Quantitative and Qualitative Dichotomy

Research can be described as a systematic probe intended to roll up, analyze, and construe informations. However, the exact definition of research is influenced by the researcher’s ain theoretical model and how he or she chooses to set about the enquiry ( Palys, 2008 ) . All research workers have their ain research paradigm, which refers to a set of beliefs and feelings about the universe and how it should be explored and studied. Research paradigms normally fall into three classs: quantitative ( positivism/post-positivism ) , qualitative ( constructionist ) , and assorted methods ( matter-of-fact ) ( Gelo, 2008 ) . Quantitative and qualitative paradigms are frequently viewed as oppositional and this has generated immense methodological arguments as to which of the two paradigms is right ( Mahoney, 2006 ) . Some research workers argue that merely the quantitative method is “real science” . Others argue that the quantitative method can non possible survey complex human nature, and therefore the qualitative method is the most of import ( Yilmaz, 2013 ) . Hence, the assorted research method was introduced, as this incorporates elements of both the quantitative and the qualitative methods. Unfortunately, some research workers have become accustomed to utilizing one of the methods and are loath to traverse the paradigmatic boundaries ( Onwuegbuzie, 2005 ) . This paper analyzes facets of Bonta & A ; Gendreau and Roberts and Jackson’s several articles, with the end of seeing the grade to which they follow the traditional paradigms and their dispositions towards going “pragmatic” research workers as defined by Onwuegbuzie and Leech ( 2005 ) .

Historically, quantitative research dominated the first portion of the twentieth century. The roots of quantitative research prevarication with empiricist philosophy, which relies on discernible facts ( Gelo, 2008 ) . Quantitative research methods are based on systematic relationships and information supported by Numberss and statistics. Therefore, the ensuing informations is chiefly numerical. It is the dominant attack in research as it is concise, accurate and the consequences can be replicated. In this research method, the involvement is on the Numberss themselves and what they can intend ( Mahoney, 2006 ) . This is why quantitative research requires a big measure of informations in order to happen tendencies and be able to generalise the findings to the whole population. Unlike qualitative research methods, quantitative research methods use the ‘scientific method’ to systemically get information about behavior and other phenomena ( Gelo, 2008 ) . This method begins with specifying a hypothesis to be answered, and so making a manner of mensurating or turn outing the hypothesis. After making a program to carry on research and taking a sample, the retrieved information is so analyzed and interpreted ( Mahoney, 2006 ) . One of the cardinal rules of quantitative research is objectiveness ; research workers try to extinguish as much prejudice as possible by commanding any variable that could impact the consequences. Chiefly due to its prognostic value, quantitative research is a effectual method of carry oning research ( Yilmaz, 2013 ) .

While, the quantitative method allows research workers to understand what a phenomenon is, it did really small to explicate why it occurred. This led to a new methodological analysis called the qualitative attack that aims to place who, when and why of certain phenomena ( Gelo, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to this paradigm, research workers can seek to do sense of the universe through interactions with others and keeping a subjective point of view. Whereas, quantitative research refers to counts and steps of things, qualitative research refers to the significances, constructs, and descriptions of things ( Mahoney, 2006 ) . The chief end of qualitative research is to bring out the deeper significance and significance of human behavior and experience, including contradictory beliefs, and emotions. Research workers are interested in deriving a rich and complex apprehension of people’s experiences and are non concerned about whether or non the information can be generalized to larger groups. Qualitative research is much more subjective than quantitative research and uses really different methods of roll uping information ( Gelo, 2008 ) . Qualitative research workers do non establish their research on pre-determined hypotheses and so the nature of this type of research is explorative and open-ended. As a consequence, this type of research frequently involves a smaller figure of participants. Therefore, the range is sometimes excessively narrow and observations might affect a high grade of reading. Though a qualitative attack is less structured than a quantitative attack, unexpected consequences and penetrations can happen from this research ( Yilmaz, 2013 ) .

Assorted methods research, in contrast, uses quantitative and qualitative research methods, either at the same time or consecutive, to understand a phenomenon ( Bryman, 2007 ) . Assorted research uses both deductive and inductive methods, and takes a balanced attack to research. As mentioned by Onwuegbuzie & A ; Leech ( 2005 ) in their article, the matter-of-fact attack to science should utilize the method which appears best suited to the research job and non acquire caught up in philosophical arguments about which is the best attack. They specifically said, “Mono-method research is the biggest menace to the promotion of the societal sciences” ( Onwuegbuzie, 2005, p.375 ) . Therefore, matter-of-fact research workers appreciate the value of both quantitative and qualitative worldviews, and utilize a combination of the two, in order to develop a more elaborate description of phenomena and fill in the spreads left by the usage of one research method ( Mahoney, 2006 ) . For illustration, a research worker might get down with a face-to-face interview ( a qualitative informations aggregation attack ) and so utilize the findings to make a questionnaire or study ( a quantitative informations aggregation attack ) ( Bryman, 2007 ) . Using a assorted methods attack, matter-of-fact research workers are able to make stronger illations and decisions than a individual method or worldview would let ( Gelo, 2008 ) .

In James Bonta and Paul Gendreau’s ( 1990 ) article, “Reexamining the Cruel and Unusual Punishment of Prison Life” , they discuss the assorted effects of prison on inmates. Throughout the article, the writers emphasize the importance of utilizing quantitative research methods over qualitative research methods. They specifically mentioned that a survey “was required to use nonsubjective steps. . . by agencies of statistical test” ( Bonta, 1990, p.349 ) .Their article was chiefly based on big measures of informations and experiments done in order to happen tendencies in information. The writers classified the constituents of prison life into variables and used meta-analytic techniques in order to prove the information for statistical significance. For illustration, they viewed imprisonment as an independent variable and the observations of the inmates as dependent variables ( Bonta, 1990 ) . Undeniably, one can see that the Bonta and Gendreau ( 1990 ) position scientific discipline as nil more than a tool to derive nonsubjective “cold, difficult facts” that embody the rules of quantitative research. In their eyes, qualitative methods have no topographic point in measuring the facts of prison life.

In Roberts and Jackson’s article, “Boats Against the Current: A Note on the Effectss of Imprisonment” , they critique Bonta and Gendreau’s ( 1990 ) article. They reject the decisions brought Forth by Bonta and Gendreau ( 1990 ) and alternatively claim that societal scientific discipline research can non perchance depict the effects of imprisonment. They said that, “the experience of captivity might non be adequately captured by the usual societal scientific discipline dependent variables” ( Roberts, 1991, p.557 ) .In other words, the quantitative research methods used by Bonta and Gendreau ( 1990 ) can non do decisions about centuries of human experiences. The writers own research methods are chiefly qualitative as they take a more subjective attack to detecting the effects of captivity. They closely examined the lives of inmates, and tried to understand the negative effects of captivity on society and the inmate’s public assistance ( Roberts, 1991 ) . Furthermore, Roberts and Jackson ( 1991 ) believe in acquiring close to inmates to understand the significance of captivity on their lives and non merely the statistical informations. For them, a qualitative attack is the lone research method that genuinely reflects the lives of inmates.

The writers of the above articles are in strong resistance in respect to their several research methods. Bonta and Gendreau ( 1990 ) follow a quantitative attack to research, while Roberts and Jacksons ( 1991 ) steadfastly believe in a qualitative attack. In mention to Onwuegbuzie & A ; Leech’s ( 2005 ) definition of a matter-of-fact research worker, the writers show no disposition of abandoning their personal research positions. For illustration, in “Boats Against the Current: A Rebuttal” by Gendreau and Bonta ( 1991 ) , they specifically province that Roberts and Jackson’s ( 1991 ) statements are “political, partial, relative” and “socially constructed” ( p. 563 ) . Furthermore, they comment that Roberts and Jackson’s ( 1991 ) information is acquired “according to its personal value” , while theirs follow the regulations of “rational empiricist philosophy and its methodological requirements” ( Gendreau, 1991 ) . However, Gendreau and Bonta ( 1991 ) do reference that qualitative methods have some value and hold even found consistent consequences utilizing this method. In resistance, Roberts and Jackson ( 1991 ) argue about the relevancy of empirical research in detecting the effects of imprisonment. They said that Bonta and Gendreau ( 1990 ) , “seriously exaggerate what their sort of empirical research can state us” and in fact their research is “irrelevant to the real-life experience of prisoners” ( Roberts, 1991, p.560-561 ) .

Bonta, Gendreau, Roberts and Jackson are all members of the societal scientific discipline community, but in respect to their articles and several research positions, they are far from going the matter-of-fact research workers discussed by Onwuegbuzie and Leech ( 2005 ) . The job is that quantitative and qualitative research methods are seen as unreconcilable due to their different implicit in doctrines. Nevertheless, all research workers would acquire a richer apprehension by utilizing all informations beginnings and methods of analysis, instead than utilizing merely one ( Bryman, 2007 ) . Like ships that pass in the dark, these research workers are loath to alter their traditional paradigms despite the benefits of a mixed-methods attack.

Mentions

Bonta, J. , & A ; Gendreau, P. ( 1990 ) . Reviewing The Cruel And Unusual Punishment Of Prison Life. Law and Human Behavior, 347-372. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/stable/1394298? seq=1 # page_scan_tab_contents

Bryman, A. ( 2007 ) . Barriers To Integrating Quantitative And Qualitative Research.Journal of Mixed Methods Research,8-22. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //mmr.sagepub.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/content/1/1/8.full.pdf hypertext markup language

Gelo, O. , Braakmann, D. , & A ; Benetka, G. ( 2008 ) . Quantitative And Qualitative Research: Beyond The Debate.Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science,266-290. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //link.springer.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/article/10.1007/s12124-008-9078-3

Gendreau, P. , & A ; Bonta, J. ( 1991 ) . Boats against the current: A rebuttal.Law and Human Behavior,563-565. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/stable/1393959? seq=1 # page_scan_tab_contents

Mahoney, J. ( 2006 ) . A Narrative Of Two Cultures: Contrasting Quantitative And Qualitative Research.Political Analysis,227-249. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/stable/25791851? seq=1 # page_scan_tab_contents

Onwuegbuzie, A. , & A ; Leech, N. ( 2005 ) . On Becoming A Matter-of-fact Research worker: The Importance Of Combining Quantitative And Qualitative Research Methodologies.International Journal of Social Research Methodology,375-387. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tandfonline.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/doi/abs/10.1080/13645570500402447 # .VNKWoi7DrJI

Palys, T. , & A ; Atchison, C. ( 2008 ) .Research determinations: Quantitative and qualitative positions( 4th ed. ) . Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Roberts, J. , & A ; Jackson, M. ( 1991 ) . Boats Against The Current: A Note On The Effectss Of Imprisonment.Law and Human Behavior,557-562. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/science/article/pii/104061909190015L

Yilmaz, K. ( 2013 ) . Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemic, theoretical, and methodological differences.European Journal of Education,311-325. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from hypertext transfer protocol: //onlinelibrary.wiley.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/doi/10.1111/ejed.12014/abstract