Research has shown that modern work forces feel as if they have lost their function in society and are being dominated by adult female in today ‘s universe. Most work forces would prefer to be the exclusive breadwinners in the household and if that function is n’t fulfilled by them, it may experience as if they are being emasculated by the adult females in their life. In the fresh Tender is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald, which was published in the 1930s, we are shown a glance of a adult male who is traveling through the same battle as modern work forces today. The primary focal point in the novel is the reversal of the patriarchate and how the adult females in the novel assume the masculine function doing the devastation in one adult male ‘s life. This can be clearly seen through the two chief supporters, Dick and Nicole Diver, as their matrimony crumbles as Dick loses himself and his “ manfulness ” .

The fresh starts of presenting a strong immature adult female, Rosemary Hoyt, who is illustrated as a “ new adult female ” – a cultural figure emerging into independency. She is merely turning 18 in the beginning of the novel and can already back up herself financially due to her turning success as an actress. Rosemary was brought up to depend on herself to accomplish illustriousness. Her female parent, Elsie Speers, said “ You were brought up to work – non particularly to get married. Now you ‘ve found your first nut to cleft and it ‘s a good nut – travel in front and set whatever happens down to see. Injure yourself or him – whatever happens it ca n’t botch you because economically you ‘re a male child, non a miss. ” ( p. 40 ) . Rosemary was brought up from a immature age to hold “ male traits ” . Dick on the other manus, who is in his 30 ‘s is striving financially and can non back up his household without the aid of his married woman. He is surrounded by financially powerful adult female and feels that he is n’t a adult male when compared to their fiscal state of affairss. It could be said that Rosemary and her female parent, Elsie Speers, were destructive forces in respects to Dick Divers life. He was tormented by the thought that he is financially “ a miss ” .

Elsie Speers was a really influential individual in Rosemary ‘s life. Rosemary looked up to her female parent for counsel. Elsie said to Dick, “ There was nil I could hold done. She was in love with you before I of all time saw you. I told her to travel in front. ” ( p. 163 ) . The first portion of this quotation mark is a prevarication. Elsie had adequate power as a female parent to halt her girl from seeing this adult male, any advice she would hold given her girl, she would hold listened. Elsie used Dick, he was expendable to her. “ She had non even allowed the possibility of Rosemary ‘s being damaged – or was she certain that she could n’t be? ” ( p. 163 ) Fitzgerald recognizes the adult female ‘s capacity to destruct in this transition. Elsie uses Dick as one could state work forces use adult females.

Nicole, Dick ‘s married woman from the really beginning was attracted to Dick because he was n’t like most work forces. When she foremost saw him he was in his military uniform but he had a “ feminine difference that distinguished him from the ordinary work forces who have paid testimonial to her beauty. ” ( Nowlin, p.68 ) . “ I thought when I saw you in your uniform you were so handsomeaˆ¦ you seem quieter than the others, all soft like a large cat. I have merely gotten to wish male childs who are pantywaists. Are you a pantywaist? ” ( p. 121 ) Dick was being emasculated from the really beginning of his relationship with Nicole. He was n’t viewed by her like a adult male should be viewed by a adult female: strong and protective but was viewed as quiet and soft and compared to a cat. That was merely the beginning of Dick ‘s life of being emasculated by the adult females in his life.

Another adult female that has caused much devastation to Dick ‘s “ manfulness ” is Baby Warren, Nicole Diver ‘s sister. She regards most people as her inferiors, which does non except Dick. Baby stated her program to Dick which included “ purchasing ” a physician to take attention of Nicole for the remainder of her life. Dick believed this was a gag and split out with laughter but recognizing she was being serious was outraged by such a impression. “ Dick was all of a sudden appalled at her insouciant dismissal of his look of concern for the physician destined to carry through the corrupting function. ” ( p. 152-153 ) Dick understood that he was the physician in her program, and attempted to arise, but had no pick but to yield, he had fallen for Nicole and did non desire her to be handed over to some other physician. “ Dick found himself unwittingly engineered into taking the first major measure toward the harlotry of his endowments. ” ( McNicholas, p. 55 ) It was convenient that he was a physician and had fallen for Nicole who needed a physician to look after her. He was merely a portion of a program for Baby Warren and she did non conceal that fact. It appears that the adult females around him merely used him for their personal addition.

Baby Warren operates from wing pull stringsing Dick. He did non desire to be “ contaminated ” by the Warren 1000000s and insisted upon populating on his ain income and supplying for Nicole the best that he could without her money. “ Nicole begins to sabotage Dick ‘s baronial purposes by indicating out the unreasonableness of “ punishing ” themselves merely because there is more Warren money so Diver money. ” ( McNicholas, p. 56 ) Little by little the Warren money starts taking over their lives until their earlier little flat is replaced by a topographic point on the Riviera, even Dick starts registering as “ Mr. and Mrs. Diver alternatively of Dr. and Mrs. Diver ” . ( p. 159-61 ) His fiscal state of affairs reached a breakage point. “ He ab initio refuses to be compromised by sharing Nicole ‘s luck but can non decline to portion her life style, and so he goes bankrupt maintaining up with her. ” ( Bloom, p. 3 ) Baby succeeds in interrupting down her sister doing her recognize how unreasonable it is for them to populate in such conditions. His function as a breadwinner in the household was taken away by these two adult females.

Baby “ is non wholly comfy in her function as a adult female, though she seems really much at place in the kingdom of difficult, cold finance: in the sale of belongings and the investing of capital. ” ( McNicholas, p.56 ) She is about 30 and still has non found a adult male to settle down with. “ Baby had certain old maid features – she was foreign from touch, she started if she was touched all of a sudden, and lingering touches as busss and embracings slipped straight through the head of her consciousness ” . ( p. 171-172 ) . It can about be said that she does n’t move like adult females do around work forces. When Franz tried to acquire Dick to patronize a clinic she all of a sudden became interested even after Dick let travel of the thought. She realized that her sister would be in close propinquity to a clinic and she would worry less about her in those conditions. Dick said “ the determination concerns me, Baby. It ‘s nice of you to desire to purchase me a clinic. ” ( p. 176 ) “ If to be a adult male is to be the breadwinner, so Dick ‘s maleness was slighted by Baby ‘s offer. ” ( Joseph, p.69 ) It ‘s as if there are unexpressed words in between the lines of what Baby said. “ We own you, and you ‘ll acknowledge it sooner or subsequently. It is absurd to maintain up the pretence of independency. ” ( McNicholas, p.57 ) Wealth gave Baby entree to power and she knew how to utilize it to profit her. No affair how much Dick attempts to arise against the Warren money, he ever ends up losing the conflict against it.

One of Dick ‘s patients in his clinic was a adult female who refused to be feminized. “ She was non happy to be in a adult male ‘s universe and she emblemized the adult females of her clip who challenged work forces to conflict. ” ( p.184 ) She was one of those adult females who stood up for what she believed in and expressed herself and her sentiments. Dick on the other manus can non stand the manner that he lives in a “ adult female ‘s universe ” but he does non contend for what he believes in. If he would hold wanted to non be seen in a feminine manner than he should of done something against it and turn out that he is a strong, powerful, masculine adult male.

Near the terminal of the novel, Baby one time more had power over Dick and so did Rosemary. After Dick ‘s first and merely rendezvous with Rosemary she made him recognize that their relationship will travel nowhere and he is merely like any other adult male that she has been with. He was the 1 that wanted them to non merely be an matter but more than that. He leaned towards Rosemary because she used to do him experience more like a adult male but she ends up rejecting him. “ It occurred to him for the first clip that Rosemary had her manus on the lever more magisterially than he. “ ( McNicholas, p.62 ) She was ever in control of the relationship and had the power over it, but made him believe that he did. She merely left Dick to get by with the mayhem of what she created in his life. Hurt by rejection he ended up traveling out and acquiring rummy, acquiring into a battle with some cab drivers, and being thrown in gaol. Baby was called to come in on his behalf. She did everything in her power to seek to convert the Embassy to assist let go of Dick out of gaol. All her rage and verbal intimidation ended up paying off conveying her utmost satisfaction. “ It has been a difficult dark but now she had the satisfaction of feeling that, whatever Dick ‘s old record was, they now possessed a moral high quality over him for every bit long as he proved of any usage. ” ( p235 ) . Dick was one time a prominent and superb physician now everything he attempts to carry through fails and he needs to depend on the adult females to acquire him through his mundane life. Even though he does non desire to depend on them he has no other pick. “ His matrimony is falling apart, his love matter with Rosemary is over, his calling is stalled, and his wellness is threatened by alcohol addiction. ” ( Joseph, p. 78 ) Dick has wholly lost himself throughout the extent of the novel.

In one portion of the fresh Dick ends up delivering Mary North and Lady Caroline from gaol. They masqueraded as Gallic crewmans and went to pick up a twosome of immature misss. Not merely figuratively have the adult females reversed the functions of the patriarchate but literally every bit good. The adult females in the fresh become the breadwinners and these adult females even dressed up as work forces. The adult females in the novel are seen as strong adult females while the work forces are made to look weak. “ I have ne’er seen adult females like this kind of adult females. I have known many of the great concubines of the universe, and for them I have much regard frequently, but adult females like these adult females I have ne’er seen earlier. ” ( p. 306 ) Today ‘s adult females are strong and independent and it would n’t be a surprise to see adult females like this but during that clip period the adult females were non as independent.

Dick ‘s function with Nicole wholly slipped off from him ; he has become the dependent piece Nicole has become a strong independent adult female. At one point in the novel when Nicole, Dick and Tommy Barban were sitting together on a yacht she said “ I used to hold a nice active Polynesian ape and juggling him around for hours till people began to do the most blue unsmooth gags. ” She subconsciously is mentioning to Dick when speaking about the ape. She notices Dick ‘s ruddy turning face fungus and his ruddy eyes. Without recognizing it at this minute she views Dick as a adult male who was bought with the Warren money, merely like how her sister viewed him from the really beginning. He is the “ cardinal feminized male ” in the novel while Tommy Barban, who shadowed Dick throughout the novel, symbolizes the adult male that Dick wants to be. Tommy is everything that Dick is non and replaces him as Nicole ‘s lover, defender, and hubby. The novel was based on the reversal of the patriarchate and at the really end Tommy assumes the function of the primary male authorization figure.

In a manner this novel can be compared to The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka. Gregor Samsa was a going salesman who was seeking to supply for his household. One forenoon he woke up happening himself transformed into a elephantine insect. After his transmutation his sister ended up holding to take attention of the household by taking up a occupation as a saleswoman. It hurts him cognizing that he does n’t hold the agencies to supply for them merely like Dick does n’t hold the money to be able to supply for his household like a adult male should. Grete, Gregor ‘s sister, ends up holding to take attention of her household financially, merely like Nicole financially takes attention of hers. Although they do non make it in the same mode, both adult females are breadwinners for the household doing the work forces in the household experience worthless. Gregor ca n’t stand non being able to supply for his household merely like Dick ca n’t stand it that he has to watch his married woman take attention of his household. The twenty-four hours that Dick decided on get marrieding Nicole and the twenty-four hours that Gregor was transformed were the yearss that everything changed for these two work forces. They stopped being “ existent work forces ” in the family.

At the terminal of the novel as Dick says adieu to the Riviera “ he embraces all the adult females, get downing and stoping with Nicole, who helped to pave the manner for his relentless diminution into limbo. ” ( McNicholas, p. 68 ) Nicole survives the secret plan, and tickers from a distance Dick ‘s decomposition. She starts out fresh with a new adult male while Dick ne’er truly settles down and becomes the adult male that he wanted to be. The novel exposed how gender affected the lives of the characters. Men need to experience wanted and powerful by the adult females in their life or they will lose themselves and their “ manfulness ” and seek to contend to recover it back.