President| Term| Policies| Contributions| | | | Positive| Negative| 1. Emilio Aguinaldo| 1898-1901| *  Fiscal Reform * Education Initiative * Local government reorganization * Constitutional Amendments * Visayan Federation| | | 2. Manuel L. Quezon| 1935-1944| | | | 3. Jose P. Laurel| 1943-1945| | | | 4. Sergio S. Osmena| 1944-1946| | | | 5. Manuel A. Roxas| 1946-1948| | | | 6. Elpidio R. Quirino| 1948-1953| | | | 7. Ramon F. Magsaysay| 1953-1957| | | | . Carlos P. Garcia| 1957-1961| * Filipino First Policy * Bohlen-Serrano Agreement| Strengthening of democracy in the Philippines; Revival of Filipino culture; Creation of Dr. Jose Rizal Centennial; Fostering international good will and friendship by state visits to Japan, the United States, South Vietnam, and Malaysia. | | 9. Diosdado P. Macapagal| 1961-1965| * Agricultural Land Reform Code| The propagation of the Filipino language.

For the first time it was used in diplomatic passports, diplomatic credentials, school diplomas, traffic signs, and stamps. Also the names of typhoons were Filipinized – Atang, Berta, Kading, etc. ; The date of “Independence Day” in the Philippines was changed from June 4th to June 12th; The official filling of the claim of the Republic of the Philippines over Sabah (North Borneo) on June 22, 1962; Formation of MAPHILINDO| | 10. Ferdinand E.

Marcos| 1965-1986| * Martial Law Measures| Stabilization of government finance by means of more effective collection of taxes, imposing new tax laws, and getting loans from foreign banks and governments; Greater production of rice by promoting the cultivation of “miracle rice” and other fast growing rice seeds, the construction of more irrigation systems, and giving financial and technical assistance to the farmers; Building of more roads and bridges, schoolhouses, and other public works.

The Philippine National Railways was also improved to foster land transportation; Intensive drive against smuggling, crime syndicates, and the communist New People’s Army (NPA); Holding of the Manila Summit Conference on October 24-25, 1996. | | 11. Corazon Cojuangco- Aquino| 1986-1992| * 1986 Constitution * The Constitutional

Commission (Con-Com) * Transitory Government and Provisional Constitution | The restoration of peace, democracy, freedom and justice in the Philippines; Partial recovery of big sums of money stolen during the Marcos administration by high officials and cronies in the previous regime; Stability of the government was proven despite six successive military coups; Easier credit terms and better conditions for repayment of the huge foreign debt of the Philippines, amounting to over US$30 billion; The defeat of the communist New People’s Army and arrest of many NPA top leaders, as well as the surrender of many others; Passage of the best agrarian reform law in the Philippines, limiting ownership to five hectares of agricultural land; Improvement of the Philippine image both at home and abroad; Mobilization of national and international aid for victims of the various natural calamities which hit the Philippines, especially in 1990-1991. | | 12. Fidel V. Ramos| 1992-1998| * R. A. 7483, which grants special privileges to senior citizens; * R. A. 8353, which reclassified rape from private offense to public offense such that it was no longer a crime against chastity, but a crime against a person; * R. A. 369 known as the Family Courts Act of 1997, * The Women in Nation Building Law| The creation of the Legislative-Executive Development Council (LEDA); negotiations with military rebels, communist rebels, and Muslim secessionists; the creation of the Special Zone of Peace and Development in Southern Philippines (ZOPAD); institution of anti-crime bodies to deal with crime syndicates, private armies, and terrorists; enlistment of the support and participation of the AFP in civil work projects, environmental protection and conservation and human resource development; and institution of electoral reforms through the COMELEC. | | 13. Joseph. E.

Estrada| 1998-2001| | The suspension of the release of the P37 billion in “pork barrel” allocations for pet projects of the congressmen; the organization of the PAOCTF (Presidential Anti-Organized Crime Task Force) with General Panfilo Lacson as the head; the reduction of debt servicing or payment to IMF-WB; and the redirection of Land Bank and DBP funds to small-and-medium scale enterprise. | His alleged involvement in number games as king of jueteng lords; his rumored mistresses and gifts of mansions; his much criticized drinking sprees and midnight cabinet sessions; and his huge bank account under a false name| 1. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo| 2001-2010| | | | 2. Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Cojuangco Aquino III| 2010-Present| | | |