Colonization is a theory explicating why some groups of human existences exploit others. The fresh Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe depicts the act of colonisation of the Ibo people of Nigeria by the English during the late 19th century. This narrative is about a powerful leader named Okonkwo populating in an Ibo small town located in Nigeria, Africa. He leads a all right life until he found himself and his small town being intruded on by English work forces. These English work forces tried to take control of the Ibo people and imposed their values upon them ; this is colonisation. The colonisation of Nigeria is inherently racist, harmonizing to the illustrations given in Chinua Achebe ‘s book Things Fall Apart. Three characters, Mr. Brown, Reverend James Smith, and the District Commander, will be used as illustrations in support of this claim.
Racism is the belief in which certain groups of people are considered superior ( or inferior ) because of their tegument colour. One illustration of racism is the Ibo peoples ‘ narratives of the British work forces. These narratives mock the white tegument the English work forces have – the Ibo villagers call them lazars and albinos. ( Achebe, 138-139 and 74 ) In this illustration the Ibo people believe they are superior. In other instances, it was the English who thought they were superior and idea of the Ibo people as barbarian, utilizing words like “ crude ” when depicting them. ( Achebe 209 ) Exploitation of a group of people is a chief portion in the procedure of colonisation.
The first illustration is of Mr. Brown who shows how “ othering ” contributes to colonisation. Mr. Brown, an English Christian sermonizer, has a paternalistic position of the Ibo people and feels he was sent at that place by God to assist them. He dismissed the Ibo peoples foolish beliefs in many Gods, and told them his God is the lone God. “ There are no other Gods, ‘ said Mr. Brown. ‘Chukwu is the lone God and all others are false ” ( Achebe 179 ) . Mr. Brown uses Christianity to set up claims of high quality through medical specialty and instruction. Though racism is non obvious in his words, he still demonstrates racism because he is stating the Ibo people the white adult male ‘s manner is superior.
Reverend James Smith took the topographic point of Mr. Brown ( after Mr. Brown left Africa for wellness grounds ) . Even though Reverend Smith besides wanted to change over the Ibo people to Christianity, he did it otherwise than Mr. Brown.
He condemned openly Mr. Brown ‘s policy of via media and adjustment. He saw things as black and white. And black was evil ( Achebe 184 ) .
Reverend Smith clearly implies white is good and evidently superior, nevertheless he tries a kinder attack in carrying the Ibo people to idolize the right God unlike Mr. Brown. The fact that he saw the universe as black and white, and black being evil shows how profoundly frozen racism is when it comes to colonisation. Not merely were the English work forces ‘s sentiments racist, but besides they used spiritual metaphors that were embedded with racism. “ He saw the universe as a battleground in which the kids of visible radiation were locked in moral struggle with the boies of darkness ” ( Achebe 184 ) . The kids of light represent white skinned kids ( because visible radiation is frequently thought of as the colour white ) and the boies of darkness represent black skinned male childs ( because darkness is frequently thought of as the colour black ) . This is a clear representation of the racism impressed on the Ibo people during colonisation.
The 3rd illustration is the District Commissioner. The District commissioner is an English adult male who is a low-level authorities decision maker. The District Commissioner is besides an recreational anthropologist ; his part to “ othering ” is that how he saw the Ibo people as objects of survey. “ Colonial authoritiess discriminated against the employment of Africans in senior classs ; and, whenever it happened that a white and black filled the same station, the white adult male was certain to be paid well more. this was true at all degrees, runing from civil service stations to mine workers. ( Rodney 151 ) . He fancied himself an expert on the Ibo people ‘s imposts and intended to compose a book on them.
As he walked back to the tribunal he thought about that book. Everyday brought him some new stuff. The narrative of this adult male who had killed a courier and hanged himself would do interesting reading. One could about compose a whole chapter on him. Possibly non a whole chapter but a sensible paragraph, at any rate. ( Achebe 208-209 )
The fact that The District commissioner said he could about compose a chapter, or at least a paragraph, on Okonkwo ‘s life is really deprecating. It besides shows how small he values the lives of any colored people, like the Ibo. This is grounds of “ othering ” every bit good as implied racism. Another illustration of the District Commissioner ‘s “ othering ” is the rubric he decided to give his book about the Ibo people: ‘The Pacification of the Primitive Tribes of the Lower Niger ‘ ( Achebe 209 ) . The cardinal word is “ crude ” . He evidently considers the Ibo people to be barbarian which, once more, connects to racism because anything other than the colour white ( for tegument ) is evil and crude.
In order to colonise, a group of people must hold more advantages than those they are colonising. Jared Diamond, a bookman, exhausted old ages analyzing colonisation and ended up printing a book on it titled “ Guns, Germs, and Steel ” which was subsequently made into a series of movies. Diamond has spent his life developing his theory for how people have been able to colonise throughout the old ages and have advantages over those whom they are colonising. He believes that it is all about geographics. It all depends on where an single lives, what stuffs are accessible in that part, and the potency for constructing unsusceptibility to disease. In England there is a colder clime, which required more tools to make shelter and defence. Besides, because of the cold clime, harvests grown would decease earlier, intending the English had to trust on hunting and fishing for nutrient. This led to the domestication of animate beings. By populating in closer propinquity to animate beings, this increased their opportunities for unsusceptibility to disease. In Nigeria, Africa there is about a twelvemonth unit of ammunition warm clime, which made it easier for the Ibo to obtain nutrient for themselves ( this chiefly consisted of yams ) and gave them more clip to pass on edifice shelters. Besides tools were created chiefly for harvests instead than runing wild game. Weaponry was besides non needed much because of a feeling of safety among the villagers. Based on Jared Diamond ‘s theory, the difference between the Ibo people and English work forces is all about geographics, non skin colour.
The illustrations utilizing three characters of: Mr. Brown, Reverend James Smith, and The District Commissioner are grounds of racism in Achebe ‘s description of colonisation. As Diamond ‘s theory shows, there is no ground for one race to be considered superior to another. Exploitation of a group of people is a chief portion of the procedure of colonisation. This is unethical behaviour. Trade is a respectable and ethical manner for two civilizations to come together and interchange goods and natural stuffs. The rubric of Achebe ‘s novel, Things Fall Apart, illustrates the injury caused by colonisation and racism.
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York, NY: Random House Incorporated, 1994. 209. Print.
Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Great Britain: London and Tanzanian Publishing House, 1981. 312. Print.
Guns, Germs, and Steel. Tim Lambert. Lions Television ( PBS and National Geographic ) , 2005. Video.
* Angelou, Maya, Poems, “ Africa. ” New York: New york: Random House Incorporated, 1973.