into his old household place and vicinity where he can turn out himself right once more and can be considered for the undertaking A. ‘ ( See appendix? ? ) .

In instances such as this, it is clear that non all elements of hazard can be eliminated from person ‘s life, in this instance the accelerator for re-offence was his female parent and despite his advancement and new abode her humbling remarks were plenty to do backsliding. This instance prompted inquiries sing support and counsel.

The literature suggests that employment entirely can non eliminate hazard, as Laub and Sampson ( 2001 ) have suggested, employment and household encourage desistance, as they involve persons within a web of duties, duties, and establishments of societal control that lead to a decrease in condemnable association and behavior. This reiterates the point made earlier that employment entirely can non move as a important hindrance from condemnable activity without antagonizing other barriers.

Family Risk Factors: parental supervising and condemnable records

Parental supervising

The literature in chapter 2 suggests that household factors play a big and influential function in relation to criminal behavior. The inquiries put frontward to the sample within this research were to a great extent influenced by the bing literature. However it was felt that inquiries sing household histories and fortunes may bring forth degrees of uncomfortableness which in bend would be unethical to prosecute, due to this the inquiries used were really brief, yet unfastened for participant reading.

When asked about whether or non the participants had grown up in a individual or two parent household, the findings show that participants A and B lived with their female parents, C lived with both grandparents and participant D ‘s parents were together. Participants A, B and C reported a deficiency of supervising whilst at place, proposing that they were free to come and travel as they pleased.

Participant D reported his male parent as being a really indulgent parent who was unemployed and did non implement regulations. However, his female parent ( who was a local barmaid ) was a far more cognizant of puting boundaries yet failed to implement them on a regular basis due to working fulltime antisocial hours ( flushing displacements ) .

With the accent being placed on hazard and criminalism it was of import to look into how the persons behaved whilst ‘unsupervised ‘ . The general consensus found was that a deficiency of activities led to delinquent Acts of the Apostless with equals such as, doing prank calls from the phone box, smoking hemp, imbibing intoxicant and being driven around by older equals.

When sing these findings in relation to the environing literature Farrington ( 1986a, 1986b ) besides found that hapless supervising was declarative of future criminalism which was the instance for all participants in this survey. Related literature argues the effects of rearing manners and the subsequent effects of them, nevertheless due to the ethical barriers felt within this research merely the issue of supervising was addressed. That said, we might reason that a on a regular basis unsupervised stripling is a ignored stripling which sees the negative effects of disregard, this is supported by bing literature ( West and Farrington, 1973 ) and ( Newson and Newson, 1989 ) every bit presenting as a hazard towards condemnable behavior. In direct indorsement are the findings from the Cambridge survey which concluded that hapless supervising at aged 8 led to future condemnable strong beliefs ( Farrington, 1978 ) .

In turn toing the first portion of this subdivision it is easy to presume that certain household constructions have an increased hazard of bring forthing a delinquent kid, for illustration lone parents, but there is grounds to propose that two parent households can besides be the merchandise of hazard. As seen in this research, there are differing parental care, nevertheless condemnable behavior was evident in all instances. To repeat, the findings here are sparse in their content due to grounds already discussed although, that considered still enables a decision to be drawn. It is argued here that a deficiency of supervising may take to a deficiency of regulations and later societal norms and ordinance. This theory of ‘unsupervised ‘ striplings teamed with the negative features of one ‘s vicinity leads to a decision conveyed best by the celebrated adage ‘the Satan finds work for idol custodies ‘ .

Does offense run in the household?

The following inquiry ‘s was to measure the extent of whether ‘crime tallies in the household ‘ . Participant A studies his male parent as holding been in prison for most of his life for a scope of offenses from drink driving to existent bodily injury ( ABH ) . Participant B reported his older brother being a known pack member and in regular contact with the constabulary. Participants C and D did non wish to unwrap any condemnable strong beliefs in their households.

Hazard of delinquency is said to be increased if one or both parents have had an engagement in offense, this is besides the instance if any siblings have, or still are delinquent ( Farrington, 1995 ) . These findings are supportive of this research when taking into history the participants who recorded their households ‘ condemnable histories. This theory was farther endorsed in the Cambridge survey which found that of male childs with convicted male parents, 60 % went on to be convicted themselves.

Individual Hazard: Drugs, Alcohol and Delinquent Peers

Given the nature of the persons in the sample, an easy premise to do here is that a dependence on drugs and intoxicant is inextricably linked with piquing behavior. However, these factors may non move entirely in finding 1s determinations. Further to this, it will be interesting to measure which behavior came foremost for illustration, does drugs and intoxicant lead to piquing? Or does piquing take to the use of drugs and intoxicant?

Drugs and Alcohol

It was established before in this chapter that on juncture hemp and intoxicant was consumed during hooky hours from school. When examining farther it was found that occasional usage of hemp and intoxicant at aged 15/16 led to friendly relationships with equals of a similar degree of aberrance which through these equals saw the increased usage of ( in specific ) drugs from a recreational frequence to a dependence. The patterned advance of such passages is non known nevertheless ; all participants disclosed their drug histories as shown ;

Participant A, B and C have a history of diacetylmorphine, cleft cocaine and hemp abuse. Participant D has a history of intoxicant and hemp abuse.

The handiness of drugs in their vicinities was reported to be omnipresent and easy accessible. The concluding inquiry asked participants why they chose to go on taking illegal drugs into maturity. Participant D did non see the injury in smoking hemp retrospectively and recalls it as something to make with friends. The staying three ; describe a obscure remembrance of any witting determination devising but province that delinquent equals and ennui led to a natural patterned advance of illegal drug pickings.

When examining farther it was identified that many of the drug users had been officially cautioned and even incarcerated for their engagement in drugs. The grounds collected did non hold the range for a life class analysis of each person nevertheless, it seems obvious that these persons did non react to such countenances positively. Although the impact of labeling in this context was non to the full made apparent, this behavior is in conformity with that of Kaplan and Johnson ( 1992 ) .

In a survey conducted by Kaplan and Johnson ( 1992 ) it was found that the most declarative forecaster of increased drug usage was the consequence of specific labelling. This theory of labelling suggests that drug usage increases as a consequence of negative societal countenances. Harmonizing to the writers the drug user foremost interprets the label in a positive manner ; secondly, the drug user loses motive to conform. And thirdly, the drug user becomes alienated from ‘mainstream ‘ society which consequences in less chance to socialize with non-drug users. The theories posed by advocators of the labelling procedure are felt to be relevant to this research whether the persons were witting to this happening or non.

When sing the retrospective findings and the future results of these persons, this research is in full support of Robins and Przybeck, ( 1985 ) who found that those who use drugs at an early age are more likely to go non-recreational users of habit-forming drugs than those whose induction is delayed.

Condemnable Record

With relation to the negative effects of labeling, the concluding and most echoing barrier to employment was holding a condemnable record. All participants felt that being labelled an ex-offender was far more damaging than any other factor. Participant B had sought work at a local supermarket for a low skilled place and felt discriminated against because of his condemnable record and ZIP code. Participant D has ne’er been incarcerated but saw the chance of work pointless due to his condemnable label.

The huge bulk ( 95 % ) of persons that the programme works with have been in contact with the condemnable justness system, most have been in prison and all have condemnable records. Although the condemnable justness system aims to reform and rehabilitate, there is grounds from both documented theories and the participant responses that this may non work every bit good when put into pattern. The literature suggests a comprehensiveness of cognition environing the deductions of negative labeling.

The programme works closely with the prolific and relentless wrongdoer ( PPO ) squad ( who work with those persons who are responsible for 90 % of offense in that country ) and it is clear from the interview that it is these wrongdoers that require the most aid and support. The thoughts from labeling theoreticians have great significance when looking at those with condemnable records and in peculiar the fecund wrongdoers.

The thoughts of labelling theoreticians such as Lemert ( 1967 ) were intended to explicate why some people become locked into a rhythm of piquing. On this position, those who are caught and punished are intentionally stigmatised by the condemnable justness system. Typically, they change their position of themselves to suit the condemnable label, and follow a manner of life and a circle of associates that turn them into confirmed felons. The primary instance survey is supported by Lemert ‘s theory of labeling and in the words of the interviewee:

‘at the minute I have 6 PPO ‘s on my books and they are all between the ages of 24 and mid 30 ‘s, they are really hard to work with because they have no regard for authorization, the jurisprudence or have a fright of penalty. I am familiar with these cats from when I was in the constabulary and they have been perpetrating offense and been in and out of prison for over 10 old ages. None of them see the point in traveling consecutive and happening a occupation as they have been labelled a inmate and a druggy ‘ .

This is a premier illustration of how single ‘s lives can be shaped by the condemnable justness system, wrongdoers may be reproduced due to subsequent labeling in a system that aims to rehabilitate and reform. The relocation of captives upon release nevertheless, was found to play an tremendous function in whether recidivism was to be played out. A spouse company for whom plays a important function in re-educating and resettling ex-offenders in relation to drug misapply provinces that:

‘The new drug intervention scheme station 2008 will necessitate to concentrate more on the entire and complete release of the nut every bit good as focal point on how to antagonize the stigmatization that still exists in our society, where people can be labelled due to their past histories. In add-on it will necessitate to look at the long term development of some people who have ne’er been accustomed to the employment market, who need a enormous sum of coaching and managing as they prepare for the civilization of work and be supported when they enter employment. We need to open the door to specialist human developers who can act upon strategic thought and transform the clinical perceptual experience of scheme. ‘

It is going progressively obvious that labels and the stigmatization of persons are lingering factors that need to be addressed.

A mandatory constituent of the programme is learning the persons to unwrap their offenses. The 1974 Rehabilitation of Offenders Act made it easier for employers to obtain inside informations about persons and placed greater loads of revelation on ex-offenders ;

[ The Act ] requires ex-offenders, if asked, to unwrap their old strong beliefs to employers. This demand lasts until a period of clip has passed without farther strong beliefs, when they become exhausted. For many ex-prisoners this procedure will take 10 old ages. For those sentenced to over two and a half old ages the demand to unwrap stopping points for the remainder of their lives- a demand which affects around 100,000 ex-prisoners ( SEU, 2002:59 ) .

The practician is in understanding that this attitude exists in today ‘s society and foresees this as a common job that is far from being eradicated.

Labeling theory

Harmonizing to labeling theory, the condemnable justness system is limited in its ability to command improper behavior but besides can move as a accelerator towards condemnable callings. Persons who are arrested, prosecuted, and punished are labeled as felons. It is good established that immature people with a condemnable record hold a more hard and less successful passage to ‘adulthood ‘ ( Home Office 2002, Furlong & A ; Cartmel 2007 ) . Society perceives and dainties these persons as felons and this will increase their likeliness to prosecute in condemnable behaviour for a figure of grounds. Labeled persons may hold trouble obtaining legitimate employment, which in bend additions their degree of strain and reduces their interest in conformance. These labelled persons may see a reluctance of association from mainstream society, and my associate with other ‘criminals ‘ as a consequence. Criminal association can follow the societal acquisition of offense which can take to an person labeled due to a minor offense but being subsequently associated with offense which is much more serious in its nature. Finally is the position that those labeled persons will finally come to see themselves as felons and act in conformity with it, this can be captured by Merton ‘s term ‘self-fulfilling prognostication ‘ .

A figure of early criminologists noted that prisons were a terrible signifier of social reaction and acted as a genteelness land for offense. As Bentham remarks ;

‘an ordinary prison is a school in which evil is taught by surer agencies than can of all time be employed for the ingraining of virtuousness. Weariness, retaliation, and want preside over these academies of offense ‘ ( Cited in Hawkins, 1976, P.57 ) .

Lombroso besides made a similar statement in 1911, happening that ;

‘the degrading influences of prison life and contact with vulgar felons… cause criminaloids who have committed their initial offenses with repulsion and vacillation to develop subsequently into accustomed felons ‘ ( Lombroso, Ferrero, 1972, p,110-111 ) .