Homosexuality is non merely a modern-day political orientation or behavior of people. It has been present even during the ancient Grecian times. and the early African and Native American folk. In some Native American folk. a adult male dressed as a adult female was treated with great regard because they were considered to be spiritually gifted ( Bidstrup. 2001 ) . In some African folks. onanism and other homosexual behaviors between immature male childs were even tolerated ( Bidstrup. 2001 ) . They saw these actions as guiltless and nil but child-play. In the ancient Greek and Roman civilisation. same sex relationships were accepted.
It was non unusual to see work forces snoging other work forces in public. This tolerance was someway changed upon the invasion of the English. They introduced the thought that same sex relationships and behaviors were immoral. Thus. some of these people repressed these behaviors until it became forbidden even today. Homosexuality is different from sexual orientation. It is a specific type of the sexual orientation of an person. Sexual orientation is the grade to which an person is attracted to individuals of the other sex and/or to the individuals of the same sex ( Smith. et Al. 2003 ) .
Homosexuality. on the other manus. is the attractive force of an person to the same sex and heterosexualism is the attractive force to the opposite sex. The beginning of homosexualism has been debated for a long clip now. There were psychologists and scientists who support the thought that sexual orientation is unconditioned. On the other manus. some say that environmental factors play a great trade of importance in finding an individual’s sexual orientation and non unconditioned 1s. But which one is true? Let me first discourse the history of homosexualism in order to hold a better apprehension on it.
Why is it sacred and ordinary in the yesteryear? Make these histories prove the being of innate and environmental factors in act uponing an individual’s sexual orientation? Homosexuality in Prehistoric Africa Harmonizing to some early text during the Inquisition period. African folks accepted homosexualism in their civilization. Even one of these folks. the Hausa people. had footings to depict homophiles: ‘Yan dauda which describes a cross-dresser and ‘dan dauda which can be translated as homosexual ‘wife’ ( Bidstrup. 2001 ) . In this folk. they engaged in male harlotry.
These male cocottes did non hold ‘pimps’ but they engaged in harlotry if an chance arises. There were other folks in Africa where boys prosecuting in homosexual activities were considered to be guiltless. They considered themselves virgins at matrimony despite holding experience in homosexual activities. There were besides tribes where they expect work forces to prosecute in sexual activities with other work forces like the Bantu-speaking people of Africa. Homosexuality among Native Americans There were a important figure of work forces have oning adult females apparels in Native American folks.
These work forces were called Two-Spirits because they embody the two sexes— the male and the female. They were respected because Native Americans believed that these work forces were particular gifts by the God. They believed that these work forces have penetrations sing religious affairs. They were considered to be Prophetss who were able to understand the kingdom of both adult male and adult female ( Bidstrup. 2001 ) . Homosexuality in Ancient Greece and Rome It was known that the Roman Empire did non digest homosexualism in the society. But this belief is incorrect. Like the ancient Greeks. Romans besides accepted work forces holding relationships with work forces.
It was believed that the Roman Empire declined when the tolerance on homosexualism increased. On the reverse. when it was ruled by the Senate. it was discovered that Romans had a high tolerance on homosexualism ( Bidstrup. 2001 ) . In Ancient Greece. they believed that maleness and feminity was non two separate kernels. They believed that the sex of an person was really the combination of both maleness and feminity. Therefore. homosexualism was non an issue for Greeks. They do non happen work forces snoging other work forces in public an unusual scene.
They accept work forces acquiring married with another adult male and holding sexual intercourse with them. Therefore. we can happen a big figure of literature and art sing homosexualism in these civilisations. This brief history on the presence of homosexualism among persons proves that homosexualism is non merely a mere tendency brought by modern-day ideals. It has been portion of our society since the morning of adult male. Besides. these histories show that homosexualism may be in-born and may besides be influenced due to environmental factors. Despite the crude nature of prehistoric Africans. some work forces were able to happen themselves attracted to other work forces.
It is possible that unconditioned factors played in this natural behavior of being attracted to the same sex. Another illustration is evident influence of environmental factors. The Greeks’ broad credence of man-to-man relationships and their beliefs on gender and gender influenced men’s sexual orientation. Innate Factors in Sexual Orientation Psychologists say that childhood gender nonconformity is a phenomenon that shows the innateness of sexual orientation. Childhood gender nonconformity is when an single enjoys activities typical of the other sex and most of their friends are the other sex.
It was besides found that grownups who experienced gender nonconformity study that they had non been masculine ( for work forces ) or feminine ( for adult females ) when they were kids ( Smith. et Al. 2003 ) . Another grounds is the presence of a cistron nowadays in homophiles. It was observed that homosexual brothers frequently tend to portion the same X-chromosome Xq28 ( Deem. 2009 ) . This determination suggests that this cistron may impact male’s sexual orientation. Environmental Factors on Sexual Orientation One grounds of environmental factors moving as determiners of sexual orientation is the raising facet in kid development.
It is said that parents play a function in the gender individuality and sexual orientation development of a kid. But this theory is non strongly supported by scientific surveies. Another grounds is the exotic-becomes-erotic theory of Daryll Bem of Cornell University. In this theory. he believes that sexual orientation is socially determined. Therefore. environment plays a function in sexual orientation development. But we should besides take into history that EBE theory addresses the innateness of sexual orientation. EBE theory suggests that cistrons and endocrines cause differences in a child’s disposition.
The difference would find if the kid will be engrossed in activities typical to his/her ain sex or to the other sex. When the kid spends more clip with the opposite sex. they feel similar with the opposite sex and go alienated with the same sex. This alien feeling so becomes an titillating feeling when the kid grows. Although the grounds for environmental factors is weak. Bem’s EBE theory supports the being of both factors. Homosexuality isn’t merely inborn in an person. environmental factors besides play a function. It is the interplay of these two factors that differences in sexual orientation are possible.
Mentions Beem. R. ( 2009 ) . Genetics and homosexualism: Are people born homosexual? The biological footing for sexual orientation. Godandscience. org. Retrieved March 30. 2009. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. godandscience. org/evolution/genetics_of_homosexuality. hypertext markup language Beem’s essay focused on the innateness of sexual orientation. It discussed related encephalon and duplicate surveies and other scientific surveies that support the innateness of sexual orientation. Bidstrup. S. ( 2001 ) .
Saint Aelred the fagot: The surprising history of homosexualism and homophobia. Bidstrup. com. Retrieved at March 30. 2009. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bidstrup. com/phobiahistory. htm Bidstrup discussed the history of homosexualism and homophobia in this essay. He talked about the antediluvian folk and civilisations that tolerated homosexualism and why it has become oppressed in these groups. Smith. E. E. ; Nolen-Hoeksema. S. ; Fredrickson. B. and Loftus. G. R. ( 2003 ) . Atkinson & A ; Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology. ( 14th ed. ) . Australia: Thomson & A ; Wadsworth. Smith’s text edition covers general psychological science talks like emotions. acquisition. and motive. It provides specific and up-to-date illustrations and applications of footings. theories. and definitions.