For many states, condemnable justness system and legal system could non supply a significant protection on the vulnerable marks ; hence, there will be a reform on the system. In October 2006, the Secretary for Justice and the Chief Justice asked for a reviewal on the Torahs regulating the sexual and related offenses and “ to see whether a strategy for the enrollment of wrongdoers convicted of such offenses should be established ” ( Sexual offenses records cheques, 2010, p.1 ; Panel on Security, 2010 ) . During 2007, The Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong has come to on the subject of sex wrongdoer registry as the get downing point of the reformation. There are a figure of tribunal judgements that have demonstrated some bing jobs in Hong Kong. In recent old ages, some wrongdoers use the trust between their pupils and kids and the power of being authorization to perpetrate sexual maltreatment. For case, a parttime fence instructor was caught in 2009 because he was holding indecency Acts of the Apostless with a kid who is under 16. The sentence of the suspect was reduced because he resigned as a instructor, alternatively, he still taught fencing as a voluntary ( HKSAR v Yeung Tin Shun, 2009 ; Sexual offenses records cheques, 2010 ) . Furthermore, some wrongdoers would prevail in their condemnable Acts of the Apostless even they have been convicted with similar offenses. In 2006, an occupational therapy helper was convicted because of indecently assailing a 12-year-old miss. The suspect had five old strong beliefs ; of those three were indecorous assaults affecting immature misss or kids ( HKSAR v. Ian Peter Nash, 2009 ; Sexual offenses records cheques, 2010 ) . These instances raise the consciousness of the protection of vulnerable individuals and therefore sex wrongdoer registry is proposed for the farther protection of kids.
Sexual activity wrongdoer enrollment has been carried out in states such as, America, Canada, England, etc ; and it was defined widely in term of application in different topographic points ( LaFond, 2005 ; Winick & A ; LaFond, 2003 ) . In the interim proposals on a sex wrongdoer registry ( 2008 ) , sex wrongdoer registry was defined as the protection for, peculiarly vulnerable individuals and kids, the populace from sex wrongdoers. The registry besides refers the duties on the sex wrongdoers after their prison term as they need to update continuously for the database of the registry. Furthermore, the registry besides refers to a system for occupation showing ; as condemnable records will be provided to turn out the suitableness of appliers when they entree to children-related occupations.
When puting up the sex wrongdoer registry, it comes to a concern on the balance of involvements of the stakeholders. Sexual activity wrongdoers ‘ privateness and rights will be earnestly affected. In other words, farther protection on the vulnerable individuals and helpless individuals will be benefited because of a high handiness on the sex wrongdoers. In 2010, a study is pressed about the positions of the sex offender registry from schools, other organisations and persons. The chief issue of set uping the sex wrongdoer registry is how to equilibrate the involvements both sex wrongdoers and the vulnerable individuals. However, merely roll uping the positions and suggestions from the child-related organisation, so what do the sex wrongdoers think about the proposal? It is besides of import to roll up the remarks from the sex wrongdoers as they are one of the cardinal stakeholders. Therefore, this research will concentrate on listening to the ex-sex wrongdoers, purpose at seeking their perceptual experiences and confer withing their remarks and suggestions of the sex wrongdoer registry that will be carried out in Hong Kong. The intent of this research is ( I ) to research the truth of the ex-sex wrongdoers on the sex wrongdoer registry, and ( two ) to happen out the positions of the ex-sex wrongdoers, and to be a voice for them to show their thoughts.
There are a figure of literatures conducted on the impact of a sex wrongdoer registry, merely a few sum of them concentrate on the public perceptual experiences on the registry. Nonetheless, those with public perceptual experiences would assist in this research with the contents choice.
Anderson and Sample ( 2008 ) conducted a research on public consciousness and action ensuing from sex wrongdoer community and presentment Torahs. They took the sample of Nebraska occupants to analyze the grade of consciousness of the populace by study. They found the respondents by randomised phone figure and random choice by the computing machine for the mark interviewee after they were informed the Numberss of grownups populating in the place. This research has a representative sample, nevertheless, telephoned place has a restriction that the age group of 19-24 was underrepresented as the ground may due to the usage of cell phones. Furthermore, this research was in a voluntary attack ; the ensuing replies may change from those who chose non to take part.
Zevitz and Farkas ‘s sex wrongdoer community presentment: Measuring the impact in Wisconsin ( 2000 ) shows wide positions on the effects of the sex wrongdoer presentment. They provided study to the occupants, constabularies and sheriff ‘s bureaus, probation and parole agents and supervisors ; nevertheless, my focal point is on the face-to-face interviews of 30 ex-sex wrongdoers. As sex wrongdoer enrollment is in pattern in Wisconsin, they can easy happen their marks from the enrollment. Written informed consent signifier was provided before the interview, and a series of inquiries were asked about their experiences with presentment and the impact it had on their lives. However, the procedure and construction of the interview remain ill-defined in the research.
Levenson, Brannon, Fortney and Baker ( 2007 ) conducted a research on public perceptual experiences about sex wrongdoers. During the August 2005, the information was collected from 193 participants of driving age in Melboume, Florida. Those respondents were surveyed in Department office. To minimise prejudice, the research workers contributed the questionnaire to everyone who is waiting to be served in the Department Office. Because one has to wait four to six hours to be served, the questionnaire therefore can be filled with sufficient clip. However, in the research, it has ignored those could non read English and those who handle the issue through cyberspace instead than bead in the Department Office.
In the theoretical field, disincentive of the sex wrongdoer registry is necessary in finding recidivism. There are two types of disincentive: specific disincentive and general disincentive. Disincentive can be defined as the bar of condemnable Acts of the Apostless by the usage or menace of penalty ( Schmalleger, 2006 ; Walsh & A ; Hemmens, 2008 ; Duff & A ; Garland, 1994 ; Vold & A ; Bernard, 1986 ) . While specific disincentive is for the bar of peculiar wrongdoers on repetition criminalism, and general disincentive refers to the bar of a general population from perpetrating similar offenses that is being committed.
Furthermore, labeling theory is besides of import in this research as it highlights societal reaction. As penalty has been served after prison term, sex wrongdoers would hold to transport the label of a sex wrongdoer if the registry is in pattern. This will be turned into dual hazard. There is empirical grounds that negative labels have an consequence on self-image and subsequent behaviour ( Schmalleger, 2006 ; Siegel, 2003 ) . There are two classs on research on labeling theory ( Schmalleger, 2006 ) . The first refers to who are powerless and could non contend against to be negatively labeled, so it is stick with the features of the wrongdoers who are chosen for labels. The 2nd refers to the anticipation of theoreticians on people who are being negatively labeled. This research would prone to the 2nd one as we would see the reaction Acts of the Apostless of being a record on the registry.
Beginning and research design
This research is designed to be qualitative research and a spot of quantitative elements. The population will be all ex-sex wrongdoers or those sex wrongdoers including those on probation and word in Hong Kong. The sample size would be set at 20. There will be 2 research workers in the proposal, and they may hold relationship, classmates. There will be a 5-minute study and 1-hour face-to-face interview to seek the experience and research the remarks on the sex wrongdoer registry with ex-sex wrongdoers. Hopefully, the research will be done in 9 months which 2 months for sourcing and trying, 6 months for the interviews and farther 1 month for analysis.
The population of this research is ex-sex wrongdoers ; hence, purposive sample is chosen which on the footing of those who was convicted one or more sexual offenses antecedently. The population non merely focal points on who had convicted of child-related but to all sexual offenses. It is because the boundary of the sex wrongdoer registry is remained ill-defined and this research would wish to roll up more remarks from different facets. Those were convicted of the sexual offense can be found through the supervising staff who on a regular basis handle, or trained to manage sex wrongdoers on probation and word and societal workers. Of those provided if more than our expected sample size, a random choice will be adopted to minimise prejudice. Surely, random choice is adopted merely for the consecutive order of the interviewees as there are more than one beginning of seeking an ex-sex wrongdoers ; choice will be continued until the range of the same size. However, there would be a trouble in reaching the mark wrongdoers that the information may be provided restrictively. Therefore even merely hold a small lead, seting attempt in calling the mark, directing an electronic mail or even waiting at the study topographic point ( for those who are on probation and word ) in order to reach the marks is necessary. For those who are referred by societal worker, it is comparatively easy to reach by using the societal workers as a jobber. It is because the ex-sex wrongdoers may already construct a trust with societal worker. Here will likely take approximately two months for seeking individuality of ex-sex wrongdoers and set them in a sequent.
To roll up informations, a 5-minute study and a face-to-face interview will be conducted subsequently. After successfully contacted the mark sample, we would travel to a topographic point that provided with a comfy and no force per unit area location for the study and interview, such as cafe . In peculiar circumstance, the interviewee can take the location that would soothe him as some of them may be really watchful. To clear up, every interview is merely for two-person conversation.
In the clip we meet the ex-sex wrongdoer, a questionnaire will be provided for the basic information of the interviewee. On the really first page will be the information sheet and written informed consent from, it is to supply a clear message and information to the interviewees. After that, it will be the questionnaire. The determination of holding a questionnaire is because some sensitive informations is expected to roll up ( Vito, Kunselman & A ; Tewksbury, 2008 ) . The questionnaire will get down with some personal information, such as age, sex, matrimonial position, employment, etc. The 2nd portion will mention to the strong belief history and it is the ground why a questionnaire is necessary in the research. This portion would non merely oppugning the times of being convicted, and besides the inside informations of the strong belief such as the term of sentence and offenses. Some may cover up some of the convicted offenses as they would experience embarrassed while saying more old strong beliefs. Third portion refers to the relationship between the research and the participants ; it is for the intent on placing the possible prejudice and influence during the interview. As to forestall awkward atmosphere, the clip of interviewees make fulling the questionnaire will be the clip for the research workers off to purchase a drink or nutrient as a readying for the coming interview.
After the 5-minute questionnaire, it will be followed by a 1-hour face-to-face interview. For the grade of formality, semi-structure interview is chosen in this subdivision. The purpose of this research is to research the truth and positions of the ex-sex wrongdoers. As the subject was comparatively sensitive on the sex wrongdoer registry sing to their individuality, construction interview may bring forth force per unit area that would take them to cover up something. However, in sing to the unstructured interview, it may diverge from the purpose of the research. Therefore, to lodge with the way of the findings, semi-structured interview will be conducted in footings of force per unit area and the information we wish to obtain ( Vito, Kunselman & A ; Tewksbury, 2008 ) .
The face-to-face interview will be conducted with the natural information of the sound recording. At the beginning of the sound recording, there will be a verbal informed consent.
The semi-structured interview usher will be divided into two parts. The first portion will concentrate on the sex wrongdoer registry proposed in Hong Kong and present the pattern of registry in other state in order to supply a clearer perceptual experience of the map and pattern of the sex wrongdoer registry. The 2nd portion of the interview will seek the remarks and recommendations from the ex-sex wrongdoers, such as their concerns, bing jobs, etc.
For the questionnaire, as the inquiry included in the questionnaire is independent variables ( refers to the basic information of the interviewees ) , the first portion of the questionnaire is closed-ended inquiry. The measuring of variable is as follows:
More, on the 2nd portion of the questionnaire, it inquiry about the old strong belief. This portion was designed with open-ended inquiries ; it refers to the name of the offenses, twelvemonth of strong belief and the sentence term. This is to look into how many individuals have committed child-related earlier and their recidivism rate. Therefore, this subdivision will be evaluated in nominal format. Last, the 3rd portion was inquiring about the relationship between the research, and this information will be presented in nominal format. The information will so come in to package named Excel for computation and rating.
For the sound entering interview, we will transcribe the audiotape into a printed record of the conversation. By the procedure of transcribing, research workers can once more listen to the full interview and the responses of the interviewees. Furthermore, we will analyse the information with a coding strategy ( Bryman, 2008 ; Brown & A ; Curtis, 1987 ; Vito, Kunselman & A ; Tewksbury, 2008 ) . That is first kind out the remarks or replies with mention to the inquiry guidelines. Then, we further place the specific information, constructs and experience. This procedure would assist guarantee the traveling through of all transcripts and categorising the statements in peculiar constructs. It is of import that all statements should be included during coding procedure. Therefore, it is necessary to hold a dual cheque on the transcripts that should hold been collected in the cryptography. After that, there will be an in-depth designation on the nucleus thought or concentrate on the statements in order to show the procedure of work and the idea of the sample size. The meaningful and utile informations will so be outlined for the treatment in the concluding study. In the concluding study, the categorised constructs and thoughts will be performed by citation. In add-on, the analysis is assigned a month to complete, it is because the audio recordings will hold transcribed after a few yearss of interview
Another concern of the research is the injury of respondents, particularly for ex-offenders, it is because they have to remember some regretted memories during the interview. Injuries to participants mention to physical injury, loss of self-esteem, experience nerve-racking, etc ( Bryman, 2008 ; Bell, 2005 ) . Of class, there will non hold physical injury to the participants, and we would seek to minimise the psychological injury of the participant. For illustration, when the participant is make fulling the questionnaire which consists of the something that is socially non accepted, seek to go forth the participant entirely to minimise their emphasis. Furthermore, a written informed consent signifier was provided at the beginning of the meeting. The informed consent signifier is with the presentment of volunteer of engagement, right to decline replying inquiries, right to retreat from interview and right to retreat their informations within 2 hebdomads of interview ( Bryman, 2008 ) . Apart from the written informed consent signifier, there is besides verbal informed consent at the beginning of the meeting to forestall deficiency of informed consent. Furthermore, it is necessary to inform the participants that their individuality will be protected throughout the research, Such as, utilize a false individuality when citing the conversation in the portion of analysis.
After seeking the positions and remarks of the ex-sex wrongdoers, I predict that the participants concern most are ( one ) who will be registered in the registry, ( two ) options on perpetrating offenses and ( three ) dual hazard. For those who were convicted of related-sexual offense offense would concern approximately will they still be the population to be registered in the registry, that is to state, when will be the get downing point of being registered in the registry. Second, there will ever be alternate on perpetrating related offenses. Disincentive may be effectual on schools and organisation may good acknowledge the sex wrongdoer registry, but non to the homeowner or private establishment. Therefore, a displacement of the victim groups may ensue accordingly. Third, they may claim that they have already served their penalty and rehabilitation in their sentence term. It is stigmatisation instead than labeling ( Duff & A ; Garland, 1994 ; Harrison, 2010 ) . Furthermore, it would impact the freedom of business ( Interim proposals on a, 2008 ; Harrison, 2010 ; LaFond, 2005 ) as it is barely to hold bravery to use an ex-sex wrongdoer on the child-related occupation. In other words, it obliterate an chance to acquire reintegrate the society.
In decision, ex-sex wrongdoers are powerless to show their positions. Although the society ever brings up the thoughts of equilibrating the involvements of the sex wrongdoers and the vulnerable individuals, yet no actions is done in relation with the sex wrongdoers. There is still restriction in this research, the research is non generalizable as the sample size is non representative that at least 1000 of sexual assault per twelvemonth late[ 1 ]( Crime Statistics Comparison, 2010 ) . However, this explorative research will supply another point of positions that is at interest with the constitution of the sex wrongdoer registry. If the balance of involvements who at interest is such of import in puting up the sex wrongdoer registry, this research will supply the perceptual experiences of ex-sex wrongdoers and hope their facets could be taken into history for the proposal of the sex wrongdoer registry.
Anderson, A. L. , & A ; Sample, L. L. ( 2008 ) . Public Awareness and Action Resulting From Sex Offender Community Notification Laws. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 19 ( 4 ) , 371-396. Retrieved March 11, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //cjp.sagepub.com/content/19/4/371
Bell, J. ( 2005 ) . Making your research undertaking: a usher for first-time research workers in instruction and societal scientific discipline. ( 4th ed. ) . New York: Open University Press.
Brown, S. E. , & A ; Curtis, J. H. ( 1987 ) . Fundamentalss of condemnable justness research. ( 4th ed. ) . Cincinnati, Ohio: Pilgrimage.
Bryman, A. ( 2008 ) . Social research methods. ( 3rd ed. ) . New York: Oxford University Press.
Duff, A. , & A ; Garland, D. ( Eds. ) ( 1994 ) . A Reader on penalty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Crime Statistics Comparison. ( 2010, March ) .Hong Kong Police Force. Retrieved March 14, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.police.gov.hk/ppp_en/09_statistics/csc.html
Harrison, K. ( Ed. ) ( 2010 ) . Pull offing bad sex wrongdoers in the community: hazard direction, intervention and societal duty. Cullompton, UK: Willan.
HKSAR V Yeung Tin Shun. ( 2009, July 9 ) . In the territory tribunal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Criminal instance No.1205 of 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //legalref.judiciary.gov.hk/doc/judg/pdf/vetted/other/ch/2008/DCCC001205_2008.pdf
HKSAR v. Ian Peter Nash. ( 2009, August 14 ) . In the territory tribunal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Criminal instance No.422 of 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //legalref.judiciary.gov.hk/lrs/common/ju/ju_frame.jsp? DIS=67619 & A ; currpage=T
Interim proposals on a sex wrongdoer registry: audience paper. ( 2008 ) . Hong Kong: Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong.
LaFond, J. Q. ( 2005 ) . Preventing sexual force: how society should get by with sex wrongdoers. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association.
Leveson, J. S. , Brannon, Y. N. , Fortney, T. , & A ; Baker, J. ( 2007 ) . Public Perceptions About Sexual activity Wrongdoers and Community Protection Policies. Analysiss of Social Issues and Public Policy, 7 ( 1 ) , 1-25.
Panels on Security: Minutess of particular meeting held on Thursday, 8 April 2010, at 9:00 am in the Chamber of the Legislative Council Building. ( 2010, September 14 ) . Legislative Council. Retrieved March 21, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.legco.gov.hk/yr09-10/english/panels/se/minutes/se20100408.pdf
Schmalleger, F. ( 2006 ) . Criminology today: an integrative debut. ( 4th ed. ) . Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Prentice Hall.
Sexual offenses records cheques for child-related work: interim proposals. ( 2010 ) . Hong Kong: Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong.
Siegel, L. J. ( 2003 ) . Criminology. ( 9th ed. ) . Belmont, Calif: Thomson Learning.
Vito, G. F. , Kunselman, J. , & A ; Tewksbury, R. ( 2008 ) . Introduction to condemnable justness research methods: an applied approach.. ( 2nd ed. ) . Springfield, Ill. : Charles C. Thomas.
Vold, G. B. , & A ; Bernard, T. J. ( 1986 ) . Theoretical criminology. ( 3rd ed. ) . New York: Oxford University Press.
Winick, B. J. , & A ; LaFond, J. Q. ( Eds. ) ( 2003 ) . Protecting society from sexually unsafe wrongdoers: jurisprudence, justness, and therapy. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association.
Walsh, A. , & A ; Hemmens, C. ( 2008 ) . Introduction to criminology: a text/reader. Los Angeles: Sage.
Zevitz, R. G. , & A ; Farkas, M. A. ( December, 2000 ) . National Institute of Justice: Research in Brief. Sexual activity wrongdoer presentment: Measuring the impact in Wisconsin, Retrieved February 10, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/179992.pdf