New Partnership for Africa ‘s Development ( NEPAD ) and Nigeria: a Critical Analysis of Capital Flows Initiative
This is a critical analysis of New Partnership for Africa ‘s Development ( NEPAD ) on capital flows initiative in relation to Nigeria. Using descriptive method of analysis, the paper observes that since 1999, the rate of FDI flows have non improved in malice of democracy in topographic point and attempts by the Government in contending corruptness, fraud and offense. The paper concludes that it is improbable Nigeria will bring forth extra Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) and Overseas Development Assistance ( ODA ) flows through NEPAD ‘s model. It recommends that a comprehensive mechanism for cut downing capital out flows and trade barriers be put in topographic point instantly.
It is rather apparent today that Africa is possibly the poorest and most backward continent in the universe. In malice of its immense natural and human resource gift, the continent is still characterized by economic and societal crises of poorness, corruptness, cultural clangs, unemployment, weak fiscal establishments and hapless infrastructural installations. ( Rice 2003and AFRODAD 2005 ) For Africa to get the better of these jobs of poorness and unemployment, it must be able to pull important sum of foreign capital, which harmonizing to Rice, ( 2003 ) without it “ Africa ‘s development aims will non be achieved ” .
In its attempts to pull more foreign private investing and official capital flows to the continent, Africa has since the mid-80s opened her economic system to foreign engagement through the I.M.F/World Bank ‘s economic liberalisation and deregulating policies of Structural Adjustment Programmes ( SAP ) However, SAP has been confronted with both conceptual and execution failures, particularly on indispensable societal services ( Onimode1995 )
Nigeria in her effort to pull more foreign capital established the Nigeria Investment Promotion Commission ( NIPC ) in 1995, following the repeal of Nigeria Enterprises Promotion Decree of 1989 and the Exchange Control Act of 1962.The repeal of these edicts accorded 100 per centum foreign ownership right in every industry in Nigeria with exclusion of petrol-chemical and national security industries. However, in malice of this commendable chance, foreign capital flows in to Nigeria is still at its lowest wane.
The latest effort by African leaders ( particularly president Obansanjo of Nigeria, Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, and Boutelfika of Algeria ) to convey the continent out of poorness and underdevelopment is the New Partnership African Development ( NEPAD ) .This is “ a common vision and a house and shared strong belief, that they have a pressing responsibility to eliminate poorness and to put their states, both separately and jointly, as a way of sustainable growing development and — — peculiarly actively in the universe economic system and organic structure politic ” NEPAD ( 2001:1 )
One of the cardinal elements of NEPAD is the foreign capital flows inaugural and its chief aim is to guarantee that Africa achieves a sustained 7 % one-year Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) growing rate for all the take parting states by the twelvemonth 2015, which is consistent with the in agreement International Development Goals ( IDGs ) . For this to be achieved, NEPAD says Africa needs US $ 64 billion one-year capital influxs per twelvemonth NEPAD ( 2001:37 ) .This could be inform of Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) , Overseas Development Assistance ( ODA, grants debt alleviation, and loans. By the agreement of NEPAD, the international community is expected to supply the majority of the money needed for the undertaking. But the critical inquiry is: Can this agreement be a dependable model for conveying Africa out of poorness, underdevelopment and incorporate it into globalising universe economic system?
The aim of this paper is to critically measure NEPAD ‘s capital flows enterprise in relation to Nigeria. Therefore, the range of the paper is limited merely to NEPAD ‘s capital flows enterprise and non the full programmes. The paper is divided into five subdivisions. Following the debut, the 2nd subdivision of the paper is the literature reappraisal and theoretical model. Section three is a brief reappraisal of NEPAD ‘s capital flow enterprises, marks and action program. Section four gives the appraisal of the foreign capital flows enterprise in relation to Nigeria, while subdivision five concludes the paper.
2.0 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
This subdivision briefly reviews some basic constructs of capital flows and besides assesses theoretical issues.
2.1 Concept of foreign capital flows
Foreign capital flows could be classified into two chief classs: official capital flows and private capital flows.
Official capital flows or official assistance: As Busse ( 2005 ) justly observed, there are several grounds for official capital flows or AIDSs. It could be human-centered, development, international solidarity, or it could be for classless motivations. However, in the context of this paper, Aid is seen as fiscal flows from donor states ( normally developed states ) to recipient states in advancing economic and human development of the receiver states.
Official assistance could be classified into bilateral assistance and many-sided assistance. Bilateral assistance, this is the assistance flow straight from the donor state to the recipient state, while many-sided assistance comes from international fiscal establishments such as the IMF, the World Bank Group, regional and many-sided development Bankss that receive their money from single states and capital markets and so impart it to developing states ( Jhinghan, 2002 and Cassidy, 2004 on line ) .
Both AIDSs have different aims: while bilateral assistance is influenced by the giver ‘s political, economic and strategic considerations, this consequence can non be seen for many-sided assistance which favours sound macro economic environment ( Moss, 2004 ) .
Tied and Untied Aid: Differentiation is frequently made between tied and unfastened assistance. Tied assistance exists in a state of affairs where a giver may necessitate a recipient state to pass some or all on goods and services produced in the giver ‘s state. In another state of affairs, a donor state may offer assistance as a subsidised recognition for the purchase of its exports. Most Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) states do bind their AIDSs although the grade varies well and may alter from twelvemonth to twelvemonth.
Untied Aid: This type of assistance is preferred by developing states because they are free to use the assistance in conformity with their development programme either in agribusiness, industry, conveyance, substructure or societal services. This type of assistance besides reduces the existent cost of assistance as the receiver can purchase its demand at competitory rates from the universe market ( Jhinghan, 2002 ) .
Private Capital Flows: Harmonizing to Jhinghan ( 2002 ) , private capital flows could take the signifier of Direct Foreign Investment ( DFI ) and Portfolio Investment ( PI ) . DFI means the concern of the puting state to exert control over the assets created in the capital importing state by agencies of that investing. In another manner, Aremu ( 1997: pp11 ) looks at FDI based on the definition provided by OECD as “ an person, an integrated or unincorporated public or private endeavor, a authorities, a group of related integrated and/or unincorporated endeavor that is a subordinate, associate or subdivision operating in a state other than the state or states of abode of the direct investor or investors. ”
Portfolio investing on the other manus consists of the retention of movable securities ( issued or guaranteed by the authorities of the capital importation ) portions unsecured bonds by the subjects of other states.
Recent experiences have, nevertheless, shown that the major determiners of foreign investing in developing states include stable political environment, sound macro economic policies, working judicial system, and equal security ( Rice 2003, Aremu 1997and Soludo 2005 )
2.2 The Role of Foreign Capital in Economic Development
Early on development economic experts including Higgins, Pearson, Nurkse, Dormar, and Kindleberger all agreed that the transportation of foreign resources in the signifier of assistance, adoption or grants to less developed states will assist to transform their economic systems characterized by low growing rate into economic systems capable of equal and sustainable growing
Busse ( 2005 ) and Jhinghan ( 2002 ) province that the function of foreign capital ( both functionary and private flows ) in economic development includes: addition in national productiveness, over come balance of payment troubles, increased resources for investing, supply finance, managerial, administrative and proficient forces, employment chances and poorness decrease.
Meanwhile, Sheila ( 1996 ) in another manner assesses the function of foreign capital in economic development from two positions: ( a ) It serves as extra economy in states which are by definition, capital-scarce and ( B ) it provides external resources in states which need to import more than they export in order to turn quickly than their trading spouses.
Jhinghan ( 2002 ) , nevertheless, argues that official foreign capital is more of import for speed uping economic development of developing states than private foreign capital. Harmonizing to him, foreign private flows are ever gain driven and hence foreign investors ever put their capital where they can acquire speedy returns on their investing and have little to make with societal outgos such as instruction, public wellness, medical programmes and proficient preparation. He farther argues that private foreign investing presupposes the being of basic public services in Less Developed Countries ( LDCs ) . But investing in them requires big amounts and hazards which private capital is unable to set about.
Scholars such as Iyoha ( 2003 ) and Aremu ( 1997 ) are of the position that foreign aid is given to do the partnership expression plausible ; but as it works out, the proletarian states get poorer and the technological spread widens.
World Bank Report ( 2004 ) states that: assistance is more effectual in states which pursue development friendly domestic policies. However, this does non intend that assistance works merely in states with strong policies, but that it works better. Another major determination of the study is that effectual assistance complements private investings, and hence strengthens the private sector, pretermiting the “ crowding-out ” consequence that assistance may hold.
2.3 Theoretical Model
The theoretical theoretical account for this paper is derived from Hollis Chenery and Alan Strout ‘s celebrated two-gap theoretical account of development. “ Salvaging spread ” and “ Foreign Exchange spread. ” Harmonizing to this theoretical account, for a state to accomplish a given growing rate, it must hold equal nest eggs for investing and sufficient foreign exchange to purchase the capital goods necessary for development from the international market. Therefore, if a state is lacking either in the country of domestic economy or in the country of foreign exchange earning, foreign assistance or international transportation can be used to make full either of the spreads. Therefore, by stipulating a peculiar growing rate and keeping productiveness changeless, we can find the sum of assistance needed to accomplish that growing by deducting the domestic economy rate from the growing rate or deducting export-earnings from import required. Therefore, two spreads are explained in footings of the national income accounting individualities. Y +M = C+ I +X — — — — — — — ( 1 ) .
This means that entire end product ( Y ) plus imports ( M ) equal ingestion, investing and exports. Where Y = C+ I and M=X, deducting from both sides of the equation we generate an equation that describe the two spreads.
M – Ten = I- S — — — — — — – ( 2 ) .
Like the basic income accounting individualities, the two spreads are ever equal ex-post in any given accounting period. However, ex-ante may differ in the long – tally because those who make determinations about nest eggs, investing, exports and imports are different people. By this it means that one spread will ever be manifest and exercise a keeping consequence on the other. In this instance foreign assistance received satiates that spread. In a nutshell, the larger the two spreads, the larger the sum of resources required for development.
The two-gap theoretical account can besides be explained in footings of Harrod-Dormar ‘s theoretical account of economic growing. Therefore, the following dressed ores on the saving- investing spread as the spread has important function to play in the economic growing literature ( Busse 2005 ) . The two-gap theoretical account means that the endogenous mark economic growing rate “ g ” depends on the three basic elements: the needed degree of investing ( I ) , seting factor ( U ) , demoing an investing ‘s grade of quality, and the 3rd is the GDP or end product ( Y ) The adjusted investing is nil but a portion of the GDP. Therefore, in summing the aggregative domestic nest eggs and foreign assistance ( A ) , we derive an equilibrium status.
g = I / U. I / Y — — — — — ( 3 )
I = A + S — — — — — — — — — – ( 4 )
Reconsidering the equation ( 4 ) above, add the needed investing to foreign assistance and domestic nest eggs as portion of the GDP, we finally derive
= I A S
Y Y Y — — — — — — – ( 5 )
The parametric quantity U is the incremental capital-output ratio ( ICOR ) Therefore, ICOR = a?‚C/a?‚Y
Meaning that how many units of extra capital ( a?‚C ) are required to obtain a unit of extra out put ( a?‚Y ) when both units are divided by the initial out put we obtain an investing ratio to GDP a?‚C/Y — — – ( 7 ) and growing rate a?‚C/Y — — — – ( 8 ) The combination of both equation 7 and 8 as a ratio consequences in ( 6 ) ICOR i.e. the ratio of the investing ratio to the growing rate ratio.
On the empirical trial of the theoretical account, Easterly ( 2003 ) uses clip series informations for 88 assistance receiver states covering the period from 1965 to 1995. The aim of the survey is to turn to the undermentioned inquiries: ( 1 ) How many of these states show a important and positive consequence of foreign assistance on investing, with a correlativity coefficient greater than or equal to one? ( 2 ) How many of these states show a important and positive consequence of investing on economic growing?
The consequence of the first inquiry shows that merely six of the 88 states met the above standards. These six states included two economic systems with negligible sums of assistance i.e. in comparing to their several GDPs. On the 2nd inquiry, merely four states out of the 88 fulfilled the standards and indicated a positive and important relationship between investing and economic growing. With this consequence, it can be observed the theoretical account is faulty in many respects particularly in footings of dependability of the theoretical account in advancing rapid economic growing and development in developing states.
Harmonizing to Jhinghan ( 2002 ) , one of the basic failings of the two-gap theoretical account is that it is based on certain restrictive premises, which limit its utility in accomplishing mark growing rate in LDCs. It presupposes that an addition in domestic nest eggs can non be utilized as a replacement for the needed foreign exchange to keep investing for the mark growing rate. It is besides noted that the theoretical account does non see the absorbent capacity of the economic system, and the ability to explicate and put to death productive undertakings with assistance.
3.0 NEPAD ‘s Capital Flows Initiative: a Brief Review
( Paragraph 144 of NEPAD ) put it that “ to accomplish the estimated 7 percent one-year growing rate needed to run into the IDGs- peculiarly, the end of cut downing by half the proportion of Africans populating in poorness by the twelvemonth 2015- Africa needs to make full an one-year resource spread of 12 per centum of its GDP or US $ 64 billion. ” By NEPAD ‘s proposal the international community is expected to supply US $ 56 billion each twelvemonth and the staying US $ 8 billion is expected to be generated from beginnings within the continent every twelvemonth ( NEPAD Briefing NO.8 ) It should be understood nevertheless, that the ball amount of US $ 64billion is non an extra capital influx needed but instead the entire net capital influx required.
The status for engagement in the capital flows enterprise is improved in administration. It states that: ” economic and political administration enterprise is a fringe benefit for engagement in the capital flows inaugural ” . ( Paragraph 144 )
3.1 Key Features of the Enterprises
Increase domestic resources mobilisation: The kernel is to make a contributing economic environment for both domestic and foreign private investors. It is besides to come up with a policy that would better domestic salvaging through effectual revenue enhancement aggregation and rationalisation in authorities outgo.
Debt alleviation: The enterprise besides proposes debt alleviation beyond its current degrees ( based on debt “ sustainability ” ) which requires debt service payment amounting to a important part of the resources. It has the long-run aim of associating debt alleviation to poverty decrease.Meanwhile ; the interim aim is that debt services ceiling should be fixed as a proportion of financial gross with different international development associations. The action program is that take parting states will come in an understanding with international community to obtain farther debt alleviation. ( Paragraph 147 )
Overseas Development Assistance ( ODA ) reforms: The reform seeks to accomplish increased ODA flows in the medium term, and besides guarantee effectual use of such AIDSs by receiver states. Part of ODA action program includes: ( I ) fundamental law of an ODA forum for developing a common Africa place on ODA reforms, ( two ) Establishing an independent mechanism for measuring giver and recipient state public presentation, ( three ) Supporting the attempts of the Economic Commission for Africa ( ECA ) to set up a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper ( PRSP ) ( Paragraph 149 ) .
Private Capital Flows: The private capital flows is a long -term aim of make fulling the resource spread. It has three chief precedences: the first precedence is to alter the investors ‘ perceptual experience of Africa as a “ high hazard continent. ” The 2nd precedence is the execution of Public-Private Partnership ( PPP ) through the Africa Development Bank and other regional development establishments. The last precedence is the development of sound and deep fiscal market on the continent through Financial Market Integration Task Force. Part of the action program for the private capital flows includes: ( I ) set up an enterprise to heighten the capacity of states to implement PPP. ( two ) Carry out needs appraisal of and feasibleness survey on fiscal instrument to extenuate hazards associated with making concern in Africa. ( Paragraph152 )
From the above, it can be stated that NEPAD is the most comprehensive model yet developed by African leaders to take Africa out of poorness and underdevelopment and to incorporate it into the globalizing universe economic system. But the critical inquiry is that: is at that place political will on the portion of African leaders to implement above schemes and reforms? How can the above mentioned action program be implemented without undue influence from developed states, who will lend US $ 56 billion out of US $ 64 billion needed by NEPAD yearly? NEPAD talks about “ self trust ” and argues that Africa must be “ maestro of its ain fate ” ( Para54 ) but will this be possible under the above agreement?
4.0. NEPAD ‘s foreign Capital Flows Initiative and Nigeria
In measuring NEPAD ‘s foreign capital flows enterprise in relation to Nigeria, the following tabular array is of import.
Table ( 1 ) : Nigeria: Official Development Assistance and Official Aid Per Capita, 1960-2003.
ODA ( current US $ million )
Aid per capital
ODA ( current US $ million )
Aid per capita
Beginning: AFRODAD 2005
Table ( 1 ) above, shows the Official Development Assistance ( ODA ) and the Official Aid per capita from 1960 to 2003. It reveals that at independency, the degree of assistance received by Nigeria was really low. It, nevertheless, increased from US $ 18.1 million in 1963 to US $ 42.0 million in 1964 and subsequently increased to US 107.0 million in 1971. By 1979, the sum of assistance decreased drastically to US $ 26.8 million.
The worsening tendency in assistance from 1972 to 1979 could be explained by the fact that Nigeria was classified as a middle- income state, whose income per capita increased from US $ 250 in 1973 to US $ 1000 in 1980. This was the period of oil roar. However, the oversupply in the international oil market in the mid 1980s made Nigeria to be reclassified as a low – income state in 1989, and as such, the rate of ODA increased from US $ 69.3 million in 1987 to US $ 347 million in 1989. This subsequently declined to US $ 18.5 million in 2001 and peaked up to US $ 318 million 2003
The per capita on the other manus was less than US $ 1 from 1960 to 1964. By 1970, the per capita increased to US $ 2.026 from US $ 1.546 in 1965.It subsequently dropped once more to less than US $ 1 between 1976 and 1987. It rose once more to US $ 3.7 in 1987 and declined to US $ 1.227 in 1999 and raised once more 2.33 in 2003.
AFRODAD ( 2005 ) explains that “ Nigerians have been paying out in debt refunds about six times the sum they receive in assistance. The degree of development aid to Nigeria is low. In 2001, Nigeria received a sum of US $ million as O.D.A, which accounts for merely 0.4 % of GDP and US $ 0.9 per capita ”
With the above, it is rather clear that Nigeria in qualified for ODA and hence deserves more foreign AIDSs than it is acquiring at present. But the inquiry is what is NEPAD making for the participating states ( including Nigeria ) about the contradictory policies of the giver states? This inquiry is pertinent since giver states give assistance to developing states to better their industries and advance exports but at the same clip, donor states may raise trade barriers to the importing of the receiver states ‘ merchandises that the aid was intended to advance.
( Paragraph 34 ) “ In portion, Africa ‘s in ability to tackle the procedure of globalisation is a consequence of structural hindrances to growing and development in the signifier of resource out flows and unfavorable footings of trade ” .
NEPAD has no seeable program sing how these tendencies could be reversed i.e. how footings of trade, resource out flows and structural hindrances could be reversed ( Tandon 2002 ) .
Change by reversaling the tendency is really critical to Africa ‘s development, and hence, without developing a common scheme to contend the issue of trade barriers and capital escapes, Africa ‘s dream of cut downing by half the figure poorness in the continent by 2015 will merely a artifice.
This capital out flows and trade barriers could represent a major beginning of capital for Africa, which it could efficaciously utilize to convey 1000000s of people out of poorness. Rather NEPAD leaves such an of import country to be settled by the International Community as can be seen in Paragraph a 41: “ we hold that it is within the capacity of the International Community to make just and merely conditions in which Africa can take part efficaciously in the planetary economic system and organic structure politic ”
Harmonizing to Busse ( 2005 ) , in the universe today, there are so many husbandmans, laborers and factory workers who are being cheated by the blatantly unjust regulations of World Trade ” . He farther argues that “ if Africa, East Asia, South Asia and Latin America were each to increase their portion of universe exports by one per cent, the ensuing additions in income could raise 128 million people out of poorness. In Africa entirely, this would bring forth US $ 70 billion- about five times what the continent receives in assistance. Rich states spend US $ 1 billion every twenty-four hours on agricultural subsidies. The resulting excesss are dumped in the universe markets, sabotaging the supports of 1000000s of smaller husbandmans in hapless states. While rich states keep their markets closed, hapless states have been pressurized by the International Monetary Fund and the universe Bank to open their markets at breakneck velocity, frequently with detrimental effects for hapless communities ”
Table ( 2 ) : Nigeria: Foreign Direct Investment, 1970- 2003
FDI, cyberspace influxs
( US $ million )
FDI, cyberspace influxs
( % of GDP )
FDI, cyberspace influxs
( US $ million )
FDI, cyberspace influx
( % of GDP )
Beginning: AFRODAD ( 2005 )
Rice ( 2003:2 ) plaints that “ Although it represents more than 10 per cent of the universe ‘s population, Africa attracts less than 1 % of all international investing ” It was even reported at the World Economic Forum, ( 2003 ) that the international investing attracted by all of Africa 53 provinces is somewhat less than the sum attracted by Singapore.
The tabular array 2 above nowadayss the FDI inflows into Nigeria between 1970 and 2003. It shows that FDI as a per cent of GDP exceeded 3 % for merely two old ages between 1970 and 1992 ( i.e. 3.11 % in 1971 and 7.90 % in 1989 ) . In 1993, it was 6.30 % and subsequently increased to 8.28 % in 1994. And since 1999, the FDI influxs have been on the lessening from 2.89 % in 1999 to 2.74 % and 2.06 % in 2002 and 2003 severally. From the tabular array it can be deduced that in malice of important economic and political reforms ( democracy, the activities of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission, and Banking Reforms ) embark upon by this disposal, the rate of FDI influxs in to the state is still really low averaging US $ 1 billion yearly since 1999. These figures confirm that trusting on NEPAD to bring forth extra FDI for Nigeria is non executable. Nigeria must hence travel beyond NEPAD ‘s model and set its place together through effectual and sincere committedness to economic and political restructuring.
Nigeria is still perceived as a corrupt and “ high hazard ” state by foreign investors. For illustration, harmonizing to the Index of Economic Freedom ( 2005 ) , it states that hindrances to investing in Nigeria include an unequal substructure, an inconsistent regulative environment, misguided macro economic policies, and decelerate and uneffective tribunals and commercial dispute- declaration mechanisms. It farther provinces that “ Harmonizing to the U.S. Trade Representative, possible investors must postulate with high concern revenue enhancements, confounding land ownership Torahs, arbitrary application of ordinances, corruptness and extended offense ” Even Soludo, the Central Bank Governor, admits this fact when at CBN 5th Monetary Policy Conference, November, 2005 provinces that “ the job is how to guarantee the safety of capital and the demand for a societal economic environment that guarantees safety of investing capital of investors. ”
From the above analysis, it is really clear that Nigeria needs fiscal resources to be able to convey its 1000000s out of poorness and underdevelopment. But the inquiry now is: must Nigeria rely entirely on foreign capital influxs to be able to convey its people out of poorness?
Nigeria does non necessitate to depend on NEPAD ‘s model to pull foreign capital influxs. By all criterions, Nigeria is a resource- rich state. At present it earns an norm of US $ 25 billion from oil gross entirely. This represents about 40 % of the US $ 64 billion needed by NEPAD yearly. With this sum, Nigeria can raise more than half of its 1000000s of people who live in poorness ( about 84 million people harmonizing to Human Development Report 2000 ) out of poorness before 2015.
Looking at the tendency of FDI influxs in tabular array ( 2 ) above, it shows that Nigeria in recent times has been having an norm of US $ 1 billion yearly from FDI. When this is compared with US $ 25 billion of one-year oil gross, it means that it will take over 20 old ages for Nigeria to pull that sum from FDI. The job is that the positive impact of such immense oil gross can barely be felt by the state ‘s hapless bulk. Nigeria is a resource- rich state ; what it needs is good leading who will pull off the state ‘s resources efficaciously for the benefit of all. Tandon ( 2002:9 ) explains that “ if Nigeria is both resource-rich ( in oil etc ) and at the same clip resource-poor ( in the sense that it has no money ) , so this should open the strategic treatment in several possible waies, and non merely the single- minded, tunnel- visioned, monistic advise from NEPAD that the lone manner out for Nigeria is to make conditions for FDIs to make full the resource spread. ”
From the papers of NEPAD, it is really clear that the most critical and of import component is capital or money. Basically, NEPAD expects the majority of money to come from the international community. By deduction, it means that the issue of cut downing poorness and unemployment in Nigeria and even in Africa critically depends on “ foreign capital influxs, ” and without them Africa ‘s future ends can non be realized. This is unfortunate for a continent blessed with rich mineral, oil and gas sedimentations, every bit good as the vegetation and zoology, etc ( Paragraph10 )
The basic inquiries are: when will African leaders efficaciously learn from history? How can a state develop by trusting on assistance and private capital flows in malice of her immense homo and natural resource gifts? How can a state conveying its 1000000s of people out of poorness and underdevelopment with person else ‘s capital and still anticipate to maintain the “ ownership ” of its policy schemes?
Great lessons exist for the African leaders to compensate from colonialism to the epoch of stabilisation and structural accommodation programme, and to the current globalisation theoretical accounts.
It can therefore be concluded from the analysis of NEPAD ‘s foreign capital influxs initiative in relation to Nigeria that: ODA reforms of NEPAD will non increase the sum of assistance to Nigeria because of trade barriers and unfavorable footings of trade are against the state and the continent in favor of the West. It is besides improbable that NEPAD per Se will bring forth extra FDI for Nigeria, at least for now. This is because Nigeria is still perceived by foreign investors as a “ high hazard ” state and hence must develop its ain schemes in battling corruptness and offense
A comprehensive attack should be adopted in contending corruptness, fraud and offense in Nigeria. At present, Nigeria is still perceived as a “ high hazard ” state in making concern. Although the current attempts by the Federal Government through EFCC and ICPC are rather applaudable, a comprehensive attack ( non selective ) in contending corruptness is needed. It every bit calls for addition in transparence where investors would run in a more crystalline, competitory and efficient fiscal environment. In this environment, the jobs of moral jeopardy and asymmetric information are minimized, and recognition is maximized. It besides means addition in transparence of macro economic informations, financial, and pecuniary policies. When such is achieved, rate of FDI influxs will increase.
The Nigerian Government should develop a comprehensive mechanism that will cut down the rate of capital escapes from the state. The mechanism should take at cut downing the rate of debt payment, increasing trade ( through carnival and favorable footings of trade A ) and cut downing adoption.
Adequate attending should be paid to the proviso of indispensable services such as basic nutrient, imbibing H2O, basic wellness installations, entree to energy, lodging, conveyance, good roads and efficient communicating web. Provision of basic services will cut down poorness, and good infrastructural installations are some of the conditions of pulling FDI