Spain boasts a really stable economic clime, doing belongings investing an first-class option for those seeking a dependable return on investing in a location non excessively far from place.

The undermentioned economic factors make Spanish belongings a good option:

Many investors have lost assurance in the Stock Market. They are disillusioned with their ailing acting pension and nest eggs programs, PEPs and stock investings that continue to fall in value daily. Today, investors are seeking for alternate chances that can give a fulfilling return on their investing. Property offers well greater returns than any other signifier of investing.

Despite monetary value rises over the past 10 old ages, Spain still offers value for money and first-class returns. Today the belongings market remains floaty and there is small mark of alteration while the tourer industry supports this growing. Purchased in the right location, belongings remains the favorite signifier of investing.

As the 2nd most popular tourer finish in the universe, touristry figures in Spain continue to lift each twelvemonth. In 2005, it welcomed some 55.6 million tourers and the Spanish Ministry of Tourism predicts that by 2025, 3 million aliens will hold come to Spain to put up place, soprano the figures of today.

Property monetary values in many hotspot countries of Spain remain a good trade lower than those back place, leting people to afford a vacation or 2nd place, or so relocate to the state and retire early. Spain is besides the figure one finish ( harmonizing to Atlas International ) for immature investors who are priced out to the belongings ladder in their place states and usage Spain as an investing vehicle to raise financess for a future purchase.

Off-plan purchases are a popular investing option for those in the know. You can avoid the full cost of paying for the belongings by paying in installments and selling the belongings for a much higher monetary value prior to project completion. Huge net incomes continue to be made with astute off-plan investing.

The buy-to-let option in Spain is a extremely moneymaking one due to a thriving and of all time spread outing tourer industry. Get it right, and you could lease your belongings out for six months of the twelvemonth to cover costs every bit good as have it for your ain usage, free of charge, for the remainder of the twelvemonth.

Rising monetary values seem set to go on for the foreseeable hereafter ( in 2005 capital growing stood at mean 13.4 % ) , in both the popular coastal resorts every bit good as in easy accessible inland parts. Experts predict that monetary values will go on to lift, albeit at a slower gait than in recent old ages.

In the popular tourer parts of the Costa del Sol and Costa Blanca, monetary values remain comparatively high but, due to immense demand, they will keep their value and go on to steadily appreciate in value in the medium to long term.

Buying in Spain is a well-trodden way: there is plentifulness of expert, readily available advice on the topic and provided you use a good, independent attorney, your purchase should be trouble-free.

With the addition in budget air hoses and bundles to Spain, every bit good as on-line adjustment engagements, A belongings in SpainA supports an of all time present need amongst tourers for an economical finish where monetary values remain lower than back place.

Spain offers investors a stable economic system and solid returns on investing within a safe belongings investing market. Spain is less hazardous than other emerging markets by virtuousness of a mature, stable and turning economic system that is already accustomed to foreign investing.

Financing a belongings purchase is readily available in Spain. It is a good established system and offers low involvement rates, which are attractive to belongings investors worldwide.

Quality of work and employment- Spain

After decennaries when high unemployment rates were the chief job of the Spanish labor market, nowadays the argument on quality of work in Spain is dominated by the inquiry of impermanent employment and how to cut down the inordinate proportion of fixed term contracts. These contracts are by and large related to deficient working conditions in all the considered spheres. Thus a figure of steps are being put in pattern as a consequence of a drawn-out procedure of understanding amongst societal spouses in order to set up a new balance between flexibleness and security in employment. Health and safety at work is another capable high on the docket, with a terrible rate of work accidents, in malice of betterments in bar systems. Besides work-life balance is deriving importance within the quality of work scene.

Introduction

This paper is intended to supply a national reappraisal of cardinal facets on the issue of quality of work and employment within the Spanish labor market, specifically on the undermentioned spheres, viz. :

Career and employment

Health and wellbeing

Skills development

Work-life balance

For this intent, the study is chiefly elaborated from a qualitative position, even though some figures from national and international beginnings are provided.

The importance of quality in work and employment

As it is already good known, Spain was characterised in the 1880ss and 1890ss by the presence of low employment rates combined with high unemployment. However, and since the late 1890ss onwards, the Spanish labor market has experienced a singular positive tendency. Merely to give some informations, the mean employment rate has passed from 49.5 % in 1997 to 61.1 % in 2004. Meanwhile, the mean Spanish unemployment rate has gone down from 18.0 % to 8.7 % in 2005.

Notwithstanding these impressive records, the Spanish labor market is still characterised by of import differences when gender considerations are taken into history, so that adult females are affected by a worse labour market state of affairs in comparing to their male opposite numbers. Therefore, and whereas employment rates amongst Spanish work forces are of 73.8 % ( information for 2004 ) , this per centum goes down to 48.3 % amongst adult females. Furthermore, 6.6 % of Spanish work forces were unemployed in 2005 in comparing to 11.6 % of adult females.

Having in head this model, the current Spanish labor market argument is still dominated by the precedence of employment creative activity ( although to a lesser extent than earlier ) . Just to give some intimations, theA Spanish National Reform ProgrammeA establishes as one of the major aims to make a 66 % employment rate in 2010 ( nevertheless lower than the Lisbon European aim ) . In this regard, the Programme suggests that the attainment of this aim will merely be possible with a considerable procedure of employment creative activity specially amongst adult females ( addition in the rate of adult females engagement so it may make 57 % in 2010 ) and immature people ( cut the youth unemployment rate to 18.6 % by 2010 ) .

However, and due besides to the intensive procedure of employment creative activity experienced by the Spanish labor market, public governments and societal agents are today paying an increasing attending to the issue of the ‘quality ‘ of the bing employment. In this sense, and within the Spanish context, the issue of ‘quality ‘ is normally focused on the really high presence of ( non-desired ) impermanent employment in the Spanish labor market ( 32.5 % of entire employment in comparing to the EU-25 norm of 13.7 % ) , where this job seem to impact specially a figure of concrete population sections ( adult females, immigrant workers, people in some sectors ) ( see study of theA Spanish Social and Economic Council ) .

Therefore, the current good state of affairs of the Spanish labor market has brought the issue of ‘quality ‘ really high on the policy docket ( due to the societal and economic costs of a high presence of impermanent employment ) . Therefore, societal agents are presently involved in an intensive procedure of dialogues in order to cover with this issue of temporariness in a comprehensive manner, Precisely, the chief Spanish societal spouses and the Government have signed in May 2006 anA Agreement for the Improvement of Growth and Employment, and based on the July 2004A Joint Declaration for the Social Dialogue. This Agreement has given manner to theA Royal Law Decree 5/2006 of 9th June, intended to lawfully develop this Agreement.

Basically, the Agreement is intended to better the ‘quality ‘ of the bing employment, and it contains a figure of policy steps chiefly intended to undertake the high presence of ( non-desired ) impermanent employment in the Spanish labor market ) . In this sense, the Agreement focuses its attending both on the support for the lasting hiring of people ( cut downing its comparative cost hiring ) , the encouragement for the transition of bing fixed term contracts into indefinite contracts and the restriction of the consecutive usage of fixed-term contracts.

Other Fieldss dealt with by this Agreement include a support of the Labour and Social Security Inspection and a strengthening of the efficiency of the bing active employment policies and the National Employment System ( both national and regional 1s ) , every bit good as the betterment of the protection of workers in the instance of unemployment.

Career and employment security

As it has already been stated in a old subdivision, in Spain the argument on the ‘quality ‘ of employment is presently centred on the high presence of impermanent employment amongst salaried labor, as this is by and large associated to hapless on the job conditions ( low rewards, bad on the job clip and work-family conciliation, lacking wellness and safety, calling chances etc. ) .

The Spanish ‘quality in employment ‘ treatment has traditionally lacked a consensus and a balance between the workers ‘ position ( security ) and the endeavors ‘ demands ( flexibleness ) . In this sense, the Spanish theoretical account of labour flexibleness in the last 20 old ages has been by and large characterised by the undermentioned traits:

Systematic usage of impermanent hiring of employees as the chief tool for accommodating endeavors ‘ staff demands, so the flexibleness theoretical account has been based on a broad array of impermanent hiring modes. Meanwhile, dismissal costs have remained comparatively high.

Strong usage of subcontracting and productive decentralization as a tool for take downing labor and production costs.

Limited function played by corporate bargaining for presenting elements of flexibleness within the internal direction of endeavors, fundamentally explained by the opposition coming from the chief trade brotherhoods.

Linked to the old point, the Spanish treatment on flexibleness has been chiefly a argument between the public governments and the societal agents ( legal ordinance ) more than a argument between societal agents themselves.

Lack of a planetary, systemic and long-run attack in the debut of legal reforms within the Spanish labor market. In this sense, the legal principal related to the labor market has experienced several reforms ( normally in periods of high unemployment perturbations ) , although most of them have merely been concentrated in new hiring figures that were normally modified in subsequent reforms.

As a consequence, the Spanish labor market has become someway double, with about a 3rd of the occupied population working on perfectly flexible footing ( with fixed term contracts and normally lacking working conditions ) , and two tierces ofA secureA workers ( with permanent contracts, high fire costs and much more influence over their on the job conditions ) .

Notwithstanding this, since end-nineties onwards it is possible to place a turning consensus amongst societal spouses themselves about the bounds of this theoretical account of labour flexibleness and somehow an credence of the inexplicit demand for a ‘trade-off ‘ between employment and legal security ( flexibleness and protection ) in order to further the employment creative activity procedure. In this sense, an increasing attending is being paid ( as in other European states ) to the construct of ‘flexicurity ‘ , understood as a signifier of via media between economic feasibleness and societal duty.

Therefore, a good illustration of is given by the antecedently described May 2006A Agreement for the Improvement of Growth and Employment. Besides, since 2002, the chief Employers ‘ Associations and Trade Unions have been able to annually hold on the alleged Inter-confederal Agreements for Corporate Bargaining. The last Agreement for 2006 is merely an extension of theA 2005 Inter-confederal Agreement for Collective Bargaining. These Agreements include a figure of recommendations for steering corporate bargaining procedures, where the most relevant 1s include, amongst others a comparative moderateness of pay additions, several orientations on employment and hiring patterns, uninterrupted preparation and security and wellness at work, emphasis at work and, interestingly, several orientations related with internal flexibleness in the work administration ( such as professional categorization, functional mobility or inducements to productiveness ) .

Health and good being

In Spain, the chief concern of societal agents ( and society in general ) on the issue of wellness and safety at work is chiefly related to the relentless high accident rates characterizing the Spanish economic system. In this sense, and despite all the experient proficient, organizational and legal alterations, the Spanish accident incidence rate in 2005 is practically similar to the rate experienced in 1996 ( around 6,011 and 6,191, severally ) , although recently it has experienced a downward tendency after an historic extremum in twelvemonth 2000 ( 7,558.4 ) . All in all, in Spain there were 890,872 accidents in 2005, out of which 935 were fatal. Looking at the hereafter, theA Spanish National Reform Programmesuggests cut downing the Spanish accident incidence rate in a 15 % up to twelvemonth 2010.

In add-on to this, information from the latestA V National Survey on Working ConditionsA of 2003 shows several of import consequences refering wellness and safety at work issues. Thus, and on the one manus, it is possible to place a support of the preventing activities carried out by endeavors on this field. Merely to give some informations, up to 90.5 % of Spanish endeavors declare in 2003 to hold some preventative resource for developing its activities ( bar services, bar delegates, preparation activities, etc ) , where this per centum is 15 per centum points higher than in 1999. Meanwhile, up to 90 % of the endeavors with more than 50 employees holding a bar delegate have besides a wellness and security commission. Interestingly, these bar activities have experienced a positive tendency in all the economic sectors. The blessing and execution of theLaw 31/1995 for the Prevention of Risks at WorkA and theA Law 54/2003 for the Reform of the Legislative Framework for PreventionA are at the root of this positive thrust.

Notwithstanding these encouraging alterations, the Survey ‘s consequences besides show the outgrowth of new hazard factors. In this sense, it is possible to place an addition in both the working beat and in the degrees of required mental attending for put to deathing the undertakings, every bit good as a rise in the per centum of workers that go to the physician for work-related wellness jobs. In add-on to this, an rush in the ergonomic-related wellness jobs is identified, although endeavors are giving increasing preventative resources in this field.

The Survey besides shows the care of the per centum of workers proposing to be exposed to accident hazards ( around 74 % ) . Related to the antecedently discussed topic on occupation security, it is interesting to indicate out thar the mean profile of Spanish workers enduring an accident corresponds to forces hired on a impermanent footing for less than one twelvemonth in an endeavor with less than 50 employees.

Social agents and public governments have been involved in a fluid and fruitful duologue since ninetiess onwards, which has given manner to a figure of understandings in the field. Recent cardinal illustrations include, amongst others, the afore mentioned 2003 Reform Law, the support to a Spanish scheme of Health and Safety at Work ( in line with the European one and coordinated with the bing regional programs ) , the treatments for the reform of theA National Institute for Security and Health at Work, the increasing of resources for theA Foundation for the Prevention of Risks at Work, chiefly involved with SMEs, or the support of the Labour Inspection. Furthermore, the antecedently explained Inter-confederal Agreements for Corporate Bargaining are including a figure of orientations on security and wellness at work.

Skills development

In Spain there is a high grade of consensus amongst societal agents about the importance of human capital upgrading in the current competition model. Notwithstanding this, there is besides a comparative consensus on the presence of strong failings that characterise the Spanish general instruction system. Very briefly, these weak points are:

Equally far as the compulsory instruction system is concerned ( 6-16 old ages old ) , the chief jobs relate to the deficient degree of quality of the standard instruction ( particularly refering maths, reading abilities and foreign linguistic communications ) , every bit good as to the comparatively high per centum of school drop-out, at least in comparing to the chief European states.

Refering secondary instruction, the chief jobs refer besides to the comparatively high rate of school drop-out and the demand to increase the figure of pupils who finish vocational preparation surveies.

Finally, third instruction suffers from a comparatively low per centum of pupils that opt for scientific and technological surveies, at least in comparing to pupils following human scientific discipline surveies ( particularly amongst adult females ) .

Meanwhile, and every bit far as the field of life-long acquisition ( big engagement in instruction and preparation ) is concerned, the available informations show that Spain presently occupies a really backward place in the European context. Thus, and harmonizing to information fromA Eurostat, in Spain merely 25 % of those aged 25-64 old ages old participate in any sort of acquisition ( formal, non-formal, informal ) in 2003, in comparing to 42 % for the mean EU-25. Therefore, and holding in head this state of affairs, the chief end for both the Government and societal agents is to duplicate the per centum of the grownup population take parting in instruction and preparation in twelvemonth 2010 ( Spanish National Reform Programme ) . In any instance, it is deserving besides emphasizing that the current Spanish state of affairs is much better than a decennary before.

In this regard, Spanish societal agents have got a long-standing tradition of co-operation in the life-long acquisition sphere since early 1890ss. In this sense, and merely to give a really recent illustration, societal spouses have signed in February 2006 theA IV National Agreement on Learning, proposed to last until 2010. This Agreement is intended to further the bing Spanish theoretical account of life-long acquisition, already in pattern in the last 13 old ages, transforming it into a demand led theoretical accounts, supplying more resources and bettering the efficiency of the provided services, enlarging at the same clip the preparation supply. Specifically, the Agreement besides includes a specificA Agreement on Vocational Learning for Employment, which establishes the integrating of the go oning ( for employed ) and occupational ( for unemployed ) developing systems, every bit good as an cosmopolitan entree with particular attending to some disadvantaged population sections ( SME employees, adult females, low-qualified people, disabled, workers affected by restructuring procedures, etc ) , with a well-distributed balance between resources allocated to use and unemployed people.

From a operational position, all the bing Spanish public Vocational Education policies ( including life-long learning issues ) are implemented and co-ordinated by the so-calledA Tripartite Foundation for the Training in Employment, composed by representatives of the Spanish Government ( fundamentally through theA Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs ) , chief Spanish trade brotherhoods ( CCOOA andA UGT ) and employers ‘ association ( CEOEA andA CEPYME ) . The Foundation ‘s activities are funded both by the resources collected by the Social Security system via the Vocational Education Quota and by the European Social Fund. In 2005, more than 900,000 people did profit from the support of these activities.

Work life balance

Work and household life conciliation is progressively going a ‘hot issue ‘ in the Spanish societal docket, particularly within the wider argument of how to increase employment rates ( peculiarly amongst adult females ) . However, the current state of affairs is far from being to the full satisfactory. Therefore, and harmonizing to aA Woman Institute ‘s study titled ‘Work and Family Conciliation: Current Situation, Needs and Demands ‘ , up to 46 % of the Spanish population between 16 and 65 old ages old suggest that this conciliation is really complicated, where this per centum is peculiarly high amongst adult females ( 51.0 % ) and particularly amongst adult females in employment ( 55.0 % ) .

In this sense, and harmonizing to this study, it is possible to place two chief barriers for an effectual conciliation in Spain, this is,

The bing societal construction implies a relentless gender division of work, so Spanish adult females do dual work both at work and at place more than their work forces opposite numbers. Just to give some informations, Spanish working adult females devote an norm of 3:29 hours per twenty-four hours for domestic work, in comparing to the norm of 1:20 hours amongst working work forces ( informations fromA Eurostat ) . Furthermore, this job is aggravated by the fact that the presence of parttime working agreements is non really common in Spain, neither amongst adult females nor work forces.

From an endeavor position, the issue of work-family conciliation is normally regarded as a kind of ‘threat ‘ for labour public presentation. Thus, 41.3 % of endeavors suggest that the acceptance of any work-family steps may negatively impact fight. In any instance, some Spanish endeavors ( specially the larger and more of import 1s ) are following a figure of steps for accommodating work and household life ( beyond those laid down in statute law ) , where the most of import 1s refer to flexibleness in the times of get downing and completing work, free pick of displacements and interchanging displacements and flexible distribution of hours over clip.

In any instance, in the last two old ages a really intense societal argument around the issue of work-family conciliation is taking topographic point, particularly in connexion with the Spanish working times. In this sense, theA Ministry of Public Administration, in coaction withA Fundacion IndependienteA andA The International Centre of Work and Family-IESE, has published in 2005 the ‘White Book of the National Commission for the Rationalisation of Spanish Time Structure and its Standardization with the staying European Countries ‘ . This White Book shows some of the features of the Spanish clip construction and its perverse effects on equilibrating working and other Fieldss of life such as personal, household or societal life. In add-on to this, the book tries to supply a figure of recommendations in order to work out this state of affairs. The decisions of this White Book have been analysed and incorporated in public treatments between societal agents.

Notwithstanding this argument, it is deserving emphasizing that the Spanish trade brotherhoods and employers have still a different apprehension of work-life balance ( Eiro, 2006 ) . Therefore, the brotherhoods attempt to specify it as a harmonization of work, household and personal life that is capable to collective ordinance because it affects the whole work force, despite the great diverseness of state of affairss. Meanwhile, the employers tend to understand work-life balance as a personal, single inquiry because of the assortment of state of affairss and household loads. These two ways of understanding the issue represent an obstruction, for illustration, to make corporate bargaining understandings on this issue.

Meanwhile, and from a policy position, it is deserving emphasizing that the Spanish governments have developed in the last few old ages a figure of actions in the work-family life conciliation field. In this sense, the first more of import step is related to theA Law 39/1999 for the publicity of work and household life conciliation amongst working people, already implemented in 1999. Since so, the Spanish governments have developed a figure of extra activities, where the most of import 1s include theA IV Plan for the Equality between Men and Women 2003-2006, or the 2006A Concilia Plan in Public Administrations, intended to further work and household life amongst public employees. Interestingly besides, the Spanish authorities has late presented aA undertaking of Organic Law for the Equality of Women and MenA that still has to be discussed and approved in the Spanish Parliament, which includes a figure of steps in the work-family conciliation field. Some of these steps were besides presented in the Ministers ‘ Counsel Agreement of March 2005. In add-on to all these activities, it is besides deserving adverting the activities conducted by several regional governments.

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Corruptness

“ Empirical grounds shows us that you do non necessitate disposals full of employees with lasting contracts to cut down corruptness. For illustration, the two least corrupt states in 2008, Sweden and New Zealand, scrapped occupations for life for most public sector stations old ages ago, alternatively using the same labour Torahs as apply to any private sector job. “

Quality of authorities in EU parts

By Lewis Dijkstra

This short note summarises the chief findings of a survey on Quality of Government ( QoG ) and subnational fluctuation in the EU late concluded by the Gothenburg Quality of Government Institute in Sweden for DG REGIO. Quality of Government varies well between EU Member States Governance ( or quality of authorities ) as defined by the World Bank screens:

-The procedure by which authoritiess are selected, monitored and replaced, ( 2 ) the capacity of the authorities to efficaciously explicate and implement sound policies, and ( 3 ) the regard of citizens and the province for the establishments that govern economic and societal interactions among them. Quality of authorities has a significant impact on economic development and wellbeing. Low quality reduces the trust people have in public governments, misdirects public services and investings, increases the costs of public undertakings and private endeavor and reduces the willing of enterprisers and foreign direct investors to put up a new house. Low quality disproportionately affects the hapless, who depend more on public services and support. Corruptness can besides take to higher degrees of environmental pollution, by leting illegal dumping of toxic waste. Low quality besides reduces the impact of Coherence Policy. Bettering the quality of authorities is critical for the European Union. Currently, the possibility of a fall ining the Union incites states and part to better their quality of authorities, but one time inside advancement seems to decelerate down or halt. Many observers criticized the Union for allowing in Romania and Bulgaria before corruptness was sufficiently under control. The treatments about when Croatia can fall in the Union, every bit good as the other campaigners in the Western Balkan, centres on whether corruptness and offense are sufficiently under control. If the Union can non guarantee farther administration betterments once a state has joined, it may take to stricter standards for current campaigner states and as a effect likely besides longer holds for accession. A broad scope of administration and corruptness indexs ( World Bank, Freedom House, Transparency Internationalaˆ¦ ) show that several EU Member States suffer from hapless administration.

-This survey shows that four issues are relevant for the Europium:

1 ) Corruptness,

2 ) Rule of jurisprudence,

3 ) Government effectivity

4 ) Voice and answerability.

Based on these four dimensions, the survey identifies three distinguishable groups:

( 1 ) Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Austria, U.K.

and Ireland have a systematically high quality of authorities.

( 2 ) France, Spain, Belgium, Malta, Portugal, Cyprus, Estonia and Slovenia have a

moderate quality of authorities.

( 3 ) The Czech Republic, Lithuania, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Latvia, Greece, Italy,

and particularly Bulgaria and Romania have a lower quality of authorities. Short note 01/2011

Regio.c.3 ( 2011 ) 422425

Quality of authorities varies well within some EU Member States This survey conducted the largest study mensurating regional Quality of Government of all time. It interviewed 34 000 people in 18 states in 172 NUTS 1 or 2 parts. The 34 inquiries focused on three services, instruction, wellness attention and jurisprudence enforcement, which are frequently administered or financed by regional governments. Respondents were asked to rate these services with regard to their quality, nonpartisanship and degree of corruptness. This study showed that big differences between parts exist in Belgium, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Bulgaria, while in Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden, Poland, Slovakia and Austria differences between parts were undistinguished. Regional Quality of Government Index The national degree informations from the World Bank was combined with the regional information from the study to make a regional Quality of Government Index ( see map ) . As a complement, the survey did ten in-depth qualitative instance surveies: Bolzano and Campania ( Italy ) , Wallonie ( Belgium ) , Severozapadan ( Bulgaria ) , VastraGotaland ( Sweden ) , Pais Vasco ( Spain ) Norte ( Portugal ) , Nord Vest ( Romania ) , Jihozapad ( Czech Republic ) and Estonia.

Several wide factors play a important function in bring forthing higher degrees of QoG.

( 1 ) strong, independent media, which provides bottom-up force per unit area for higher QoG ;

( 2 ) sound ‘whistle-blowing ‘ protections for public employees ;

( 3 ) more merit-based hiring patterns, as opposed to personal contacts or clientellism ;

( 4 ) less bureaucratism and ‘red tape ‘ and more flexibleness in decision-making ;

( 5 ) more policy and administrative liberty for a part ;

( 6 ) surrounding another state ( with a higher QoG ) and ethno-linguistic diverseness.

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MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN SPAIN

1 ) The urbanisation procedure

Last decades the Spanish Economic Miracle has been based on the Construction Sector. In fact, the procedure of urbanisation has evolved above the population growing.

Although lodging supply increased, monetary values went up, because the Spanish were still purchasing thanks to the Bankss. The House becomes the certain investing. The outlook of leasing is non widespread in Spain, as in other European States.

Guilty:

Promoters

-Citizens

-Banks

-Politicians and Public Administration

2 ) Desertification

Desertification is LAND DEGRADATION IN ARID CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ( besides semiarid and dry ) as a consequence of climatic factors and human activities.

Desertification is, together with clime alteration and biodiversity loss, one of the three constituents of planetary alteration. Desertification leads to a loss of productiveness and economic biological, assisting to cut down the persistently dry land capacity to provide ecosystem services.

35 % of the surface of Spain is enduring a important hazard of desertification. The countries most affected are the Canary Islands and the sou’-east of the peninsula.

3 ) Energy Dependency

Spain has no important energy militias. To prolong its economic development

demands to purchase the most energy. This is a really dependent state.

Energy Dependency Rate ( Spain ) = 80 %

EDR ( Mean EU ) = 53 %

EDR ( United Kingdom ) = 15 %

EDR ( France ) = 40 %

EDR ( Portugal ) = 88 %

Because the High dependence on FOSSILFUELS: Spain has non these sort of militias.

Besides Nuclear Energy has non been supported plenty as a solution ( CURRENT DEBATE )

4 ) Spills

The PRESTIGE DISASTER occurred when a single-hulled oiler was injured on November 2002, loaded with 77,000 dozenss of oil off the seashore of GALICIA ( NW Spain ) , and after several daysof maneuvering to their distance from the Galician seashore, plunged over 250 kilometers of it.The oil spill ensuing from the discharge caused ONE OF THE LARGEST ENVIRONMENTALDISASTERS IN THE HISTORY OF NAVIGATION, both the measure of pollutants released as the extension of the affected country: from northern Portugal to the Landes de France. The episode had a particular impact in GALICIA, which besides caused a political crisis and a major public contention.

Other spills: ALONG THE Rivers

The AZNALCOLLAR DISASTER was an ecological catastrophe caused by a toxic waste shit near to the National Park of Donana in Andalusia ( Spain ) in 1998. A raft of heavy metal residues extremely fouling ( 8-hm A? ) , from a mine owned by a Swedish company located in the town of Aznalcollar. The mine broke two of its sides, let go ofing a batch of unstable really low pH ( high sourness ) .The spill came rapidly onto the Guadiamar, which flows into the Donana Natural Park and was stopped and diverted by dikes to make more rapidly to the Guadalquivir and the sea.

5 ) Wildfires

Over the past 10 old ages, the mean wildfire in our state has been about 20,000 hour angle a twelvemonth. Half of the forest fires in the European Union are recorded in Spain. Its burnt country exceeds the burnt country in other Mediterranean states ( Portugal, Italy, Greece and France ) .

Causes: Abandonment of rural-forest countries, heat moving ridges, type of flora, uncontrolled agricultural or forestry combustion.

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