Abstract- Tendering processes involves boring and complex processs. In building, analyzing stamp paperss is complicated and demanding undertaking which requires in depth cognition of sphere experts. Inconsistency information and deficiency of cognition during decision-making procedure could trip to incorrect determination. In add-on, huge sum of information is in unstructured signifiers need to be managed into a systematic mode. The purpose of this research is to develop a generic ontology-based architecture for back uping tendering procedures and proves the effectivity of the attack in building stamp rating procedure stressing merely on look intoing sufficiency paperss. Here, ontology is built to gaining control and construction sphere expert cognition based on standards and penchants demand for stamp rating.
Keywords-Ontology ; Tendering ; Tender Evaluation ;
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Tendering processes involves boring and complex processs with conflicting involvements between authorization parties, multiple sets of aims, standards and solution possibilities [ 1, 2 ] . In building sphere, choosing the most qualified contractor is one of the critical factor to the successful executing of a building undertaking in footings of acceptable criterions and specifications, within specific clip frame and budget. Tender rating involves stamp paperss analysis and is among the most critical procedure in tendering.
A aggregation of stamp paperss normally provides historical and current information sing on personel background, command monetary value, fiscal place, current and past experiences capableness and resources handiness of a contractor who bids for citation. This information is of import beginning in analyzing the eligibility of a bidder harmonizing to multi making standards. Analyzing stamp paperss is complicated and demanding undertaking which requires in depth cognition of sphere experts in building stamp. This includes cognition associating to finance and current building concern operations. Traditional decision-making attack to find the most qualified campaigner depends on complicated and unsure opinions in which it based on the conflicting organizational aims and past experiences of the judges [ 2-4 ] .
As the consequence, computational determination support systems ( DSS ) have been designed to back up decision-making at any degrees of an organisation in building sphere [ 4-9 ] . Effective determination is critical for the endurance of an administration. As noted by [ 10 ] , “ aˆ¦ the quality, velocity and realisation of the decision-making can be increased when the right information is available to the right individuals, at the right clip and in the right signifier ” . By mentioning to [ 11 ] , he believed that the capableness of determination shapers to utilize all the available and important information can better their determinations behaviour. However, decision-making procedure tends to be complex with the being myriads of unstructured and unclear information. In add-on, human being determination shaper tends to supply unjust and bias determination based on uncomplete, deficient and unorganized internal and external cognition [ 12 ] . Harmonizing to [ 13 ] , organisations frequently consider incorrect determination support solutions for their peculiar job as effect of information lacking and inability to treat diverse volume of information. Therefore, the demand to place and form information non merely in footings of its content but besides supplying semantic significance by specifying the belongingss of that content is critical to understand unsure information in complex state of affairs.
Several applications of sphere ontology in tendering have been constructed for work outing interoperability [ 14 ] and automatic dialogue procedure [ 15 ] . However, every bit far as we know there is no development of sphere ontology for hive awaying semantic cognition in order to automatically work out stamp appraisal. This survey presents a generic ontology-based architecture to help decision-making procedure by patterning sphere expert cognition and penchants demand of tendering procedures by and large and building stamp rating specifically. Further, appropriate illation regulations are generated to stand for operational cognition of peculiar standards.
The administration of this paper is structured as follows. Section 2 nowadayss in general current patterns of tendering procedures every bit good as sum-up of current available ontology development methodological analysiss. Further, step-by-step of ontology modeling are outlined in Section 3. In add-on, proposed generic tendering ontology and domain-specific stamp rating ontology are besides presented in this subdivision. Finally, Section 4 concludes with a sum-up of this paper.
Here, two indispensable constituents of related research are discussed including tendering procedures and ontology development methodological analysiss.
Generic Tendering Process
Tendering procedures is coined as all the activities related to pull offing procurance or stamp paperss including bring forthing, publication, aggregating, measuring and presenting performed by presenting governments in order to get certain merchandises or services, while reacting and command are activities of parties who are interested to win contract [ 16-18 ] . Here, the bidder parties are unable to get any cognition sing on their command position. Meanwhile, measuring procedure is based on a set of predefined regulations and standards determined by presenting governments.
Tendering procedures involve assorted concern processs begin with stamp specification analysis and stamp forming, stamp invitation, stamp rating and stamp awarding [ 1 ] . Based on the analysis on current patterns of tendering procedures in different spheres such as building, logistics and electronic commercialism, we summary chief activities of tendering in Fig. 1, stand foring by gray boxes. Owner, go-between and supplier are three parties involve in the procedure. Role definition of these footings is explained in the following subdivision.
Invitation to tender
Tender specification readying
Assess stamps and choice supplier campaigners
View stamp advertizement
Purchase stamp paperss
Fill stamp paperss
Submit stamp paperss
Short listed campaigners
General Tendering Processes
Tender specification readying is tender doing procedure in which it involves two manner communications between proprietor and go-between and may be repeated a figure of times until an in agreement stamp certification and specification are met. Invitation to tender is the procedure to offer stamp to interested parties depends on type of stamp offer. Interested suppliers can use for stamp by subjecting their commands and makings on stamp paperss. The commands are aggregated and will non be opened until the terminal of offering day of the month. Subsequently, the procedure continues with the stamp appraisal harmonizing to some set of predefined standards and aims. Normally, the procedure will be conducted by a group of profesional experts of proprietor and go-between. Finally, contract is awarded to the successful bidder/provider.
Harmonizing to [ 18 ] , tendering is categorized into paper-based procurance mechanism, web-based electronic commercialism every bit good as auction and dialogue mechanism. Some of the common jobs in current tendering mechanisms are associated with mechanization in footings of troubles in appropriate matchmaking the needs/offers between parties, mechanization dialogue schemes and complicated stamp appraisal. Constructing a good ontology can work out these jobs by capturing stamp elements and structuring semantic belongingss between these elements.
Ontology Development Methodologies
Harmonizing to [ 19 ] , ontology is defined as a organic structure of consensual cognition that can be reused and shared across applications and groups of people. Constructing sphere ontology is clip devouring where it requires input and feedbacks from sphere expert. In add-on, assorted stairss need to be implemented in order to bring forth a dependable ontology. However, good structured schemes in ontological technology could cut down clip spent in ontology development. Here, we provide justification on the methodological analysis chosen. Table 1 shows the comparing between ontology technology methodological analysiss based on mature package development procedure. The chief activities in package life rhythm was acknowledged, standardized and revised in IEEE Std 1074-1997 [ 20 ] .
Comparisons of Ontology Engineering Methodologies Inspired by Software Development Process
Gruninger and Fox
Uschold and King
Methodology proposed by Gruninger and Fox [ 21 ] is more stressing on ontology rating alternatively of comprehensive descriptions on each degrees of ontological edifice. Further, they did non include integrating, care and certification stages in their methodological analysis. Uschold and King [ 22 ] outlined better methodological analysis for constructing ontology as compared to former attack. However, the attack excluded expressed stairss on structuring the sphere cognition in conceptual theoretical account and keeping developed ontology.
Methontology [ 23 ] plants based on germinating prototype attack as it allows ontology applied scientist to keep and update constructs in ontology life rhythm. Despite it domain independent characteristic, Lopez et Al. [ 24 ] evaluated Methontology as high grade of adoptability for sphere experts who are non ontology applied scientists. Besides, it allows in item by stipulating ontology at cognition degree. Methontology and On-To-Knowledge [ 25 ] are the most compatible methodological analysiss for ontology edifice as both attacks explicitly conformity with stages as proposed in package development procedure. However, the ontology development life rhythm of On-To-Knowledge is non an iterative attack if comparing to Methontology. On-To-Knowledge merely allows the backtracking process start from refinement stage. This theoretical account forces ontology engineer to hold complete demand specification certification before traveling to the following stage. Design, rating, certification and care are phases that carried out during the whole life rhythm of ontology development. Thereby, each of these stages can be implemented in analogue and reversibly as the footings in peculiar sphere evolves. Therefore, Methontology meets these features to construct tendering domain ontology.
Ontology patterning consists of series of stairss for patterning tendering procedures ontology. The stages of ontology modeling as shown in Fig. 2 besides can be customized and implemented for other sphere applications. Two degrees ontologies have been constructed viz. as Tendering Ontology and Tender Evaluation Ontology where is discussed inside informations in this subdivision.
Ontology Modeling Phases
Tender Evaluation Ontology
Ontology Modelling Phases and Ontologies Constructed
Ontology Modelling Phases
Ontology development involves several schemes on specifying categories, dealingss, properties, values and other objects. Methodology for constructing ontology is Methontology. Thereby, the stairss to build the ontology are based on activities defined in the attack.
Requirement Specification: Requirement is done by roll uping information on literatures including diaries, continuing documents, theses, stamp paperss and other research stuffs on tendering procedures. All of these paperss have been analyzed to place the of import cognition on tendering sphere. Furthermore, several series of interviews have been done with sphere experts, Consultant from Department of Work ( JKR ) who are sing in building tendering procedure in order to place the sphere experts ‘ position on the cognition to be encoded in the ontology. This stage will reply some competence inquiries.
Conceptualization: Conceptualization is the procedure of structuring cognition into several constituents such constructs, properties, dealingss, invariables, formal maxims, regulations and cases.
Integrating: Several possible bing ontologies that can be reused with stamp ontology are comprehensively searched in Internet. However, there is no other stamp ontology has been found particularly for building stamp. Meanwhile, the integrating procedure is hard since it is really difficult to happen available on-line ontology. Most of ontology developed in building field for illustration in e-Cognos undertaking has non been endorsed publically.
Encoding: Encoding is the procedure of patterning cognition in the existent universe. All the constructs, properties, dealingss, regulations and cases identified during conceptualisation phase are encoded into cognition representation linguistic communication, viz. as Web Ontology Language ( OWL ) . OWL linguistic communication is based on World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C ) criterion. It is serialized utilizing Resource Description Framework ( RDF ) sentence structure and the scheme linguistic communication for RDF, called Resource Description Framework Schema ( RDFS ) . The encoding procedure is supported by utilizing TopBraid Composer, one type of ontology editor package.
Evaluation: The encoded ontology will be evaluated by two types of experts ; ontologist experts and sphere experts. Ontologist experts are selected based on their experience in developing ontology. Meanwhile, sphere experts are chosen among building technology people who are sing in tendering procedures. Any remarks and suggestions from ontologist and sphere experts will be used to better stamp ontology.
Documentation: Each measure and preparation procedures used to place of import footings in stamp sphere is documented. Documentation is critical in order to cut down trouble in recycling the ontology and increase apprehension of the available ontologies for future mentions.
Maintanence: Any ongoing alterations on the terminalogy of sphere is continuously updated.
Generic Domain of Tendering Ontology
Generic sphere ontology is built to hive away generic cognition about tendering procedures. Table 2 shows the definition of each constructs defined at this degree. Meanwhile, Fig. 3 shows the simplified semantic relationships between constructs that contribute to every tendering procedure. Generic sphere ontology is reclaimable in the given sphere specific ( tendering procedures ) .
Definition of Concepts in Tendering Ontology
Any party who intend to buy supplies by bespeaking for citation under certain regulations and limitations for the achievement of work within some acceptable criterions
Any party who intend to sell supplies by reacting to tender invitation and subjecting stamp command
Any party who facilitate communicating between proprietor and supplier by bring forthing stamp based on proprietor specification, roll uping, forming, aggregating and despatching information about stamp in advancement, possible spouses, contract awarded and so on. For illustration, profesional organic structure such as adviser, info agent or package agent
Same definition as proprietor
Same definition as supplier
Same definition as supplier
A formal offer to buy supply capable to hold regulations and limitations such as budget, clip frame, standard ordinances and others
Type of stamp in which allow the catching authorization ( proprietor or go-between ) to confer with the supplier of their pick and negociate the footings of the stamp offer with the supplier
Type of stamp in which allow merely supplier selected by undertaking authorization ( proprietor or go-between ) to subject stamp command
Type of stamp in which allow all interested supplier to subject stamp command in response to a published stamp advertizement notice
Any touchable and intangible merchandise that can be offered for sale in order to profit another
Any intangible merchandise that can be offered for sale to profit another
Any touchable merchandise that can be offered for sale to profit another
Standard by which predetermined by undertaking authorization ( proprietor or go-between ) as a mention point to measure stamp
A piece of written, printed, or electronic affair that provides information or grounds or that serves as an functionary record
A binding understanding between two or more parties that is enforceable by jurisprudence
petition for citation
command for citation
Domain Specific of Tender Evaluation Ontology
Domain specific ontology is difficult to be reused because the nature of this ontology is to depict constructs, relationships between constructs and maxims for peculiar specific applications. The development of sphere specific ontology is by and large motivated by peculiar jobs that attempt to be solved. The chief intent of stamp rating ontology is to give support for stamp judge to do an efficient determination in choosing the best contractor. Fig. 4 depicts simplified semantic belongingss of building stamp rating sphere based on instance surveies of building tendering in Malaysia. Grey boxes represent generic constructs inherited from generic sphere ontology of tendering procedures.
At this phase, we have modeled regulations for look intoing sufficiency of compulsory and back uping stamp paperss. OWL Pellet illation engine is used to concluding regulations derived in Sufficiency Compulsory Document and Sufficiency Supporting Document constructs. In this manner, simpler construct definitions infer complex construct definitions utilizing OWL operators.
Construction Tender Evaluation Ontology
Sufficiency Compulsory Documents
Sufficiency of compulsory paperss are evaluated by deducing complex construct definitions from simpler construct definitions. Here, OWL Pellet illation engine is used to concluding regulations derived in constructs. Below is the regulation that can be inferred by OWL Pellet reasoned to place which tenderers that have submitted all compulsory paperss.
Sufficiency Supporting Documents
Similar procedure will be done to place which tenderers that have submitted all back uping paperss required and the illustration of regulation that can be inferred is shown as below:
The research deals with job to automatize stamp rating procedure and farther to back up stamp judge to do fast and efficient determination. Based on background surveies, stamp judge faces job in identifying and structuring relevant cognition during decision-making. Ontology gaining control and construction semantic cognition on standards penchants for measuring stamp paperss. Sing to early execution, application of ontology proves to be good in supplying information support for decision-making procedure stressing on look intoing sufficiency paperss. This is ongoing research and for future, the attack is expected to cover all the standards. In add-on, we plan to pattern more regulations including mathematical regulations utilizing SPIN-SPARQL illation notation support other standards on rating hierarchy.