2011 Human Development Index ranks Nepal at 157 out of 187 states. 54 per centum of Nepal ‘s population lives on less than US $ 1.25 per twenty-four hours, and three and half million people are considered reasonably to severe nutrient insecure, numbering Nepal among the poorest states in South Asia ( WFP, 2009 )
The Global Hunger Index ( GHI ) 2011 Report prepared by the International Food Policy Research Institute ( IFPRI ) has placed Nepal in the 54th place, up from 56 in 2010. Nepal has been put in a place of serious in relentless hungriness based on informations which shows 16 per centum of the population to be undernourished, 38.8 per centum of under-five kids to be scraggy and 4.8 per centum of them deceasing before they reach five old ages of age ( IFPRI, 2011 ) .
Nepal in Global Hunger Index, 2011
to the standards set by IFPRI, the index can change between 0 and 100. A higher index indicates a higher prevalence of hungriness. The badness of hungriness is determined utilizing the undermentioned thresholds:
GHI & lt ; 4.9 low
GHI 5.0-9.9 moderate GHI 10.0-19.9 serious GHI 20.0-29.9 alarming
GHI & gt ; 30.0 highly dismaying
World Food Programame has developed a sub regional hungriness index for 15 sub parts of Nepal in 2009 which indicates the badness of the nutrient insecurity in rural and distant countries although the aggregative index falls under serious class. The highest prevalence of hungriness can be found in the Far-and Mid-Western Hill and Mountain parts. The NHIs in these parts of the state are close to or above 30, indicating to an highly alarming state of affairs. The bulk of the 15 sub-regions of Nepal autumn within the dismaying class with National Hunger Index ( NHI ) runing between 20.0 and 29.9. Three sub-regions ( Central Hills, Western Hills and Eastern Terai ) have NHI between
10.0 and 19.9 bespeaking a serious nutrient insecurity state of affairs. Note that there is non a individual sub-region in Nepal that falls within the moderate or low hunger-categories. This underscores the earnestness of the nutrient security state of affairs in Nepal ( WFP, 2009 )
Furthermore, the GHI 2011 shows that fewer people are available to work on the farms, and most of the immature people are migrating to foreign states to work. “ That is why agricultural labor is non sufficient, and some of the farm land is traveling to lie fallow. The consequence is that agricultural production is lower than earlier, and monetary values are lifting, ” harmonizing to the study. The study combines three hunger-related indicators-the proportion of ill-fed in the population, the prevalence of underweight in kids and the mortality rate of kids.
The IFPRI ‘s future projections show a relentless deficit in the domestic production of rice in Nepal to run into the entire demand although the production depends on the monsoon as some old ages the crop reported to be comparatively good. Under the pessimistic set of conditions, rice demand in Nepal is projected to be more than double the domestic production in the twelvemonth 2030. Given that rice is the major harvest under cultivation every bit good as the prevailing basic in the Nepali diet, this prognosis shortage is a affair of concern. The IFPRI ‘s estimations show that the big growing in the direct demand for rice is driven
chiefly by the high growing in population between now and 2030 and non so much by a rise in per capita ingestion ( Kathmandu Post, Jan 20, 2012 ) .
National Policies on Food Security and Nutrition
Nepal is chiefly agriculture state supplying employment for more than two-third of the population and lending one-third to the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) . The economic system has historically been agricultural in nature, with its portion in GDP runing from
60 % to 70 % between the 1960s and early eightiess. With the assorted structural alterations in mid 1980s, the part of agribusiness in GDP started to worsen. As a consequence, agribusiness ‘s portion reduced from 51 % in 1985 to about 40 % in 2000, and to 35 % in 2012 ( Economic Survey 2012 ) . The growing in agribusiness remains low in Nepal as it is 4.9 per centum in 2011/2012 while it was 4.5 per centum in 2010/2011 ( MoF, 2012 ) .
Nature of jobs
In the last 15 old ages, the agricultural sector of Nepal experienced several alterations. The proportion of families runing agricultural retentions every bit good as the mean size of the operated land has decreased. Out of the entire families in the state, 74 % are agricultural families with land and approximately 2 % are agricultural families without land. Out of entire families runing land, 58 % are in the hills, 43 % are in the Terai and 9 % are in the mountains. The mean size of agricultural land country in the state is
0.7 hectares. A bulk of agricultural families depends on little farm size for cultivation. Of the entire husbandmans about 53 % are little husbandmans ( runing less than 0.5 hour angle of land, other 4 % are big, runing 2 hour angle and more land ( NLSS, 2010/2011 ) . Some alterations in selected agricultural indexs are given in table 1 below:
Table1: Selected Agricultural Indicators, 1995/96-2010/11
Agricultural families with land ( per centum
Percentage of cultivated land under irrigation
Average size of agricultural land ( hour angle )
Average figure of packages
Keeping runing less than 0.5 hour angle ( per centum of
entire retentions )
Percentage of retentions runing leasing -in-
Percentage of retentions turning chief Paddy
Percentage of retentions turning summer
Percentage of retentions with cowss
Percentage of retentions with domestic fowl
Beginning: NLSS 2010/2011
Agriculture ( including harvest, farm animal and piscaries ) is the pillar of the rural economic system but its productiveness is low. The agricultural productiveness is one of the lowest in the South Asia part and has been virtually dead for over a decennary. The state of affairs is even worse in the rural and distant countries of Nepal where nutrient production is hardly adequate to run into more than six months ‘ demand. Thus, most people in the rural and distant countries are dependent on external/emergency nutrient supply including the World Food Program. The continued nutrient insecurity and deficiency of economic chances has triggered emigration of youth form rural Nepal in hunt of employment chances resulted into the scarceness of labour force in agribusiness in Nepal.
The agribusiness sector faces a multiplicity of challenges that constrain its public presentation good below the possible. As indicated in Table 1, agribusiness is typically characterized by little holder, traditional and subsistence agriculture ; limited usage of improved farm animal strains, harvests assortments and direction patterns ; and high susceptibleness to pest and disease incidences. The nature of the job includes: ( I ) low handiness of good quality seed and improved strains of farm animal at the husbandman degree ( the seed replacing ratio is 4.27 % against GON mark of 25 % and, furthermore, seeds used by husbandmans are frequently of out-of-date assortment, and with low pureness and sprouting rates ; given the low base, seed quality enhancement entirely can take to an estimated output addition of 15-20 % in instance of cereals, at least 20 % in murphy, 40-50 % in oil-rich seeds, and over 100 % for corn ; and eventually, breed betterment can bring forth important additions in farm animal productiveness ) ;
( two ) insufficient development by the research system of “ appropriate ” – location and job specific – engineerings and direction patterns for usage by husbandmans that tap topographic and climatic advantages or turn to local restraints ;
( three ) weak research-extension-farmer linkage ;
( four ) thin and unequal extension support ( even after important sweetening in recent old ages, less than 15 % of farm families are reached by the extension system ; and each Agricultural Service Centre – the lowest, sub-district extension node – screens about 9000 retentions, dispersed over a hard terrain ) ;
( V ) low investing in productive assets, including auxiliary irrigation substructure to cut down rain-dependence ;
( six ) ill developed market linkages ; and
( seven ) a deficiency of establishments and instruments for agricultural risk-bearing and risk-sharing. Budgetary and staff resources for public research ( the Nepal Agricultural Research Council or NARC ) and extension bureaus ( Departments of Agriculture and of Livestock Services ) are stretched.
Policies on agribusiness and nutrient security
A figure of constabularies have guided the agricultural sector of Nepal. The Agriculture Perspective Plan ( APP ) 1995 has been the major policy papers for the agribusiness development in Nepal. However, execution of APP was weak and APP was non adapted to the altering contexts in footings of labor, markets, and substructure for agricultural development. APP was updated through the National Agricultural Policy ( NAP ) ( 2006 ) . NAP focuses on commercialisation, private sector-led development, and trade. The Agricultural Biodiversity Policy ( 2007 ) emphasized the publicity of organic production of high value agricultural merchandises. Government of Nepal ( GoN ) has besides developed Agri-Business Promotion Policy ( 2007 ) , with and objective of publicity and development of the high value harvests developing commercial pocket countries based on the forte and possibility of concerned countries.
The Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007 recognizes nutrient sovereignty as the cardinal right of citizens. The importance of agricultural growing and nutrient security has been underscored in a sequence of GON paperss and programs ( :10th program, interim program and current three twelvemonth program ( 2010-2012 ) . The National Agriculture Sector Development Priority program ( NASDP 2011-2015 ) , and the associated Country Investment Plan ( CIP ) . A Multi-Sectoral Nutrition Plan of Action, led by the National Planning Commission, aims to incorporate, inter alia, parts from the agribusiness sector ( Ministry of Agriculture Development ) to put the foundation of a national “ nutritionary architecture ” . With the support of assorted development spouses, a figure of undertakings have besides been undertaken to turn to many of the development challenges listed above – albeit at a limited graduated table typically – such as local seed production and storage, participatory action research for locally suited assortments, farm animal productiveness sweetening, harvest variegation, off-farm support development ( including micro-enterprises ) , developing and capacity edifice of husbandman groups.
Furthermore, the authorities of Nepal has begun to develop new Agriculture Development Strategy ( ADS ) for following 20 old ages as the current agribusiness position programs expires on 2014. The procedure of scheme development is being debated as struggle involvements in agribusiness exist in Nepal.
However, agribusiness sector has non been the precedence of the authorities in footings of public investing as merely about 3 % of the one-year budget of the authorities of Nepal is allocated to agriculture sector. The husbandmans and peasant organisations have been demanding for more budgets in agribusiness in Nepal. From the 2011/2012 financial twelvemonth, the authorities has brought a policy for puting at least 15 % in agribusiness by the local authorities. It means. 15 % budget of the local authorities goes to agricultural development.
Global nutrient crisis and Nepal
Nepal has been mostly affected by the nutrient crisis of 2007. Domestically, nutrient monetary values are fast surpassing overall general monetary values. The Food Price Index ( FPI ) has been continuously dragging up Consumer Price Index ( CPI ) , whose one-year per centum alteration is a popular step of rising prices. Since Nepal does non bring forth adequate nutrient to fulfill domestic demand, it has to import nutrient equal to domestic production shortage. So, dazes in production, supply and monetary values of agricultural goods at the planetary degree affect nutrient monetary values in local markets every bit good. There was 316,000 metric dozenss nutrient shortage in 2010, an addition by 139 per centum from 2009, harmonizing to the WFP.
Note that a Nepali spends, on norm, 59 per centum of his/her income on nutrient. Of this about 58 per centum and 15 per centum are spent on staff of lifes and cereals, and fruits and veggies, severally ( Republica, 22 Feb 2011 ) . Since nutrient monetary values are already high in the domestic market, any farther monetary value rise will coerce more people to take low quality and less measure of nutrient, which will straight impact the wellness of hapless and marginalized people.
Conformity to international understandings and plans
Nepal is signatory to a figure of international understandings and plans. Government of Nepal actively participated in universe nutrient acmes. Nepal has been the signer of the millenary declaration. The Millennium Development Goals besides recognize the importance of accomplishing nutrient security by taking to eliminate utmost poorness and hungriness by the twelvemonth 2015. The national policies and programs have integrated the poorness and hungriness index in order to turn to the nutrient security and nutritionary issues in Nepal.
Agricultural Programs degree Fahrenheit or Food Security and Nutrition in the state
Nepal has its ain comparative advantage with the diverseness of Nepal ‘s agro-ecological zones for turning and exporting off-season gardening, niche merchandises, and non-timber merchandises like medicative workss. Organic production is practiced by default in Nepal in many parts of the rural countries. But such green goodss can non presently be certified harmonizing to international criterions and thereby obtain monetary value premiums. The authorities has promulgated the National Technical Standard for Organic Agriculture System ( NTSOAS,
2008 ) , a specific guideline to advance organic green goods of Nepal for both national and international markets. If the execution of the NTSOAS is put into pattern, it will ease organic production and processing of high value agricultural merchandises.
National Agriculture Research Council ( NARC ) has been formal authorities establishment for agribusiness research in Nepal. It has produced a figure of harvest truths and animate being
strains suited to different agro-climatic conditions. However, the effectivity of engineerings for little holders is yet to be proved. Most of the new engineerings generated by NARC intend to concentrate on production and non look to be less compatible to little holders and hapless provincials.
Ministry of Agriculture Development ( Government of Nepal ) has responded to the turning jobs of nutrient insecurity in Nepal by developing a figure of programmes and undertakings. GoN has been be aftering to implement a undertaking entitled “ Nepal Agriculture and Food Security Project ” ( NAFSP ) financially supported by Global Agriculture and Food Security plan ( GAFSP ) in 19 territories of precedence development parts ( Far Western and Mid Western ) of Nepal. There are a figure of nutrient security undertakings funded by givers ( IFAD, USAID etc ) including feed the future- a prospective undertaking on nutrient security funded by USAID in close hereafter.
Problems originating from authorities and inter-governmental policies and action that affect smallholders
Since Nepal ‘s agribusiness system is chiefly subsistence, a figure of authorities plans and undertakings aim to commercialize the agribusiness to convey it into the graduated table of economic system that generate net incomes. There is a paradox that the present degree of agribusiness activities does non look to be back uping sufficiently the supports of the smallholders on one manus, the attempts of commercialisation besides do non look to be good for little holders as they do non hold the capacity to prosecute with commercialisation and capture the market chances.
Furthermore, the authorities policies to ask for private companies in agribusiness sector besides has been the debated issue in Nepal as Nepali husbandmans have been protesting the engagement of multi-national companies in agribusiness. Recently, the authorities of Nepal Monsanto, a transnational company was invited by the authorities of Nepal for the production of corn seed. This was vehemently opposed by the peasant organisations of Nepal and the trade between the authorities and the companies is still in contention.
Nepal became the member of WTO in 2004 and both the benefit and constrains for Nepali husbandmans from the WTO rank is being debated in Nepal in a sense that it presents both chances and formidable challenges to run into nutrient safety regulations, carnal wellness ordinances, and quality criterions, together with re-evaluating domestic support plans, monetary value controls, and competitory advantage.
Mechanisms and Institutions on f ood and nutrition security
Primary responsible ministry to guarantee nutrient security is the Agriculture Development Ministry for nutrient production and agribusiness development. Ministry of Health is besides given duty to look after the nutritionary facets of kids and adult females. At territory degree, a proviso of nutrient security commission has been formed chaired by main territory officer. District Agriculture Development Office serves as member secretary and
territory farm animal development office, territory nutrient corporation office, territory wood office and NGOs working in nutrient security are the members of the territory nutrient security commission. The major map of this commission is to administer the nutrient in nutrient shortage pocket countries of the concerned territories. The commission is formed in nutrient shortage territories of Nepal.
A figure of CSOs are mobilized in nutrient shortage territories for “ nutrient for work ” programme as NGOs distribute nutrients to the people who work for the development activities in their small town. Road building is the major activities under this programme.
Government policy in relation to nutrient security is to provide nutrient points, peculiarly rice to nutrient shortage country. In distant countries, the nutrient points are air lifted and subsidized the transit cost. This mechanism has been in topographic point since long and being criticized for non being sustainable policy for nutrient security as this policy has ignored in advancing the local production and ingestion system. Besides the mechanism is blamed to making a dependence to external bureaus for nutrient points in the rural and distant countries of Nepal.
CSOs working in human rights, poorness, agribusiness and natural resource direction came together and formed National Network on Right to Food Nepal ( RtFN ) . RtFN was established in 2007 consisting about 50 national and international non-governmental organisations, peasant organisations and CSO webs. The chief aim of this web is to construct popular force per unit area to the province and authorities for progressive realisation of right to nutrient through all democratic procedures.
Recommendations on the possible function of Civil Society
i‚· A scheme for set uping coordination among authorities and civil society is needed. There is deficiency of coordination within authorities establishments and between the authorities and non authorities organisations. There are a figure of establishments implementing plans and undertakings on nutrition and nutrient security. Such scheme and mechanism would convey synergism through coordinated and complementary attempts. Right to nutrient web Nepal/ national confederation against hungriness will hold important function to develop such scheme.
i‚· Development of policies and programs are non sufficient status to turn to the job of nutrient and nutrition security. A compulsory mechanism to implement the policies and programs are needed. The executions need to be invariably monitored by civil society organisations.
i‚· As the agribusiness is neglected country in footings of budgetary focal point in Nepal.
Allotment of sufficient budget to agriculture as precedence sectors of development of the authorities of Nepal should come both in one-year budget and long term development planning.
i‚· The fundamental law of Nepal 2007 has included a proviso of Food Sovereignty as a progressive action of Nepali province in footings of guaranting rights to nutrient to its citizens. Related Act is needed to set the construct of nutrient sovereignty in to practice/real life. Food Sovereignty bring about the land rights issues including right to turn nutrient. The nutrient sovereignty policy and act demand extremist reform in agricultural construction including land reform.
i‚· Focus and attempts should travel on sustainable agribusiness patterns taking to keep the nutrient production to feed people of the state. For this, authorities should supply subsidies to the husbandmans who will be practising the sustainable agribusiness.
i‚· CSOs should prosecute in the procedure of fixing new Agriculture Development
Scheme in order to guarantee rights of little husbandmans.
Capacity edifice for NGOs and Rural hapless organisations for policy protagonism and field patterns
i‚· Enhance the cognition and accomplishments of NGOs/CSOs in order to fit for policy protagonism
i‚· Develop tools and techniques for policy protagonism
i‚· Promote networking among the husbandmans organisations, NGOs/CSOs working in land, agribusiness, and forest and nutrient issue
i‚· Strengthened the husbandman organizations/smallholders ‘ organisations in order to heighten their bargaining power with the authorities bureaucratism and political parties
i‚· Preparation and digest of best patterns
i‚· Documenting the instances on the misdemeanor of rights to nutrient
i‚· Study on altering kineticss of agribusiness and land issues in Nepal