Communication is one of the commonest things people do. It is like eating and take a breathing. Everyone can make it, and everyone does it – the educated and the uneducated, the rich and the hapless, the immature and the old – and all with sensible success.

Naturally, people take for granted their ability to pass on good. When there is a serious misinterpretation, the communicator by and large blames the communicatee. “ He ‘s so dense. ” “ She was possibly woolgathering. ”

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As communicating is a dynamic and collaborative procedure, both communicators and communicatees constantly contribute to any dislocation or lag in it.

We can believe of communicating as a journey where no 1 has the luxury of zipping through the communicating main road. There are several unseeable barriers that slow us down or even coerce us to take a divergence. Let ‘s take a closer expression at the seven major 1s.

Roadblock 1: Differences in position

About sixty old ages ago Bronis Malinowski narrated his brush with an old man-eater. They happened to speak about the Second World War ramping in Europe. The man-eater wanted to cognize how the Europeans managed to eat the immense measures of human flesh produced by monolithic violent deaths. In a instead holier-than-thou manner, Malinowski told the old man-eater that Europeans ne’er ate the flesh of the enemies they killed. The man-eater was shocked. “ What sort of savages are you, ” he asked in horror, “ to kill people without any existent object? ”

Both Malinowski and the man-eater were looking at the same event but from widely different positions. Each was right. Each felt the other was incorrect. Each felt superior to the other. Differences in positions are likely the most unreliable of all communicating barriers because they are the most hard to observe.

Roadblock 2: Differences in cognition degrees

The stars that an astrologist speaks of are non rather the same as the stars that uranologists speak of. Likewise, an allopathic physician ‘s account of a disease is different from an ayurvedic physician ‘s. Their cognition systems or classs determine their apprehension of world.

Similarly, the workers and the frontline forces may hold a certain practical or operational cognition that is losing at the top merely as people at the lower degrees may non be articulate adequate to show their practical cognition in a manner that enables senior directors to understand, appreciate and do usage of it. It may therefore be dismissed as irrelevant or useless.

Roadblock 3: Lack of a common linguistic communication

If you speak to me in Chinese, most of what you try to pass on will non make me, particularly if there are few dependable, non-verbal symbols attach toing your address. For case, when an American negotiations about the bole, the Indian hearer will hold trouble placing the portion. The lone bole he knows is the antique metal box people used to transport their apparels in while going.

Even when we truly want to pass on with people who do n’t belong to our group, we are prone to utilizing words that may non do sense to them. Examples include non merely proficient footings but besides acronyms, euphemisms, and private short signifiers. The communicatees may non be able to inquire for elucidation.

Roadblock 4: Inclination to pigeonhole and leap to decisions

A adult male in a suit stops you at an airdrome, gives you an elegant concern card that shows a classy New Delhi reference and says that his briefcase stolen. His air ticket, diary and of import paperss are all gone. You are likely to purchase him a ticket. You might even ask for him to your topographic point. You believe his narrative because your stereotype of well-groomed, polished, and educated people is that they can be trusted. Once you discover that you have been cheated, you change this stereotype.

Our inclination to leap to decisions is a related barrier. The Reconstruction of a message may be earnestly flawed if the illation is excessively steep.

Roadblock 5: Strong emotions

We may talk or jot down the right words, but the non-verbal symbols that reflect our emotions may belie them. Emotions are cardinal to our being. There is no demand to disown emotions and follow a strictly rational attack to life or to fellow worlds. What needs to be recognized is the clouding of interior vision that strong emotions can convey approximately.

Roadblock 6: Egoism

It is non uncommon for newly-wed twosomes ( and their parents ) to enforce their nuptials picture with full running commentaries on their invitees. For the invitees there is small to separate one marrying picture from another. It is a everyday, insistent matter. There is no narrative, no suspense. Plain deadening material from start to complete. But for the chief participants of a nuptials it is a record of one of their most gratifying, most memorable experiences. When one is excessively egoistic, it is hard to comprehend this simple truth.

Peoples who play their vacation pictures and demo exposure to their friends, dealingss and familiarities without being asked may besides be populating in a sap ‘s Eden.

Self-centredness makes us so myopic that we frequently fail to see beyond our olfactory organs. On the other manus, some of us can see the pinpoint in other people ‘s eyes but non the beam in our ain eyes. Even if we escape such pathological dimensions, changing grades of self-centredness can earnestly weaken our functions as communicators and communicatees.

Roadblock 7: Plain indolence

To be a communicator is difficult work. To be a good communicator is really, really difficult work. Have n’t we sat through presentations which no 1 but a little minority in the audience could do sense of? Have n’t we come across main invitees at school one-year yearss haranguing parents who have merely come to see their kids execute? The mismatch comes from the communicator ‘s failure to happen out what is needed and what will work.

We tend to let all kinds of distractions while reading and listening to others. As a consequence, we do non retrace the messages sent by the communicators or retrace them really severely.

( Matthukutty M. Monippally is the writer of Business Communication Strategies, which is published by Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. )

The Basic Communication Model



Check point


Deciding on the message

Choosing the right words.

Understanding the other individual.

Check your aims.

What will the other individual want from the message?

What will the emotional impact of the message?


Choosing the right medium.

Sending the message.

Giving non-verbal signals.

Not more than 7 thoughts to convey.

Are words and non-verbal signals consistent?

Is the linguistic communication suited?


Coping with deformation.

Covering with deformations.

Avoid breaks and noise.

Is the siting right?


Perceiving the message.

Listening actively.

What phrases, facts and illations am I looking for?

How can I prove my apprehension of the message?


Making sense of the message.

Understanding the other individual.

What do they intend?

What is the concealed docket?

How will I manage it if does non suit in with my beliefs?


Deciding on the response.

Get downing the following message.

To maintain the communicating traveling: nod, smiling, and agreeaˆ¦ .

To halt the communicating expression uninterested, halt oculus contact.

Barriers to Listening

1. Listener Himself

The first set of barriers is raised by the hearer himself. The hearer ‘s attitude, involvement / pre-occupation, and ability or preparation to concentrate on sound, play an of import function.

If a individual thinks he knows everything before the talker even completes a sentence, he is non truly likely to listen.

If the hearer does non like the talker or the topic, he will be pre disposed to construe the words other than the manner they were meant by the talker. Often such a sensitivity is noticed in the treatment and dialogues between direction and brotherhood representatives.

If something is worrying the individual, like say the sudden decease of a close and beloved one, the individual may non be in the frame of head to have any message other than the 1s related to his preoccupation.

2.By the Speaker

The 2nd set of the Barriers is put up by the talker himself.

He is more concerned with himself than his audience.

He talks excessively fast or excessively slow.

He has excessively many or excessively few intermissions.

He is excessively high-pitched or excessively low pitched.

He is excessively loud or excessively soft.

He is excessively active or excessively inactive with his idiosyncrasy.

He talks down or above the caputs of the audience.

He uses the medium, which is unfamiliar to the hearer or uses a medium, which attracts more attending than what is being said.

3. Inability to disrupt the non-verbal cues.

The 3rd set of Barriers is posed by the deficiency of attending paid to and inability to disrupt the non-verbal cues. This set is common to both hearers and talkers. Often attending is paid merely to the witting or calculated gestural cues. But unconscious gestural cues go wholly unobserved for deficiency of preparation. Furthermore, even witting gestural cues are frequently likely to be miss interpreted for deficiency of cognition of the civilization from which the nonverbal cues are arising. Therefore, the elusive niceties added to or deleted from the significance are wholly missed by both hearers and talkers.

4.physical elements

Finally, the 4th set of Barriers consists of physical elements. Distractions, like the sound system being faulty, person following to the hearer traveling on chattering, some other sound coming from outside the room, a more pleasant view outside the room, or the discomfort of the room temperature turns off the hearer.

Why do the Barrier win?

1. There is a spread between the velocity with which we speak and the rate at which our encephalon procedure information. Normally we speak at the rate of about 125 words per proceedingss, but when we listen, our encephalon processes information at 500 words per minute or more. Consequently the encephalon has idle capacity to roll away.

2. Listening requires much less physical activity than speech production, composing, or reading. As a consequence the whole organic structure of the hearer becomes contributing to roll off or even sleep.

3. Finally, the accent given to reading in schools and college train the individual to dressed ores more on reading and speech production. No organic structure trains the kid in listening accomplishments.

Attitudes that help one to go a better hearer.

“ I am responsible for my actions, feelings and behaviour. ”

“ Peoples are all right merely the manner they are. ”

“ I do n’t hold the power to alter others, merely myself. ”

“ Refraining from judging others will help me in listening to them. ”

“ I take joy in people and value their singularity. ”

“ I allow others to be on an equal degree with myself. ”

Non Verbal Communication

How Peoples Communicate

Writing 9 %

Reading 16 %

Talking 35 %

Listening 40 %

Body Language

When we talk to each other we use linguistic communication, that is, spoken words and stages.

WE besides use another linguistic communication: the linguistic communication of our organic structure “ Speaks ” as what we talk is the combination of gestures, look and motions which forms the other type of communicating called the organic structure linguistic communication.

One of the characteristics of organic structure linguistic communication is that most people are rather witting of what they are making with positions and gestures. This means the organic structure linguistic communication can supply us with hints to the attitudes and feelings of the individuals that may or may non be revealed by their spoken words.

Body linguistic communication is non cosmopolitan and its reading can be really different in different civilizations.

Body linguistic communication is non an exact linguistic communication and demand to be interpreted with attention in order to avoid doing some baseless or even foolish judgements.

The three chief countries of the organic structure to see are: face, custodies and general organic structure positions.


Key to our ocular linguistic communication are our eyes and how and where we direct them. Peoples who are confident expression straight at the individual they are speaking to.

We besides stare difficult at those with whom we are angry.

Looking yesteryear or beyond person may bespeak an attitude of high quality or neutrality in the other individual.

When people look down they may be uncomfortable with the state of affairs because they are nervous or unsure of what they are stating. It may besides bespeak shyness.

Smiling or looking pleased or displeased enables us to pass on without address. As we listen we can utilize our faces to demo we agree or disagree, to promote person to go on or to warn them to halt.


Our custodies are really expressive of our temper and we use them urgently as we communicate with people


The handshaking is frequently the first physical contact we have with another individual, particularly in concern. In western society it is a portion of the rite of salutation, a signifier of embracing and to avoid agitating custodies would be an abuse.

The standard handshaking where two people merely agitate custodies with equal force per unit area is of no significance, other than a mark of conventional niceness.

If one individual puts their manus on top of the custodies being shaken, that individual is widening the embracing to demo a closer tie. This may be farther extended by touching the arm or even the shoulder with the manus. This may be regarded as over familiar by receivers, particularly in a concern state of affairs but in some civilizations this more burbling salutation is common.


Handss and fingers are used as wand signals to reenforce or magnify what we are stating by crushing clip with our words for accent.

we may chop the air with the whole manus to demo we are cutting through a job

Or we may make a signifier of chopping scissors motion with both custodies to demo we are rejecting a point. We may make this in a less obvious manner when person else is talking to mean that we disagree.

Indicating frontward with a index can stress a peculiar point. If the finger is proding it can be a mark of averment or domination.

A raised index can be a warning of action. It can be a signifier of menace. Stating ‘look, if you do n’t halt I will.. ‘

Handss AND Weaponries

When weaponries held unfastened with thenars somewhat up it might be a mark that we are beging person to accept what we are stating.

With thenars down the message is to cut down the importance of an issue and possibly quiet the hearer.

Palms held up facing towards the hearer is a mark of rejection or of forcing away an thought or petition.

Palms held towards the talker is a mark that he wants the hearer to encompass an thought

When One manus is held to the side with the thenar perpendicular