Distinctive sociological forms, peculiarly expression for American dream, strong accent on pecuniary success and weak accent on legitimate agencies of accomplishing success are the implicit in factors behind high offense rate in America ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) . On the other manus, Westernization, decreased societal unity, the impression of acquiring rich being glorious and modernisation at disbursal of communalism are factors straight attributed to increasing offense rate in China ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) .
Factors that Have Led to Increased Crime in China
One of the factors taking to increased offense rate in China is Modernization capitalist economic system. While economic and technological modernisation are the supreme political relations of the new epoch in China, reforms in political orientation, organisation, work methods and systems are seen as indispensable to conveying political superstructure into alliance with quickly turning forces of production. Modernization is responsible for huge altering societal and economic systems in China. It has brought so much hope and enthusiasm in China ‘s economic development in the Fieldss of agribusiness, scientific discipline and engineering, national defence and industry in China ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) .
Another factor is China ‘s communist political system. For many old ages, China has been governed by alone peasant socialism, a system which has been faced by a dramatic contradiction of reform epoch for the last three decennaries. China has experienced go oning societal and economic reforms which have embraced a communist political system that insists on attachment to both the bing political system every bit good as to uninterrupted economic reform. Consequently, a legal dualism exists in China, whereby public jurisprudence devaluing China ‘s condemnable procedure slowdowns behind private jurisprudence ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) .
Introduction of western values in China can non be ignored for increased offense rates. In the old Chinese society, Chinese traditions determined people ‘s behaviour. There was fleet penalty on those who failed to conform to traditions ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) . However, China ‘s societal equilibrium has been disturbed by debut of western civilization that has rendered the old regulations ineffective. This has resulted to conflict between the jurisprudence and ethical motives, whereby offense is viewed as a practical manner of doing a existent life and a positive reaction to societal disorganisation ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) .
Western civilization that has taken over China insists on philistinism instead than socialism. Chinese now believe that acquiring rich is glorious and have resolved to utilize offense to acquire material wealth ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) .
Main Types of Crime in China
Crimes experienced in China are chiefly bribery and corruptness, belongings offenses, violent offenses and white neckband offenses which are offenses committed by respectable and high societal position people like the politicians ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) .
Anomie and Strain theory
Increasing degrees of offense in China can be explained by amonie and strain theory developed by Messner and Rosenfeld ( 2007 ) . The theory is normally referred to as the “ American Dream ” . It entails committedness to stuff success, which should be pursued by all people, in a mass society dominated by immense transnational corporations. Anomie theory emphasizes on seeking the most efficient manner to accomplish economic success. Crime has been viewed as the most efficient manner to accomplish economic success, while beliefs, values, and committednesss are insouciant variables which can be ignored ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
Strain theory on the other manus assumes unvarying economic aspirations across societal category. It perceives offense to be more rampant among people of lower categories who unluckily have really few legitimate chances for accomplishment, more vulnerable to cultural and societal force per unit area and will draw a bead on to keep their unrealized economic aspirations despite their defeats or failure. Most of them turn to offense ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
Crime Control Measures in China
In China, jurisprudence is viewed as flexible, mutable and secondary to jointly keep cardinal moral rules. It is the last resort when a felon can no longer be cured by moral logical thinking or as last line of defence for the society when a individual has committed flagitious offense against community. Chinese authorities controls offense with formal jurisprudence enforcement and informal societal control mechanisms. This involves modernized, effectual condemnable justness system and several community bar organisations at grass-root degree ( Zhang and Messenr, 2001 ) .
Crime in United States
The American Dream
High suites offense, gun and homicide offense are a normal by merchandise of U.S. societal establishments and cultural beliefs. They contend that cultural ethos embodied in American dream thrusts high rates of serious, white collar offenses and matching punitory societal response. The nature of the American dream strains and supports the happening of high offense degrees through its accent on accomplishment, universalism, individuality, and fetichism of money ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to the outstanding American dream, money is everything. Monetary success has been emphasized as an built-in step of person ‘s success. This motivates the Americans to utilize any available methods in endeavoring for single stuff success, including offense. Despite the fact that there are other values besides pecuniary success that besides compete for attending and proof of the Americans, it is obviously clear that the construction of American civilization favours domination of pecuniary success. With such values, weak societal controls, broad spread of anomy and finally high condemnable instances are inevitable because terminals do non warrant the agencies ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
Capitalism and chase of American dream are the root cause of offense in America. This is chiefly because the establishments which create free market, economic system, instruction, faith and household in the American society deficiency balance. The mercenary component of the American dream emphasizes on pecuniary success and accomplishments ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
The nature of American dream and institutional laterality in America are reciprocally back uping and reenforcing towards an amonie environment. Major fraud instances and concern corruptness instances pop up often. American non economic ends, places and functions are devaluated comparative to the terminals and agencies of economic activity ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
Modern Nation and Anomie Theories
Addition in offense rate in America can be explained by modern state and anomie theories, which put more accent on stuff prosperity regardless of the method used to achieve such wealth. This is in chase of the American dream ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
Crime Control Based on Incarceration
U.S. uses the jurisprudence to penalize wrongdoers. They have a well defines modern condemnable justness system to cover with felons. However, captivity method of offense control has non lead to reduced offense rate. US have the highest documented captivity rate every bit good as the largest figure of documented prison and gaol population in the universe, but offense rate is still high ( Messner and Rosenfeld, 2007 ) .
This research has revealed some similarities in nature of factors that have led to increased offense rates in America and in China. It is obviously clear that both the American dream in America and the Westernization in China are responsible for increasing offense degrees in the two states. These two factors, as explained by amonie theory promote material success at the disbursal of society norms and values.
However, although Americans have good defined methods of commanding offense such as captivity and modernized, effectual condemnable justness system, their opposite numbers in China chiefly emphasizes on informal societal offense control at grass-root instead than the western sense of jurisprudence.