A study was conducted to research the fuel wood species and timber bring forthing species of Dir Kohistan Valleys, Pakistan. Consumption form and impact on the forest resources were besides taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a study instrument to obtain coveted informations. For this survey 10 small towns were indiscriminately selected. In each small town 10 individuals were interviewed and they were indiscriminately selected. Merely one individual was interviewed from a family. A entire 100 respondent were interviewed. Surveies revealed that 75 works species belonging to 41 households are utilised as fuel wood and 41 species belonging to 25 households are utilised as lumber. Three tree species Quercus incana, Cedrus deodara and Taxus wallichiana has been found endangered. There is a desperate demand to conserve these species.
Literally the word ; “ Kohistan ” means the topographic point of mountains ( Hamayaun, 2005 ) . Dir Kohistan Valley covers 1 40,351 estates of the cone-bearing woods situated between latitude 350- 9I„ to 350-47I„ and longitude 710-52I„ to 720-22I„ in the northern place of the water parting of Panjkora river. Pangkora is a pashtu word significance five watercourses ; the five feeders of the rivers are Azgologh, Zandrai, Shandoor, Gwaldai and Dokdara khwars.
The upper Dir Kohistan Valley reserved woods autumn under the major types of woods ( Table 1 ) . The Forests of Dir Kohistan Valley, can be loosely described under the undermentioned major types and the entire country covered given below.
The bush and oak woods are grown on the lower countries. It ranges from 4000 to 5500 pess. These are subjecting to heavy lopping. The regeneration is bare as discerping stops the growing. Deodar, kale, fir, and titivate grow at height runing from 7000 to 11000 pess above the tree bound i.e. 11000 pess. By and large the lift above 11000 pess is barren of tree growing. Entire country covered ( in estates ) by woods in Dir Kohistan are given below.
Gymnosperm consists of Cupressus sempervirens, Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Picea smithiana, Pinus roxburgii, P.wallichiana, Taxus wallichiana. Several other wide leaved species like Aesculus indica, Populus ciliophoran and Juglans regia are besides found. Forests as critical life support system play an of import function in modulating clime, supplying home ground for legion species, keeping and conserving dirt resources, modulating hydrological rhythms and guaranting H2O supplies. Forests resource and its usage by the stakeholders depend on how societal and economic parametric quantities of a society affect such resources and its usage ( Hamayaun, 2005 ) .
Fuel wood is the chief beginning of energy in the underdeveloped universe. Use of wood by world for energy intents is every bit old as human civilisation itself. One of the most serious jobs in the underdeveloped universe is deficit of fuel wood. Pakistan is sing rapid addition in its national energy ingestion with addition in its national energy ingestion with increasing population and economic development. The state is hapless in forest wealth. The primary ground is that about 70-80 % of land country falls in arid or semi waterless zones with really low precipitation to back up tree growing ( Hamayaun, 2005 ) .
Sheikh ( 1987 ) estimates that fuel wood meet about 50 % of domestic energy demand while 16 % are shared by the fossil fuels and firing droppings and harvest residues generate 34 % The economic importance of firewood production is evidenced from the fact that its ingestion in Pakistan is larger than any other usage of wood.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted to research the fuel wood species and timber bring forthing species their ingestion and impact on the forest resources of Dir Kohistan Valley. For this survey 10 small towns were indiscriminately selected. In each small town 10 individuals were interviewed and they were indiscriminately selected. Merely one individual was interviewed from a family. The entire 100 respondents were interviewed. Target small towns of Dir Kohistan Valley were Bar Kali, Biar, Kot Kali, Jaz Banda, Patrak, Shandoor, Sheringal, Kumrat, Ganshal and Thal. A questionnaire was used to obtain desire informations. The questionnaire was divided into two mail parts i.e. , The first portion contained inquiries on family size, figure of gaining members, business, instruction and income degree of family caput. Information about types of fuel used penchants for assorted fuels and preferable fuel wood species. The respondents were interviewed personally on their places or farms and informations were collected. Plants were collected, identified, pressed ; dried, preserved, mounted and ethnobotanical informations were collected following the process of Martin ( 1995 ) . They were decently identified through the available literature ( Nasir and Ali, 1971-2001 ) and were confirmed by the experts in Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan. The specimens were deposited in the herbarium Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
Consequences and Discussion
Local people use 75 species as fuel wood ( Table 2 ) . Wild fuel wood trees consist of Acacia modesta, Abies pindrow, Aesculus indica, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichina, Populus alba, Quercus dialata, Quercus incana and Taxus baccata. Cultivated fruit trees besides yield fuel wood after sniping. They are Diospyrus kaki, Malus Primula, Prunus domestica, Prunus armeniaca and Pyrus communis. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia were introduced as fast turning fuel wood species.
However some of the valuable trees like Quercus incana, Cedrus deodara, Quercus dialata and Pinus wallichina which are already endangered are utilised ruthlessly as fuel wood is under huge fuel wood force per unit area as majority of the population use these three workss for their fuel wood demands. In summer season ( from April to October ) the force per unit area on the wood for fuel wood is relatively lesser because local population does non necessitate wood for heating their houses. Largely dry workss are used for firewood but if non easy available so green trees are cut. Some people of the country have adopted a slippery method for acquiring dry trees. They cut a part of works root during early summer season and left the works standing. After a few months, the works become dry and they cut it.
Certain bushs such as Debregesia salicifolia, Indogeofera heterantha and Myrsine africana are largely utilised as fuel wood. Poor people even burn chaffs of Zea Mayss to cook their nutrient. Quercus dilatata and Quercus incana are considered as the best fuel wood. Morus alba, Morus nigger and Prunus domestica are besides considered as better fuel wood.
There are three major beginnings of energy, fuelwood, agricultural residues and farm animal manure in Dir Kohistan Valley. As a affair of fact these beginnings meet about 85 % the entire domestic energy demands. Fuelwood histories for 80 % of the entire fuel supply. It has been widely accepted that the production and preservation of woods well improves the environment. Its pitiless development greatly amendss the land and H2O resources of an country and strangles its aesthetic values, taking to entire deforestation of the ecological landscape. In Dir Kohistan Valley fuel wood makes approximately 80 % of domestic energy demands. The other 20 % comes from kerosine. L.P.G. and other wood waste.
The analysis of informations revealed that 100 % of sampled families were utilizing fuel wood in assorted measures to run into their domestic demands for cookery and warming. Thirty five per centum of the sample units consume fuelwood along with other fuel such as kerosene oil, liquefied crude oil gas and wood waste in assorted proportions. Forty % were utilizing kerosine, 15 % were utilizing liquefied crude oil gas and 45 % were utilizing wood waste. The remainder 65 % of the families use merely fuelwood for domestic energy.
The mean fuel wood ingestion per family figured out to be 5.43 Kg per twenty-four hours. Against this, the ingestion of kerosine was 0.76 Liter and Liquefied Petroleum Gas was 0.06 cylinders per twenty-four hours, while waste wood ingestion was about 0.23 Kg. per twenty-four hours per family. If we apply these consequences to the entire population of the country taking 10 as average family size of the sample population, the entire fuel wood ingestion for the population of Dir Kohistan Valley 20818568.45 kilogram per annum. In add-on to this the people need about 3268488.22 Liters kerosene, 263874.66 cylinders Liquefied Petroleum Gas and 1181668.33 Kg of wood waste to run into their entire energy demands. The entire cost on fuel ingestion is Rs: 2722.5 per capita per annum. If we apply these consequences to the entire population of the country, the entire cost on fuel ingestion for the whole population would be Rs: 341777356.7/-per annum. Due to this indiscriminate film editing, non merely the forest country is worsening but valuable autochthonal species are in danger and if this tendency continues, the ultimate consequence would be the extinction of these species from the country.
The common manner of utilizing fuel wood is highly uneconomical. Adequate readying of fuel wood i.e. , sufficient drying and splitting of big diameter pieces could assist to avoid unneeded losingss of energy. The traditional manner of cooking on tree rocks or a metal ring with three legs is a great loss to energy. If unfastened fires were replaced by ranges, fuel wood ingestion could be reduced by one tierce by the more efficient usage of fuel wood and in portion besides by a alteration in warming and cookery wonts, fuel wood ingestion in the country could be efficaciously cut back. This would well cut down the force per unit area on the natural tree and shrub flora and aid to avoid high afforestation costs. Khan et al. , ( 1996 ) studied the impact of fuel deficit on preservation of Biodiversity of Hindu-Kush cragged part. They suggested the solution for the risky impacts of fuel deficit by using assorted schemes at local, regional and province degrees. They besides suggested that alternate beginnings of fuel should be explored and fast turning trees should be explored and fast turning trees should be planted in big graduated table while protecting the already planted trees and conserving the endangered species.
Whole population of the Dir Kohistan vale is dependent on woods for lumber wood, since no import takes topographic point and replacements like Fe girdera ( for house building ) are non common. Consequently it can be assumed that the entire population of the survey country depending on the woods for lumber for house building since cone-bearing lumber chiefly used for the carrying parts and for doors and Windowss. There are 41 timber wood species ( Table 3 ) . Timber wood species include Abies pindrow, Acer cappadocicum, Aesculus indica, Cedrus deodara, Juglans regia, Morus alba, Morus nigger, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Platanus orientalis, Quercus incana and Q. ilex Taxus wallichiana and other species. The Pines wood is traditionally used as beginning of lasting lumber in the survey country. The study revealed that Cedrus deodara wood is preferred for building. This works has been cut on such a big graduated table that it is on the brink of extinction. Chopra ( 1992 ) and Gul et al. , ( 2009 ) highlighted the importance of gymnosperms in nature and human life. The people of the research country live a semi-nomadic life manner and their houses vary harmonizing to the bing status and continuance of stay. For illustration the houses in the small towns are largely made of clay and rocks wall holding sand traps indoors. In high mountains meadows the house are wholly made of wood logs. The houses in Dir Kohistan vale are constructed in traditional mode with munificent usage of lumber in walls and roofs. The lumber demands of such houses are extortionate to the extent that the lumber used in one traditional house is adequate for building of 10-15 houses constructed in plan country of Dir Kohistan vale. Such munificent usage of lumber originated likely from early times when woods covered all the countries and were cleared by early colonists to acquire land for farming. At present most of the woods in environing of small towns have been badly depleted by cutting the trees randomly, normally Cedrus deodara, for constructional intent. There is a desperate demand to develop active community engagement with improved design of houses necessitating minimal measure of lumber and offering better populating status. Timber harvest home is done by local made axe and two-man peg-toothed cross-cut proverb. The felled trees are cut into logs and so squared in the signifier of scants in the wood. The scants are extracted through slides and besides through H2O ( watercourse ) . The scants so collected at the theodolite site are so transported by mules. Timber wood is besides smuggled from Dir Kohistan Valley. Sleepers are hidden in trucks loaded with murphies and are therefore smuggled to different parts of the state. Sleepers are carried in Dir river and so collected in the low lying countries. Some people have furniture stores in the country and so take it to their coveted finish as furniture is non checked and confiscated. Influential people are involved to smuggle wood slumberers from the country by utilizing their influences and contacts. Other bribes the pertinent wood functionaries. Hence this pattern is one of the major factors for deforestation in the country.
Crude tools and techniques, low lumber output, deficiency of planning and absence of reaping programs for economical output, uneconomical methods of lumber preservation, over harvest home, low literacy rate, direction of lumber crop by foreigners, non-available of bank-loans, high lumber ingestion in local houses and frequent wood fires are some of the ground which are endangering the biodiversity of the Dir Kohistan Valley. Rehman and Ghafoor ( 2000 ) studied the human influences on the natural resources of Mount Elum, Swat. Deformation, timber, fuel wood aggregation, overgrazing, terrassing, poorness, ignorance, deficiency of development enterprises and the pitiless development of wildlife were among the root causes of ecological debasement. The possible solution for the jobs identified were societal organisation for deciding struggles, raising baby’s rooms for agroforestry and re-afforestation, scope direction, agricultural development, commercial fruit civilization, piscaries apiculture and domestic fowl development, proviso of tape H2O and investing in gender development. To renew wastes countries due to deforestation, immediate tree plantation, immediate tree plantation runs are required in the bare country. However community ego administration has led to a successful of forest through natural regeneration ( Webb and Khurshid, 2000 ) . For sustainable use of woods resources of Dir Kohistan Valley following recommendation are made:
For alleviating force per unit area on fuel wood species, following recommendations are suggested.
Natural gas should present in the country as an surrogate fuel beginning. If soon non executable for Government, liquid crude oil gas ( L.P.G. ) cylinders can function the intent. However, the monetary values should be kept in range of locals.
Introduction of fuel efficient ranges will besides helpful in cut downing force per unit area on woods for fuel wood demands.
The people of the country are nescient about the importance of biodiversity and preservation position of the country. They besides show hapless choice of fuel wood species. As a consequence valuable autochthonal vegetation is used as fuel wood species. Awareness plans at grass root degree should be introduces in the country to work out the job.
The survey country has a huge country. A-forestation undertakings should be launched on cultivated waste lands. These undertakings will non merely assist conserve that the local vegetation to better the socio-economic conditions of the country.
It is besides suggested that replacing of old tree with new immature workss will be critical. As most of the universe woods had been destroyed due to the fact that old trees were non replaced by the immature 1s. As the old trees provide the site for most of the pathogens. In Pakistan Dalbergia sissu which antecedently represented set up population, is it present threatened due to Die-back disease. In instance of Dalbergia sissoo the old trees are completing quickly.