First, deficient readyings for the release of an inmate in modern prison may take to the addition of recidivism rate. In recent old ages, some of the modern prisons start offering correctional plans such as accomplishments larning plans and instruction plans which old prisons did non hold. However, most of the captives are still set free straight and deficiency of basic life necessities, which includes abodes and occupation chances. In this instance, the emphasis from homelessness and joblessness may hale the inmates into traveling back to prison. For illustration, A research which studied the prison system in Queensland points out that the current aftercare services in adjustments and employments can non run into the demands and neglect to extinguish the anxiousness and depression of the inmates after their release ( Walsh, 2006, 109-133 ) . Besides, the deficit of aftercare occurred in United States every bit good. Rodriguez and Brown reported that 30 to 50 per centum of the word inmates in Los Angeles and San Francisco were homeless while 20 per centum of release captives in New York City were populating similarly without stable adjustments ( 2003, 2-3 ) . The consequence of deficient readying shown supra is the lifting possibility of re-offending. For case, a survey which examined more than 48,000 released captives found that the inmates utilizing the shelter after their release had a higher rate of re-imprisonment. Therefore, it suggests that homeless among inmates is a important factor of recidivism ( Metraux & A ; Culhane, 2004, 1 ) . This is supported by Korn, who interviewed a figure of male inmates in Australian prisons and published a aggregation of these interviews. He observes that among the 50 % of prisons who have been captivity before in New South Wales, the most common ground for recidivism is that without acquaintance, personal ownership and habitation out of the gaols, inmates are likely to return to prisons where they are familiar with ( 2004, 169-170 ) . Consequently, pantie aftercare for the released captives is still a failing of modern prison for it can non assist the captives go back to public community and may even hike their rate of recidivism.
Second, most of the modern prisons assign captives to different security degrees matching with their degree of hazards but this method may increase the rate of recidivism of the high degree inmates. The bulk of the modern prisons around the universe have categorizations of different security degrees in order to pull off and supervise the inmates easier. However, this security label could likely raise the chance of the felons for re-offending. For case, in an experiment conducted by Camp and Gaes, indiscriminately chosen inmates are equally assigned into security degree I and level III prisons severally. Surprisingly, the consequence of the experiment shows that the group which is sent into higher security prison has 31 % more rate of recidivism than those who are sent to lower security gaol ( 2009, 139 ) . The ground for this could be related to the prison environment and the mental experience of the inmates. Harmonizing to Chen and Shapiro, inmates in lower security prisons are offered significantly more freedom of motion and chances to reach with other captives and the outside universe ( 2007, 7 ) . In this instance, Camp and Gaes argued, the major consequence is that inmates in harsher prisons tend to stamp down the misconduct in the period of imprisonment and show them after release when they have fewer restrictions and richer mark environment ( 2009, 155 ) . Taking history of equal influence, which includes meeting wrongdoers and turning the experience of force, Chen and Shapiro concluded that higher security prison can non cut down the rate of recidivism, and many even increase it ( cited in by Camp and Gaes, 2007, 2 ) . In support of this, Camp and Gaes reexamined it and acquire the same consequence ( 2009, 155 ) . Therefore, sorting captives in the modern prison system is non an appropriate manner to discourage offense but perchance to advance the rate of re-offending.
Last, modern prison exerts barely any baleful force on felons. One of the primary ends of the prison reform is adding punishments to the prison system to heighten the minatory force. However, this end has non been achieved since the reform was committed. Henry examines the condemnable history of the captives in the United States in 1997 and found that 76 % countrywide inmates have old strong beliefs and 59 % of them have more than two strong beliefs ( 2003, Internet ) . Another survey done by NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research besides supported this decision. It reported that the non-aggravated felons who had been sentenced to prison hold more opportunities of re-offending than those who did non ( 2010, 6 ) .The possible ground for these unexpected consequences is that the endangering force of the prison is excessively weak to forestall wrongdoers from perpetrating offenses once more. Henry states that the greatest proportion of strong beliefs is related to irrational condemnable Acts of the Apostless like force and drug maltreatment, which are the consequence of personal jobs. Therefore, those inmates are non likely to be deterred by the modern prison because they tend to disregard the possible cost of sentences to prison ( 2003, Internet ) . This is agreed with the survey finished by NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, who concludes that consistent with old surveies, the consequences illustrate that the incapacitation consequence which means the impact of the action of physically taking the inmates from the society to cut down offense is far beyond the deterrent consequence ( 2010.1-6 ) . Therefore, the intent of prison reform is failed to be achieved because it is been shown that the endangering force of modern prison is excessively weak to forestall the offense and recidivism.
In decision, although the modern prison system is widely used around the universe, some major jobs still exist. One of those is that unequal readying for the life after release may take to the increasing of re-offending. Furthermore, different degrees of security division could do the higher security inmates suppress their misbehaviours until their release could raise the opportunity of recidivism as the same consequence of the decrease in endangering force. Therefore, sing the facts which are shown above, it could be argued that the modern prison is non an effectual signifier of offense hindrance.