What is human trafficking? How do we experience when we heard narratives that adult females and immature kids have been traded from one topographic point to another like goods? What can we lend to contend against this sort of issue? Though those inquiries, we really have motive to delve on this subject and research deeply how this sort of issue evolves in the planetary administration in this twenties-first century. Harmonizing to the UN ‘s definition, human trafficking is “ The enlisting, transit, transportation, harbouring or reception of individuals, by agencies of the menace or usage of force or other signifiers of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of misrepresentation, of the maltreatment of power or of a place of exposure or of the giving or having of payments or benefits to accomplish the consent of a individual holding control over another individual, for the intent of development ” . Generally, trafficking in homo is the consequences of economic and societal disparities that increase the exposure of 1000000s of people and it becomes a major concern for all the states in the universe. Each twelvemonth, 1000000s of work forces, adult females and kids are trafficked and forced to work every bit bonded labours in assorted topographic points such as in mills, piscaries, farms, streets and whorehouses. In other word, the trafficked people are used in agribusiness, domestic service, mail order brides, harlotry and sweatshops. It is estimated that the figure of people being trafficked worldwide is about 600,000 to 800,000. Furthermore, Human trafficking exists in every corner of the universe and it can be either traversing of an international boundary line or within the state. For case, this job can be found in non merely in developed states such as the United States, European states but it can go on in hapless states such as Cambodia, Vietnam, China and so on. Although the victims of human trafficking can be everyone, most of clip, adult females and kids comprise the largest group of the victims. Womans frequently do non hold equal employment and educational chances, and legal or political rights. Women besides face many signifiers of gender based misdemeanors, such as domestic force, sexual force and venereal mutilation ; which are linked to societal and cultural constructions that contribute to the exposure of adult females to human trafficking. Children are besides vulnerable to trafficking in individuals due to their parents and households ‘ socio-economic state of affairs. Talking about the causes of human trafficking, there are many factors which lead to hold human trafficking in the single provinces every bit good as in the universe. They can be listed down as poorness, gender inequality, unemployment, a deficiency of instruction, weak regulation of jurisprudence, and hapless administration accompanied by socio-economic factors.

The causes of Human Trafficking:

Human trafficking, which is a procedure with people being abducted or recruited in the state of beginning, transferred through theodolite parts and so exploited in the state of finish is a deep concern at planetary, regional and province degree. It continues to increase throughout the universe and it is considered as immense job for Cambodia to cover within this modern-day society. The roots of human trafficking semen from the poorness and unemployment, deficiency of instruction and gender inequality.

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Poor Kampuchean people, largely adult females and kids, are easy to fall into the human sellers ‘ trap since gaining good status of life is the chief concern which those sellers use to convert. Neighbor Countries such as Thailand and Vietnam are the chief finishs where Kampuchean work forces are trafficked in order to work in piscaries, building and fabrication while kids are trafficked to work as street Sellerss and mendicants. Furthermore, adult females are trafficked to Malaysia, Taiwan and farther field for sexual development, for working as domestic retainers and garment mill workers. As there are fewer occupations within the state, peculiarly at the rural countries, Kampuchean work forces and adult females tenderly push to migrate to outside the state by trusting that their life would be better off. Based on Cambodia ‘s nose count in 2008, Kampuchean population is 13,395,682 in which 6,516,054 are males and 6,879,628 are females. However, among this population, 35 % of Cambodians, who can gain merely 0.45 per twenty-four hours, live below the national poorness line. It evidently shows that poorness has been a important factor for Cambodians to seek employment abroad such as Thailand and Vietnam. In the procedure of making so these people particularly adult females and kids have been trafficked into the sex industry and exploited for labour. In add-on, other factors such as landlessness, catastrophes, agricultural failure and uneven economic development and so on are likely to make more poorness in the society. For case, in order to bring forth income, the hapless have had borrowed money from traders at high involvement rates. However, due to neglect agricultural harvests and natural catastrophes, many of them were unable to cover with their debts subsequently on. As a consequence, they were forced to sell their belongings and even the kids were responsible for refunding the loan and the accumulating involvement. What is more, in many instances, the misss are approached by a recruiter in their ain small towns and are offered work in garment mills or other metropolis occupations. It is n’t until later that they discover that they had been sold into harlotry.

Other ground which besides contributes to human trafficking in Cambodia is inequality of gender. Girls are in Kampuchean society every bit good as in many societies expected to give instruction and security and take on duties towards parents and siblings. In such state of affairss, misss are seen as a comparatively ‘poor investing ‘ , and directing them off to work may look a feasible option. That is the ground why most cocottes are adult females non work forces. Due to the societal construction and the policy mechanism, Kampuchean adult females do non hold full entree to services for their ain BASIC and cardinal demands such as entree to instruction, wellness service, information and others. Young misss are non protected or encouraged in instruction unlike male childs and are frequently asked to remain at place to assist their households. Womans are non encouraged to take part in the decision-making procedure in economic sciences, societal and political relations. This takes away adult females ‘s right including the right of entree to profit and of resources. This factor has pushed adult females into poorness and they do non hold any options to do their lives better and this leads them into harlotry either out of despair or as consequence of trafficking. We all aware of the many instances of female parents or parents who sold their girls and these misss are expected to give themselves, to prostitute their organic structures so as to gain money for their hapless households. Last but non least, the deficiency of instruction chiefly leads to child trafficking. At the clip that kids are non able to have higher instruction, kids ‘s exposure to development is in higher rate. Low instruction degrees contributed to higher poorness degrees which has mentioned above is the root of falling into human seller ‘s fast ones.

In decision, poorness, low instruction and unfairness of gender are three chief causes which contribute in human trafficking in Cambodia. Consequently, in order to cover with this job, it requires many difficult attempts from the Royal authorities every bit good as from NGOs including legal commissariats, jurisprudence enforcement, and set uping reintegration policies to assist returning victims achieve better life conditions.

Cambodia ‘s mechanism against Human Trafficking:

At present, Cambodia has achieved a singular advancement in many countries toward the development procedure including in the Fieldss of political, economic, societal and cultural rights along with its progress of democratisation, after the post-conflict. Harmonizing to the recent survey made by the Overseas Development Institute ( ODC ) and the UN Millennium Campaigns, Cambodia is listed among 20 states doing the most absolute advancement on MDGs and on path to run into the halving of poorness by 2015. In add-on, speaking about human trafficking issues, many counter-trafficking intercessions have been carried by Royal Government of Cambodia which besides plays a important function to heighten the legal instruments in order to decrease this job from the society by collaborating with other related histrions both on international every bit good as regional degrees.

Put merely, on the international degree, international organisation such as UNIAP, ILO, IOM, UNODC put a model understanding to battle Human trafficking though four different methods. First of all, bar activities which include awareness-raising runs on human trafficking and safe migration, instruction and capacity edifice, creative activity of kid protection webs, poorness relief and catastrophe response undertakings through micro-credit strategies are implemented across the state, chiefly in beginning countries. For case, some plans such as developing legal labour enlisting channels to Thailand, Malaysia and Korea to guarantee the protection of migratory workers abroad, kid safe touristry run to forestall trafficking in the touristry industry, community mobilisation and poorness relief run in 5 cardinal boundary line states, and incorporating human trafficking issues into the school course of study are undertaken within the state. Following, there are other protection steps to supply post-harm aid to trafficked victims including designation, deliverance, repatriation, household tracing, household appraisal, reintegration, short/medium/long-term shelter, instruction and vocational instruction aid. Furthermore, prosecution involves activities associating to the condemnable justness procedure, including probes, apprehensivenesss, apprehensions, prosecutions and strong beliefs.

On the regional degree, in 2004, within the Great-Mekong-Sub part, Cambodia, which is one the six members has jointly signed the Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation against trafficking in Persons. In this MoU, it contains 34 specific committednesss in the countries of policy and cooperation, preventative steps, legal models, jurisprudence enforcement and justness, protection, recovery and reintegration and so on. Furthermore, at the same twelvemonth, Cambodia acceded to an ASEAN model viz. the Treaty on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters. The intent of this is to beef up the effectivity of provinces governments in implementing Torahs such as bar, probe, prosecution of condemnable instances. Furthermore, as trafficking in people normally happen across the boundary line, peculiarly in neighbour states such as Vietnam and Thailand, the authorities of these states agree to work bilaterally to extinguish and to help the trafficking victims particularly adult females and kids. For illustration, Cambodia and Vietnam conducted a bilateral understanding to forestall and to battle offenses in 1997. One twelvemonth subsequently, Cambodia and Thailand joined the pact on extradition to advance coaction effectivity to battle condemnable act in 1998.

Given the badness of the job, the authorities had done much in term of national response to human trafficking and there are plentifulness of steps and activities to cover with this job. For illustration, National Task Force was established in order to perpetrate to the regional MoU understanding on riddance of trafficking of individuals and supplying aid for the victims of trafficking. Furthermore, besides, working with international organisations, two ministries play extremely of import functions in assisting the victims throughout the reintegration plan. The first one is Minister of ( MoSAVYR ) which is working on a protection policy to supply the victims with designation, deliverance, safe repatriation, rehabilitation and integrating with accomplishments, medical, instruction and vocational preparation and household following appraisal. In 2007, MoSAVYR worked with Thailand to construct theodolite shelter for theodolite and for having Kampuchean victims from Thailand in western country, Poi Pet. The 2nd ministry who works on this affair is the MoWA. Its activities which focus on the bar of trafficking are implemented across the state, chiefly in countries where instances of trafficking have originated from. What is more, on February 2008, Cambodia ‘s new Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation was promulgated and went into consequence instantly. This statute law provides jurisprudence enforcement governments the power to look into all signifiers of trafficking and is a powerful tool in attempts to prosecute and convict sellers and have them face rigorous penalties.

Challenges and troubles toward anti-human trafficking mechanisms:

Although many concrete enterprises are used by both Royal Government of Cambodia and civil societies in battling the human trafficking within the state, we can still happen out the challenges in the legal model which are considered as the critical countries to be reformed in order to do counter trafficking steps more effectual. Harmonizing to the Ministry of Women ‘s Affairs and the Asian Foundation ‘s survey on the authorities and NGOs response on this issue in 2002, the study showed that there were a spread in the countries of bar, protection, recovery and reintegration, coordination and cooperation.

First of all, in the portion of bar, there is a deficiency of information and consciousness between different ministries of the Royal Government and civil society, and between NGOs and the populace on trafficking, on the aid service and the processs to work out the jobs. Media webs such as wireless, newspapers, and telecasting do non cover the whole state or concentrate on appropriate mark groups on issues of trafficking. Peoples do non actively supply information to governments about trafficking and other condemnable activities as they fear reprisal. There is besides a deficiency of accent in plan intercessions on equal support groups, which actively engage victims in the communities, peer instruction and child engagement in explicating schemes to forestall trafficking. Although, the “ Friend Educates Friend and Friend Helps Friend ” scheme has been introduced but so far the consequences are still limited and child protection and monitoring webs are still comparatively new and do non cover the whole state. Furthermore, it is perceived that it is hard to mobilise villagers to larn about and undertake their jobs because they are frequently urgently hapless and have limited instruction. Furthermore, vocational preparation facilitates paid employment work, but the vocational preparation by and large offered is still non wholly appropriate for the local employment market.

Second, taking about the rehabilitation and reintegration, many shelters are non supplying equal services ; in certain states, there are practically no services for trafficked victims because shelters that do be are frequently under resourced. What is more, staff in service centres, shelters and in authorities ministries lack capacity and preparation in relevant accomplishments such as psycho-social guidance, recovery and educational techniques, every bit good as in general plan direction. Vocational preparation activities, which are normally provided to trafficked victims while they are in the shelters, frequently do non take to paid employment, increasing the hazard of victims returning to harlotry and other signifiers of exploitatory business. In add-on, criterions have non been set for shelters and enrollment of shelters is fickle ; conformity to whatever ordinances are set by the authorities is non good monitored. The chief societal participants in the communities lack the cognition and instruction to offer support to trafficked victims and their households, or those that have been subjected to forced labour, and who have returned to their small towns. Society stigmatizes kids and adult females who have been trafficked and exploited ; the traditional belief is that non-virgin individual adult females are unfit to get married. As a consequence, misss or adult females who have been raped or who are thought to hold been a sex worker may be rejected by her household and community.

Last but non least, the legal model which is imposed by the Royal Government does non work efficaciously. The 1996 jurisprudence on the combat of human snatch and trafficking and homo concern which is in consequence still has a figure of defects and the new bill of exchange jurisprudence prepared by the Ministry of Justice in cooperation with the Legal Development Institute of Japan on the suppression human trafficking and sex trade has non been adopted. Awareness of the Torahs and legal apprehension among Kampuchean people is still weak or limited. Furthermore, Torahs and other letters of norm have non been purely and exhaustively implemented, which has enabled some wrongdoers to get away apprehension and prosecution. Some victims, service suppliers and governments still do non understand the importance of grounds for bear downing the wrongdoers involved in a instance and they have non cooperated with the competent governments, which has allowed some wrongdoers to get away from justness. Some massage and karaoke parlours and cabarets have become whorehouses for sexual development, which makes it hard for the competent governments to inspect. Most significantly, there are no Judgess who have particular accomplishments to look into human trafficking instances and the legal assistance services still do non hold the necessary expertness in human trafficking instances. The Memorandum of Understanding between the Royal Government of Cambodia and the Royal Government of Thailand on the bilateral cooperation to extinguish the trafficking of adult females and kids and to supply aid to victims of trafficking which has already been signed still has non been implemented.

In decision, the challenges of anti-human trafficking mechanisms are found in three different countries such as in bar, protection and rehabilitation. As a consequence, we can see that many recommendations or suggestions have been proposed in order to reform those mechanisms of Cambodia authorities every bit good as other local and international NGOs.


In order to response to the mentioned challenging, recommendations and necessary measurings are suggested to beef up the bing methods and legal models. In add-on, the reform should non be done merely on the portion of the Kampuchean authorities but it should be implied on the civil societies such as NGOs and other enlisting bureaus as good.

In term of the authorities, policy shapers, local governments and jurisprudence hatchet mans every bit good as members of the tribunals and justness system should see trafficked individuals as victims instead than felons. The victims need to be treated sympathetically and consequently their entree to justness demands to be supported and trafficking victims should be considered as informants. Furthermore, increasing cooperation and professional cooperation between the constabulary, military constabulary, prosecuting officers, Judgess, and national and international organisations and NGOs is other chief method to heighten the quality of measuring ; the authorities should supply further preparation for constabulary, prosecuting officers, and Judgess – both individually and jointly, including in the usage of forensic grounds and in working with victims as informants. Furthermore, the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training should take a proactive function in guaranting the legal employment position and rights of migratory workers under the labour Torahs of having states, and to supervise and take action against enlisting agencies/employers who do non esteem the human rights of migratory workers and who do non follow the labour Torahs. In add-on, the authorities must develop a comprehensive migration direction system that includes the publicity of safe migration, constitution of safe remittal and investing systems, proviso of consular services for migrators overseas, and helping the return and reintegration of returned migrators. The figure of small-scale and medium-scale endeavors should be created for Strengthening and broadening the economic system and to give the chances for the victims of trafficking to profit from these economic sectors and to better their life conditions.

NGOs should raise attending to the maltreatments and jobs faced by migratory workers at governmental and many-sided meetings and imperativeness for reforms. Supply support services such as legal assistance, wellness attention, shelter, occupation preparation, finance direction, reding, pre-departure preparation, and reintegration plan to migratory workers. Empower ( adult females ) migrators through human rights and gender preparation, consciousness raising on the pros and cons of migration, workshops on self-help in health care, HIV/AIDS, and generative wellness, stressing a rights-based, participatory attack. Facilitate treatments and information sharing between migrant-focused NGOs, community-based organisations, trade brotherhoods, migratory workers and the authorities, with the aims of understanding the migration kineticss, placing the jobs, and buttonholing the authorities to turn to the spreads. Furthermore, they should make a Community Village Funds to back up people who wish to migrate. A similar community-based migration squad can supply advice and reding to people who want to migrate and to move as a watchdog for trafficking/smuggling instances. the Kampuchean Government must set up an independent organic structure to supervise and to implement stricter ordinance and licensing of Kampuchean enlisting bureaus. This watchdog should have the highest degree of cooperation and support from the authorities and could be administered by a UN or a national NGO. The functions and duties of enlisting bureaus need to be better addressed, through stricter ordinance systems that carry the menace of remotion of licence for perennial incidents of maltreatment.

More updated, dependable and comprehensive national statistics and information on the figure and demographics of external and internal Khmer migrator workers, and general tendencies of migration in Cambodia are needed. There is a demand for greater certification of the volume and manners of irregular migration, the procedures and effects of migration, the relationship between workers and labour agents/brokers/recruiters, the maltreatments and jobs that migrators encounter at their workplace, the costs and benefits of migration for stakeholders, in order to place appropriate solutions and intercession schemes. More item on the lives of rural adult females in small towns – how they live, their beliefs and values, traditional patterns, family constructions, their motives to migrate – is needed. How have all these changed as a consequence of increasing migration to the urban countries and other states? Attention needs to be given to the exposures of girls/women left behind in rural states after their male parents or hubbies have migrated: What sort of support is available for them? Do they hold agencies to entree income bring forthing activities? More research and consideration on how to protect Kampuchean adult females migratory workers at all phases of the migration procedure and to advance safe and orderly migration. Cambodia could originate participatory, collaborative research with having states to develop cognition of Torahs and patterns sing migratory workers with a particular focal point on adult females migrators, and circulate this information to migrant workers, the media, enlisting bureaus, NGOs and concerned parties.