The proposed undertaking is to be located in Konduga, In Bama Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria. The site comprises of two secret plans of land, Plot with surface country of 7, 531.67 square metres and secret plan ( B ) with a surface country of 43,152.60 square metres. The proposed engineered landfill site is situated about 50 kilometers North of the metropolis of Maiduguri in Borno State and about 50 kilometers South of the metropolis of Mubi in Adamawa Sate.

The proposed site is presently an undeveloped farm land and is surrounded by farm lands. There is a public entree route along the southern boundary of the belongings and a 2nd public entree route that separates the two secret plans at the western part of the belongings. There is no residential or commercial development within one kilometer radius of the belongings. The landfill is intended to have assorted risky wastes including asbestos waste and residue from thermic desorption. The risky waste will come from a thermic desorption unit, capable of handling oil taint drill cutting to a criterion that complies with and exceeds bing regulative requirement worldwide. The thermic desorption unit has a capacity to handle oil taint drill cutting. The procedure entails low-temperature thermic separation ( indirect warming ) of incoming stuff ensuing in the production of oil, H2O and pre-dried stuff ( which contains less than 1 % oil ) . Recovered oil is sent back to the clay makers for reuse. ( King 1975 ) . The proposed landfill will besides run a high temperature incinerator unit. Most risky wastes are presently stored or disposed of at unsuitably designed, stand in standard garbage dumps or keeping bays, and may pollute dirt and H2O in the country. For a bulk of risky wastes, the best manner means to understate their Impact on the environment is to incinerate them prior to the disposal, therefore destructing the toxic constituents present.

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Figure 1. Proposed Landfill site Beginning: Google map

Waste Categorization

The landfill will have chiefly waste/residue from Thermal Desorption Unit and High Temperature Incineration Unit. Other risky wastes such as batteries, asbestos, fluorescent tubings etc. will besides be disposed at the site. General ( domestic ) waste will non be disposed at the landfill.

Waste can be considered as Hazardous if it has an inauspicious consequence on public wellness and the environment even in low concentration. The following are regarded as potentially risky waste:

Inorganic waste

Oily waste

Organic waste

Decayable waste

High volume, low jeopardy waste.

Assorted waste.

Hazardous waste are assigned a jeopardy ranking based on serious mammalian toxicity, exo toxicity, environmental destiny, drawn-out toxicity and other standards. On this footing, risky waste is categorized as follows:

Hazard Rating 1: Highly Hazard

Hazard Rating 2: High Hazard

Hazard Rating 3: Moderate Hazard

Hazard Rating 4: Low Hazard

Extreme Hazard was assumed for this undertaking. The site will be classified and developed as an Hydrogen: H landfill site. The proposed engineered landfill will accept waste classified as risky waste ( H ) , which include metals. Most metals have a Hazard Rating 1.

Landfill Dimension

The underside of the landfill is about 6m from class and 5m above class. Cell 1 is 1.13 Hectares and Cell 2 is 1.51 Hectares. It is estimated that the waste capacity of the landfill will be on the order of 177,000 M3.

Site Life

The landfill will be determined based on waste intended for the site that is stored or to be generated in the hereafter. The landfill operation would be limited to the dry season because of high precipitation within the country. During the seasonal operation, the landfill cells/sub-cells will be developed based on the handiness of the intended waste that is stored.

BASELINE STUDIES

Field surveies were carried out by research lab analysis, to depict and measure the baseline environmental conditions prior to development. A two season trying government was carried out. The consequences are shown below:

Soil physico-chemistry: The dirt samples were by and large strongly to somewhat acidic with pH runing from 5.9-6.7 in the rainy season and 6.0-6.8 in the dry season. Entire hydrocarbon content ranged between 2.41-9.80 mg/kg. Heavy metals like Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Barium and Vanadium. ( Giller et al, 1998 ) , were non detected.

Water Physico-chemistry: Water sample showed that pH ranged from 6.6-7.3. Conduction values ranged from 215-220 ms/s. ( Aiken et al. 1985 )

Sediments: The deposits of Borno province were really hapless in benthal beings. The grab draw of the deposits yielded no micro benthal invertebrate being.

Fisheries: The fish species identified from the gimmicks of the local fishermen include Heterobranchus and bidorsalis.

Wildlife: The tellurian wildlife zoology of the part consist of mammals, birds, reptilians, amphibious vehicles and Invertebrates.

Socio-economic factors: A reappraisal of bing socio-economic informations available for the country was performed. Since stakeholders involvement is critical input in EIA procedure, a socio-economic survey was conducted in the undertaking country.The primary aim of the field study was the acquisition of socio-economic informations to supply input into the designation of possible impacts on the human environment. The survey utilized a mix of standard methods to get the necessary baseline information, these include the cross-sectional attack

SCOPING

Scoping identifies the assorted activities of the proposed Landfill undertaking that could hold important impacts on the environment. It identifies issues of critical concerns. Scoping of the proposed undertaking besides seeks to supply solutions such as:

What are the possible impact from the executing and operation of the Landfill undertaking?

What will be the magnitude, degree and clip of impacts?

What relevancy are the impacts on the environment within local contexts?

What extenuation processes can be put in topographic point to chair or eschew the negative effects or to better and maximise positive consequence?

Consequently, scoping is used to place the biophysical, wellness and socio-economic constituents of the environment that will significantly be affected by the tile proposed undertaking activities

POTENTIAL AND ASSOCIATED IMPACTS

Impact appraisal is indispensable for all cardinal public and private undertakings that could hold an inauspicious consequence on the position of the environment. It is projected to offer sound prognosiss of the possible significances of policy determination on alleged receptors and therefore, to allow wiser picks among alternate classs of action.

IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY

There are many methodological analysiss and processs developed for valuing possible consequence of any developmental undertaking on the environment. Some of these methods were developed in the early 1970s and to a great extent trust on methods used in other domains of environmental direction. However in this survey, the ISO 14001 guidelines are used for the anticipation and rating. The undertaking impact indexs for the assorted environmental characteristics are shown in Table 1.

Environmental COMPONENTS

IMPACT INDICATORS

Air Quality

Particulate, SOx, NOx, Cox, NH3, SPM, CO, VOC, nursery gasses, ozone and heavy metals

Water Quality

Turbidity, Total organic C, Dissolved O, Suspended solids, Hydrocarbons, Metals,

Foods and Microbiology

Soil Quality and Land Use

Physico-chemistry, Hydrocarbons, Heavy Metals, Erosion/flood, Farming, Urban Development

Vegetation

Diversity and copiousness of tellurian and aquatic vegetations

Wildlife

Habitat, Sensitive country, Hunting

Fisheries

Speciess diverseness and copiousness, spawning/nursery evidences

Groundwater

Land H2O degree, entire organic C, suspended solids hydrocarbons, metals

Social Status

Demography, employment, income, instruction, colony form, safety, and security

Health position

Prevalence of infective diseases, handiness of healthcare installation.

Figure 2. Environmental CHARACTERISTICS/COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPACT INDICATORS

IMPACT PREDICTION METHODOLOGY

Harmonizing to Wang et Al 2006, Impact designation and prognosis are undertaken against an environmental baseline, frequently defined by designated indexs ( air, H2O, noise, ecological sensitiveness and biodiversity ) . Over clip a figure of EIA processs and tools have been established for usage in impact designation. But in pattern, comparatively simple methods and tools are applied to impact designation as compared to more hard, informations demanding attacks which may be used in impact anticipation. Experience indicates that these simple techniques are proven for project of logical attack to impact designation. The most common methods used for impact designation are:

Matrixs

Check lists

Adept systems

Networks

Sheathings and Geographic Information System and

ISO 14001

( Wang et al, 2006 )

The Guidelines of ISO 14001 were used for impact anticipation and rating. ( Table 2 ) . This allows for synergistic and descriptive analysis of relationship between the undertaking activities and the assorted environmental constituents. ( Bansal & A ; Hunter 2003 ) . ISO 14001 is an globally recognized criterion that sets out how you can travel about seting in topographic point an Effective Environmental System ( EMS ) . This criterion is designed to turn to the delicate balance between keeping profitableness and cut downing environmental impact ; with the committedness of your full organisation, it can enable you to accomplish both aims. ( Rondinelli & A ; Vastag 2000 ) . The standards adopted for the rating of the identified impacts are as follows:

Adverse/Beneficial ( A/B )

Duration ( D )

Legal/regulatory demand ( L )

Hazard Factor ( R )

Frequency of happening ( F )

Importance of Impact on affected environmental constituent ( I ) and public perception/interest ( P )

The assorted standards were weighted on a graduated table of 0-5 as follows:

Adverse/Beneficial ( A/B )

A-Adverse

B-Beneficial

Duration ( D )

ST- Short Term ( & lt ; 6 months )

LT-Long Term ( & gt ; 6 months )

Legal/Regulatory Requirement ( L )

0-No Legal/ Regulatory demand

3-Legal/Regulatory demand nowadays

5-Permit Required

Hazard Factor ( R )

0-No hazard

1- Low hazard

3-Intermediate hazard factor

5-High Risk factor

Frequency of Impact ( F )

1-Low Frequency

3-Intermediate frequence

5-High Frequency

Importance ( I )

1-Low Importance

3-Intermediate importance

5-High importance

Public Interest/Perception ( P )

1-Low

3-Intermediate importance

5-High

The footing for evaluation the degree of significance of the impact as either “ High ” , “ Medium ” or “ Low ” as follows:

High Significance ( L+R+F+I+P ) a‰? 15 or ( F+1 ) & gt ; 6 or P=5

Medium Significance ( L+R+F+I+P ) a‰? 8 but & lt ; 15

Low Significance ( L+R+F+I+P ) & lt ; 8

Undertaking PHASE

Undertaking ACTIVITY

DESCRIPTION OF IMPACT

A/B

Calciferol

Liter

Roentgen

F

I

Phosphorus

F + 1

L+R+F+I+P

Overall Impact Ranking

Undertaking Mobilization Phase

Conveyance of Equipment and Personnel to site

Intervention with other public and private conveyance activities

A

ST

3

1

1

3

3

4

11

Medium significance

Hazard of accident

A

ST

0

3

3

5

5

8

16

High significance

Addition in noise degree

A

ST

3

3

1

3

3

4

13

Medium

significance

Emission of atmospheric pollutants from machineries and work vehicle fumes

A

ST

0

1

3

3

1

6

8

Medium significance

Decrease in aesthetic and recreational value of route undertaking site

A

ST

0

1

3

3

3

6

10

Medium significance

Frightening off of wildlife from noise of machinery and forces

A

ST

0

3

1

3

3

4

10

Low significance

Loss of vegetation/farmlands and wildlife/habitats

A

ST

0

3

1

3

3

4

10

High significance

Construction Phase

Vegetation Clearing and Removal of Topsoil, Excavation

Change of Land usage form and loss of Arable land

A

LT

0

3

3

5

5

8

14

High significance

Loss of Biodiversity ( Flora/Fauna ) including loss of workss of economic value

A

LT

3

1

3

5

5

8

17

High significance

Atomization of home grounds: Break of wildlife migration paths

A

LT

3

1

3

5

3

8

15

High significance

Employment of Locals as skilled and unskilled labor

Bacillus

ST

3

1

1

5

5

6

15

High significance

Emission of atmospheric pollutants and rise in SPM

A

ST

3

5

3

3

3

6

17

High significance

Stimulation of local economic system

Bacillus

ST

0

0

3

5

3

8

11

Medium significance

Soil Consolidation, Laying of line drives, asphalting of entree path, culverts and drainage building

Pollution of surface water/stream from chemicals, waste stuffs, including exhausted engine oil, oily waste H2O, etc

A

ST

3

5

1

3

5

4

17

High significance

Localized addition in baseline concentration of physic-chemical parametric quantities of the environment from stuffs used for building such as asphalt, etc

A

ST

3

3

1

3

3

4

13

Medium significance

Construction of Cells

Noise at receptors

A

ST

3

3

3

5

3

8

17

High significance

Change of Land Use form and loss of cultivable lands

A

LT

0

3

3

5

5

8

16

High significance

Loss of biodiversity including workss of economic value

A

LT

3

1

3

5

5

8

17

High significance

Addition in noise degree

A

ST

3

3

3

5

3

8

17

Medium significance

Motion of Heavy Duty Equipments

Hazard of accident

A

ST

0

3

3

5

3

8

14

Medium significance

Addition in Noise degree

A

ST

3

3

3

5

3

8

17

High significance

Emission of atmospheric pollutants from machineries and work vehicle fumes

A

ST

3

3

3

5

1

8

15

High significance

Loss of Wildlife

A

ST

0

1

1

3

3

4

8

Medium significance

Waste Coevals

A

ST

3

1

1

1

1

2

7

Low significance

Operations/Maintenance Phase

Conveyance Activities

Noise, Dust and gaseous emanations

A

LT

3

1

5

1

1

6

11

Medium significance

Decommissioning Phase

Cell Closure/Capping

Destruction of the Ecology of the country

A

ST

3

1

1

1

1

2

7

Low significance

Transportation/Movement of Heavy Duty Equipment

Noise and gaseous emanations

A

ST

3

1

1

2

1

3

8

Medium significance

Waste Coevals

A

ST

3

1

1

1

1

2

7

Low significance

Figure 3. Evaluation OF POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT

SIGNIFICANT POSITIVE IMPACTS

Provision of entree route

Provision of employment chances

Enhancement of trading chances

Stimulation of development

Shift from traditional businesss

Enhancement of agribusiness and urban development

SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE IMPACTS

Loss of Vegetation

Addition in development of wood and forest resources

Addition in dirt eroding and alteration in topography

Land usage alteration

Loss of wildlife and home grounds

Air quality

Waste direction

Increase in societal frailties ( drugs abuse, commercial sex workers )

Community/youth jitteriness

Health

Respiratory Disorder

Health

During building, workers might be exposed to safety and occupational jeopardies, gaseous discharge and dust atoms from flora during glade, depriving, cell building and heavy machinery/vehicles used during building can impair lung maps, taking to or worsening respiratory upsets such as bronchitis and asthma. This impact will be direct, irreversible and long term. The motion of heavy machineries besides poses a great menace to the wellness of the workers in footings of accidents, air pollution, noise pollution and other work related accidents. Sexually familial diseases will besides be rampant as the undertaking will convey about interaction between the workers, thereby promoting sexual activities causes transmittal of sexual diseases such as HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea. Etc.

Other wellness impacts caused by the undertaking will include the inspiration of toxic stuffs thereby doing serious life threatening diseases, the landfill will besides go a genteelness land to mosquitoes which are the bearers of diseases like Malaria and Typhoid febrility.

HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Early deliberation of wellness affairs is a serious constituent of the growing of new undertakings. The aim of wellness impact appraisal is as follows ;

To mensurate the consequence of the development on legion communities that could be affected

Where effects are considered as possible negative, suited alteration steps will be acknowledged and recommended. Where effects are hypothetically good, actions to better these will be acknowledged and recommended as portion of the communal engagement to sustainable development.

As portion of the HIA, the baseline rating will be carried out to modulate the current wellness state of affairss in the country. For a lower limit, the ensuing checklist guided the baseline appraisal.

Diseases informations ; decease proportions by cause ( males /females ) ( infective, parasitic, malignant neoplastic disease, bosom failure, digestive system, external causes )

Demographic and epidemiology tendencies ( population, life anticipation, grownup literacy, entire birthrate rate, maternal mortality rate )

Nutritional position ( stunting per centum, blowing per centum )

ublic wellness ( H2O supply, nutrient, waste direction )

Exposure to chemicals ( lead, pesticides, heavy metals )

Macroeconomicss arrows ( rising prices, unemployment, imported labor )

Climatic alteration ( heat, cold, humidness, traffic, lodging )

MITIGATION OF IMPACT ON HEALTH

Aham Drilling and Fluids will guarantee that:

Regular medical cheque up for site forces is carried out

International work safety Acts of the Apostless are enforced

Job jeopardy and wellness hazard appraisal is carried out before get downing work

Toolbox meetings are held day-to-day

Competent forces are engaged

LEGISLATION AND POLICY ON HEALTH

EIA Decree No. 82 of 1992 Paragraph 15 ( 1 ) ( C ) states that: An environmental appraisal of undertaking shall non be compulsory where the undertaking is to be carried out in response to state of affairss that, in the sentiment of the Agency, the undertaking is in the involvement of public wellness or safety. Paragraph 63 ( 1 ) ( C ) ( B ) provinces: In this Decree, unless the context otherwise provides “ Agency ” means the Nigerian Environmental Protection Agency established by the Federal Environmental Protection Act “ appraisal by a reappraisal panel ” means an environmental appraisal that is conducted by a reappraisal panel appointed pursuant to subdivision 30 and that includes a consideration of the factors set out in subdivisions 11 ( 1 ) and ( 20 ) of this Decree “ Council ” means the Federal Environmental Protection Council established by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act ; “ environment ” means the constituents of the Earth, and includes any alteration the undertaking may do to the environment, whether any such alteration occurs within or outside Nigeria, and includes any consequence of any such alteration on wellness and socio-economic state of affairss ( EIA Decree, 1992 ) .

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE / DECISION MAKING.

A proficient commission of FEPA ( Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria ) headed by its Director-General, is the organic structure that decides EIAs. After deliberation, the proficient commission shall chew over and hold on the issue of an EIS and certification, within 60 yearss of the bringing of the concluding EIA study by the bureau. On receiving of these two licenses, the advocator is still mandated by the Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Decree 88 of 1992 to bring forth to same with their petitions for development/construction license. Once it is issued, building can get down.

In add-on for public sector undertakings, transcripts of the EIS and certification should be made available to the National Planning Commission so that the undertaking can be acknowledged by the National Rolling Plan. A rolled program is a 3-year program of public sector investings and undertakings, where uncomplete characteristics of the program in the first twelvemonth are rolled over for achievement in the succeeding twelvemonth and so on. ( Olokesusi, 1998 )

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION.

The advocator after enfranchisement will get down the undertaking in understanding with all the specified extenuation steps, in conformity to the stipulated specifications as contained in the concluding EIA study. If the undertaking is nevertheless, non commissioned within the cogency of the certification, the bureau may necessitate a new EIA survey. ( Olokesusi 1998 )