The work of an event director can be a dashing undertaking as his or her work is important to the success of the event. The primary duty of an event director is to guarantee that all facets of the event are up and running. From the tiniest spot of item to the most generic facets of the event, the event director ensures that nil goes incorrect. Part of the work of the event director is to guarantee the safety of the people involved in the event. While this is so, certain statute laws such as the New South Wales Occupational Health and Safety Act of 2000 ( OHS Act 2000 ) require all organisations to place, buttocks, and pull off the hazards to the wellness and safety of all people in the workplace, including the employees, contractors, every bit good as the participants or the visitants. With the primary end of protecting the wellness, safety and public assistance of the people involved, OHS Act of 2000 provides a powerful influence in the riddance ( if non, decrease ) of the accidents and/or incidents in the workplace, which finally provides significant benefits to all stakeholders, be it moral, societal and fiscal benefits.

A safety civilization is one that constitutes attitudes, values, norms and beliefs to which a particular group of people portion in footings of hazard and safety ( Health and Safety Commission 1993 ) . Acknowledging that the wellness and safety of all people is of extreme importance, this study aims to exemplify an apprehension of the different issues associating to the proviso of a healthy and safe working environment. The study will concentrate on the demands that a specific event contractor provides the event director to guarantee the wellness and safety of the people involved. The study will show the different paperss that the event contractor must show to the event director to follow with the OHS statute law. Some of the paperss discussed in this paper are: ( 1 ) policy statements, ( 2 ) safety manuals and guidelines, and ( 3 ) hazard direction and control agendas. Other paperss presented in this study include the some elaborate checklists to guarantee the wellness and safety of all individuals involved in a specific event. The study gives a primary focal point to a production and presenting company as the specific event contractor to be used in supplying a safe and healthy working environment.

Background

Murphy ‘s Law states that, “ If anything can travel incorrect, it will, when you least anticipate it and at the worst possible clip ” ( Tonge 2010: 68 ) . Indeed, it has been acknowledged that hazards are natural and built-in in life. No affair how apparently safe it is, there will be cases when things can travel incorrect. To do affairs worse, incidents such as these may amount to every bit small as a 1000 of dollars to a million merely because of a company ‘s carelessness in supplying a safe and healthy environment for its people and participants. Not merely that, it may even take another individual ‘s life.

To exemplify, there are many illustrations of incidents that may hold resulted to hurts and even deceases. Recently, for illustration, dad vocalist Leona Lewis, few down a lift shaft during one of her concerts ( Lee 2010 ) . Lewis, seemingly, fell down several pess into a subdued hole when the hydraulic lift she had been utilizing to convey her to and from the phase malfunctioned. This incident, nevertheless, resulted to zero hurts for that affair. But, over the class of clip, there have been many other bad lucks in events such as accidents affecting malfunctions of equipment used during the events ( such as the instance of Lewis ) , accidents affecting fire, and many other accidents due to arrant carelessness. One of the most common of these accidents involve fire, like for Metallica frontmen James Hetfield, during one of the sets public presentation in Montreal ‘s Olympic Stadium in 1992 as he by chance stepped into a 12-foot tower of fire, which shot up at the margins of the phase as portion of the pyrotechnics of the show. Consequently, the frontman suffered from Burnss ( 2nd and 3rd grades ) in the different parts of his organic structure such as his arm, manus, face, hair and superciliums. Hetfield was so compelled to abandon the circuit for his ain safety and recovery from his lesion ( Thornhill 2010 ) . In another similar scenario affecting fire on phase, Gene Simmons during a public presentation in New York besides set his hair on fire. Luckily for him, person instantly was able to give him a moisture towel to snuff out the fires. Even the King of Pop, Michael Jackson caught himself on fire. He was making the commercial ad for Pepsi in 1884 when his hair besides caught fire from the pyrotechnics show. Because of this, Jackson suffered from 2nd grade Burnss and Pepsi paid $ 1.5 million for the amendss ( Thornhill 2010 ) .

Past incidents and accidents in events such as those mentioned supra have prompted event direction companies to take the necessary action to extinguish, if non, lessen the hazards of incidents and accidents. Such pattern came to be known as hazard direction — – a go oning, incorporated and iterative procedure, which ( 1 ) anticipates what can travel incorrect ( besides known as hazards ) , ( 2 ) identifies such hazards, ( 3 ) analyses the chance of the hazard, ( 4 ) approximates the impact of such hazard, ( 5 ) resolutenesss on the bar of the hazard, and ( 6 ) communicates the hazards and actions needed to be undertaken when necessary ( Tum, Norton & A ; Wright 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Comcare ( 2005 ) , there are fundamentally six elements that should represent the OHS hazard direction system as seen in the figure below:

Figure 1. Six Elementss in the OHS Risk Management System ( Comcare, 2005: 4 )

In the pattern of hazard direction, the analyses of some of the basic elements in events be aftering are significantly relevant, such as the nature of the event, the nature of the residents or participants, the denseness of the crowd, entree or egress motion, manner of emersion, flow aptitude and control, communicating systems, fire jeopardies, containment systems, structural unity, conditions of the installations and equipment, and its operations and forces ( Silvers 2008 ) . Such elements are presented in the tabular array below:

Component

Description

Nature of the event

The ground or intent of the event and its emotional constituents ( i.e. fight ) , the continuance and clip of twenty-four hours of the said event, every bit good as the activities to be carried out are known to act upon the calculation of safe tenancy tonss.

Nature of the participants

The nature of the participants will be used to cipher the behavior of the participants in reaction to any exigency. Such inside informations include gender, age, physical abilities, centripetal abilities, ground for take parting or go toing.

Density of crowd

The size and the denseness of the crowd will finally act upon the motion ability, farther impacting the tenancy burden allowed by the fire marshal.

Access or egress motion

Still known to act upon the tenancy tonss and the emptying flow capacity, the entree or emersion motions include volumes and forms of reaching and going, patterns and policies refering ticketing, crown traffic flow ( i.e. counter flow, cross flow, congestion, and line uping conditions ) , constructing constituents ( i.e. physical dimensions, complexnesss and contents ) .

Way of emersion

Way of emersion is the uninterrupted and clear manner of issue travel from any point in a edifice to a public manner that permits participants to fleetly go out the edifice in instance of exigency state of affairss.

Flow aptitude and control

Flow aptitude refers to the figure of people capable of traveling through a peculiar infinite or path in a specific sum of clip under specific state of affairss. This may be significantly influenced by other factors such s stepss, seating, meeting of traffic along egress waies, etc.

Communication systems

Systems refering to communications may include ocular and hearable presentment systems with exigency powers to efficaciously relay messages particularly above ambient noise degrees.

Fire jeopardies

As to the jeopardies refering fire and/or detonations, certain elements must be considered such as the character of the contents, constellation every bit good as the operations carried out.

Containment systems

Factors such as the figure, functionality and efficiency of suppression systems ( i.e. automatic sprinklers, fire asphyxiators ) must be equal to necessitate for such event.

Structural unity

Structures — – permanent, impermanent, movable and non-structural are to be assessed in footings of their burden bounds and stableness.

Conditionss of the installations and equipment

Facilities are to be evaluated including its properties and quality, comfortss, care and cleanliness every bit good as services offered.

Operationss and forces

This is significantly of import to be able to measure the employee preparedness in instance of exigencies. Factors included here are attitudes, cognition and preparation.

Adapted from Silvers 2008: 83-84

Discussion

Documents for Conformity

Australian OH & A ; S Risk Management Services or ARMS provides a simple Yes/No checklist to cognize whether your concern or company is compliant to the demands of the OHS Act 2000. One merely needs to reply all of the inquiries YES to wholly compliant. The specific inquiries are as follows:

Do you hold a formal Ohio Policy? Yes/No

Have you established a audience procedure with your staff? Yes/No

Do you hold a hazard appraisal procedure for identifying, measuring and commanding jeopardies? Yes/No

Have you developed safe work method statements for each occupation type? Yes/No

Do you hold clearly defined Manual Handling processes & A ; preparation Yes/No

Is your First Aid Kit compliant and up-to-date Yes/No

Do you hold a return to work programme in topographic point in the event of an hurt happening? Yes/No

However, while the checklist above may bespeak some countries of chance or betterment for hazard direction systems, risk direction systems, in conformity to the OHS Act 2000, is more complex and comprehensive than this checklist. Many paperss are needed to follow with the OHS Act 2000 such as the ( 1 ) policy statements, ( 2 ) safety manuals and guidelines, and ( 3 ) hazard direction and control agendas. Each of which will be discussed in the proceeding subdivisions of this paper.

Ohio Policy Statements

It can be said that the OHS policy statements are the bosom of the OHS hazard direction system. Such policy statements must try to make a safety civilization and pass on the house ‘s leading committedness to occupational wellness and safety to all employees — – from top to lower degree direction and even to rank-and-file places. The policy statements should incarnate the land works for development, execution and sweetening of the administration ‘s OHS hazard direction systems as it provides a starting point for all the ends that the administration wants to accomplish pertaining to its occupational wellness and safety criterions ( Karwowski 2006 ) .

Safety Manuals and Guidelines

The OHS Manual will function as a model to which the employees can ever turn to whenever they have some inquiries or elucidations in footings of how to make their occupations safely. Such manual have been established due to two primary grounds: ( 1 ) administrations do non trust on one individual to pass on to or learn other employees what they know about the safety step of their work and ( 2 ) the safety manuals lays out all information sing the safe work criterions by the administration, therefore, if such a clip that any review or inquiry from authorities assessors, the manual can supply such elaborate information.

Risk Management and Control Schedules

In carry oning the hazard direction and control agenda, the most of import thing to make is fundamentally to place the different hazards involved and measure their likeliness and effects, therefore be able to react to it suitably when such thing does happen during the said event. While this may be conducted on the regular footing, such determinations on actions to be done should be revisited to guarantee their execution.

Safety Management System for Production/Staging Company

The followers is a elaborate appraisal of some hazards that can happen with mention to the contractor involved, which is the production/staging company.

General Safe Work Practices

General safe work patterns must be implemented all throughout the event every bit good as anterior and subsequent to the event. The following are the different working jeopardies identified:

Ergonomic Hazards

Hazards refering to biotechnologies exist due to certain awkward positions or insistent actions that workers must put to death for the occupation to be done. Such jeopardies may happen due to either the limited infinite of working country or the demand of have oning certain suits or devices which stipulate really awkward places. The production/staging contractor must be able to place the different hazards involved and extinguish such hazards. If non, contractor must happen ways to turn to such job through either by taking regular short interruptions from such place to relieve the hazard.

Potential Changes in and of Work Environment

This is well of import for the production/staging company wherein their operations may change from one location to the other. Workers must be cognizant of the possible jeopardies involved and direction must guarantee that workers become responsible for any housework issues, so as non to present any farther hazards. Workers must be knowing of certain entree to exigency demands such as fire equipments, foremost assistance equipments, and other power boards. All entree and ways of emersion must be kept unobstructed at all times.

Housekeeping

It is extremely relevant that good housework is maintained, wherein each single workplace must be kept decently kept at all times and guarantee that passageways are kept clear.

Lighting

When working, appropriate lighting must at all be times used. If working in darkness or any other diminished visible radiations and can non be avoided particularly in productions, certain considerations must be made particularly so as non to damage the vision of the workers. Furthermore, if such instances that there will be a demand to exchange from really bright visible radiations to low 1s or the other manner around, appropriate considerations must besides be made. Passagewaies must be kept clear when utilizing weak visible radiations so as to minimise tripping or falling, particularly on stepss, etc. Furthermore, appropriate warning marks must be seeable when switched must be made. Communication might be disrupted due to weak visible radiations for people with hearing disablements.

Temperature

Temperature of working environment must be well-assessed in any facet of the production or event to understate the hazards involved in utmost exposure to heat and cold, particularly to sites where temperature can non be controlled ( i.e. out-of-door events ) . Temperature must be systematically monitored, wherein acceptable temperatures must be taken into consideration depending on the type of event. In any type of event, there should be appropriate suits or vesture must be made available for workers.

Smoking

Smoking can merely be allowed in designated countries so as to understate event of fire. Smoking countries must be assessed and should take into consideration other issues involved, most particularly the locations of the type of stuffs used for the event ( i.e. cloths, costumes, props ) . The company shall supply appropriate coffin nail asphyxiators like ashtrays and sandboxes to be positioned in such a mode that is accessible to the tobacco users.

Alcohol and other Drugs

In the working environment, it is prohibited at all times to convey or utilize any illegal drugs. In add-on, no intoxicant should be consumed particularly during working hours without the permission of the contractor or event organizer. In such instance wherein a worker is intoxicated while at work and the worker ‘s public presentation at work is finally affected, so the direction may take a firm stand on taking him/her from the workplace. If such case that worker is on medicine, so he/she will hold to advice the direction or supervisor foremost prior to working, particularly if this will act upon her ability to execute his/her undertakings.

Aggression

Aggression can present a possible jeopardies as it can develop in effect of certain issues like run intoing due day of the months, force per unit area, unequal remainder and repasts and other production emphasiss. To turn to such concern, direction must be able to sufficiently program and schedule the phases of production and presenting so as to understate this hazard.

Fatigue

Fatigue may go on particularly in presenting and production as the event gets nigher. Management must guarantee that workers get appropriate remainder, good diet and exercising in working for a specific event.

Other Medical Conditionss

A Medical Questionnaire should be given to all workers that would bespeak any medical conditions that may act upon or impact his/her ability to execute his/her work. See appendix for sample medical signifier. Whatever information is indicated in this study is to be treated with extreme confidentiality and non to be used to know apart the individual in any manner. The entree, storage and file awaying of such information will be upheld compliant to statute law.

Security

Workers must be decently secured and safe at all times during the clip they are working on a production or event. Reasonable steps must be undertaken to guarantee that all are safe and secured.

Working on Phase

For the production/staging company, several hazards can be formulated in working on phase. Actual scenarios indicated earlier proved that accidents do go on on phase and it is the contractor ‘s responsibility to relieve such happening of hazards. Here are some of the factors that must be considered:

Performance Activities

Some hazards affecting public presentation activities may run from high to low hazard degrees. Such incidents may include child to major accidents produced from:

Design and/or operation of harnesses or swings used for the show

Incorrect or insecure equipments and props

Inefficient autumn protection systems

Sudden alteration of scenes

Staging Hazards

Potential jeopardies in producing/staging may happen in any peculiar event. Such jeopardies include:

Water on phase

Participants, performing artists or other employees exposure to unsafe substances or other physical jeopardies such as explosives, pyrotechnics, fume, dry ice, and fog machines

Use of vehicles on phase

Weather and environmental issues ( i.e. temperature and humidness )

Insufficient, insecure and/or flawed communicating systems

Insufficient care of installation or equipment

Hazards refering to present lifts, holes, elevated countries

Unsuitable public presentation surfaces ( i.e. insufficient supported floors

Traveling phases

Insufficient entree and emersion points in multi-level phases

Unequal risers and measure highs

Trip jeopardies

Fire jeopardies ( i.e. exposure to stuffs that are extremely flammable )

Electrical jeopardies

Hazards for Outdoor Events

In such instances wherein the events are held out-of-doorss, certain considerations must be made in footings of safety and wellness such as conditions conditions. If such instance that the safety and public assistance of the participants and the employees, the event may necessitate to be cancelled or postponed, which is at the discretion of the events director and appropriate governments. If such event may necessitate specific conditions conditions, rigorous conformity must be adhered at all times. The job with out-of-door events is capriciousness of conditions conditions. In some instances, utmost temperatures, whether excessively hot or excessively cold, poses great dangers towards the wellness of the participants and the employees. In a hot twenty-four hours, there is the hazard of heat shot. Performers may besides necessitate to have on their costumes that will curtail their external respiration abilities. In contrast, for highly cold conditions conditions, small vesture required to be worn for a certain public presentation in cold conditions may besides present possible hazards. Access to other factors such as H2O, fans, sunglassess, resting installations and shadiness must besides be taken into consideration.

Aside from utmost temperature, there is besides the hazard of high or gusting air currents which may potentially do the hazard of devastation of phase installations and other installations that may easy be blown by the air. The event may necessitate to be cancelled if such conditions conditions occur. There is besides the job of lightning, wherein particular safeguards must be undertaken such that lightning may finally impact communicating and illuming systems. Wet conditions besides poses unsafe hazard in out-of-door events when stealing jeopardies can significantly be increased because of moist surface and decreased visibleness. In such instances, there is besides the danger of burning due to the usage of electrical devices during the event, twosome with the moisture conditions. To guarantee that electrical current does non come in contact with H2O, the devices must be suitably protected at all times. In such instances wherein the events are to be held in or near H2O, there is ever that hazard of tides and inundations which must be decently assessed prior to the event.

Decision