The uniform, healthy, full-bearing Mangifera indica trees ( 25 old ages old ) turning under similar conditions from two commercial groves, one in territory Multan ( 30.15 & A ; deg ; N ; 71.36 & A ; deg ; E ) and other in territory Lodhran ( 29.32 & A ; deg ; N, 71.38 & A ; deg ; E ) , Punjab state were selected for the experiments. Uniform sized, well-developed and healthy fruit were harvested at mature green phase from each tree. The fruit were treated with antifungal ( Sportak ) , wholly air dried ( 30 ± 2 & A ; deg ; C ; 75-80 % RH ) , packed in the corrugated fiber board boxes, and were shifted to Postharvest lab, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad ( Punjab ) by joint new wave at 18 & A ; deg ; C. The survey was comprised of two experiments.
Experiment 1: Comparative fruit quality of Mango curriculum vitae. Samar Bahisht Chaunsa from two commercial groves at ambient conditions ( 30±2 & A ; deg ; C ; 50-60 % RH ) in relation to nutritionary direction.
The experiment was laid out harmonizing to the Completely Randomized Design ( CRD ) , replicated thrice. Nine fruit were taken as reproduction unit. The fruit from two commercial groves were kept under ambient conditions ( 30±2 & A ; deg ; C ; 50-60 % RH ) for 6 yearss until fruits were ripened. The informations were recorded sing leaf mineral contents ( at blossoming, fruit set and crop ) , soil mineral contents ( at blossoming, fruit set and crop ) , fruit Peel and mush mineral contents ( at crop and maturation at each remotion ) , physical features of fruits ( daily at shelf ) , organoleptic features of fruits ( on maturing ) and biochemical features of fruits ( on maturing ) .
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Experiment 2: Comparative fruit quality of Mango curriculum vitae. Samar Bahisht Chaunsa from two commercial groves in relation to nutritionary direction following cold storage ( 11 & A ; deg ; C ; 80-85 % RH ) .
The experiment was laid out harmonizing to the Completely Randomized Design ( CRD ) with factorial agreements, replicated thrice ( 9 fruit per reproduction ) . Fruit were stored at ( 11±1 & A ; deg ; C ; 80-85 % RH ) for 4 and 6 hebdomads. Following cold storage, fruit were ripened at ambient temperature ( 30±2 & A ; deg ; C ; 50-60 % RH ) . The informations were recorded sing leaf mineral contents ( at blossoming, fruit set and crop ) , soil mineral contents ( at blossoming, fruit set and crop ) , fruit Peel and mush mineral contents ( at crop and maturation at each remotion ) , physical features of fruits ( every 4th twenty-four hours during storage and daily at shelf ) , organoleptic features of fruits ( on maturing ) and biochemical features of fruits ( on maturing ) .
The experimental parametric quantities were determined by utilizing three types of samples:
Leaf sampling was done at thee phases ( at blossoming, fruit set and crop ) to find the position of different foods ( Ca, Mg, N, P, K ) . The foliage samples comprised of 15-20 mature and healthy foliages were collected from the experimental trees at blossoming, fruit scene and harvest home phase.
Dirt samples were taken from the dirt of the selected trees between the bole and the outer border of the tree canopy. One sample per tree was taken from the surface to a deepness of 15-20 centimeter with a dirt plumber’s snake. Soil sampling was done at blossoming, fruit scene and harvest home phase.
The mineral contents were determined in foliages of experimental trees and in the Peel and mush of the fruits to happen out their relationship with fruit quality in Mangifera indica curriculum vitae. Samar Bahisht Chaunsa. For the mineral analysis of foliages, the foliage samples comprised of 15-20 mature and healthy foliages were collected from the experimental trees. First foliages were washed with tape H2O so H2O holding 5 % detergent in it and eventually washed them with tape H2O once more and rinsed with distilled H2O. Then the samples were air-dried. The dried foliages were land to pulverize signifier. For Peel and mush mineral analysis, fruit were washed with detergent, rinsed with distilled H2O for 3-4 times and air dried at room temperature. Then Peel and mush samples were taken after skining the fruit. These Peel and mush sample were already dried at 65 & A ; deg ; C, subjected to air drying under ambient conditions ( 25±1 & A ; deg ; C, 75-80 % RH ) for the period that no wet could be found in the samples. Then these samples were subjected to oven drying at 65 & A ; deg ; C for 24-48 hours, grinded and the pulverization ( about 100 g ) was saved in plastic bottles for the finding of N, P K, Ca and Mg.
Digestion of the samples for finding of Ca, Mg, P and K
One gm of oven dried foliage stuff was transferred to a 100 milliliter beaker and 10 milliliter of dressed ore HNO3 was added to it. It was allowed to stand till initial reaction was completed. It was covered with ticker glass and low heat was provided until the solid stuff disappeared. After chilling, to each sample 5 milliliter of HClO4 was added and so once more the sample was heated gently at first and so smartly until a clear colorless solution resulted. When the volume reduced to 1 milliliter, it was cooled and transferred through filter paper to a 50 milliliter volumetric flask and the volume was made up to tag. This filtrate was stored in plastic bottles for farther analysis to gauge Ca, Mg, P and K ( Chapman and Parker, 1961 ) .
A ) Calcium
The Ca contents in foliages, Peel and mush were determined by utilizing fire photometer ( Flame photometer 410, Sherwood, Nottingham, England ) as outlined by Sobkowska and Basinska ( 1975 ) . The standard curve ( Fig. 3.1 ) was obtained by utilizing standard solutions of different concentrations. For the finding of Ca, the already prepared filtrate was fed into fire photometer at optimal sensitiveness degree and reading was recorded. The measure of the component was found in ppm by comparing the emanation ( at 624 nm wavelength ) of fire photometer with that of criterion curve which was so converted to per centum by utilizing the expression:
B ) Magnesium
Mg was determined by atomic soaking up spectroscopy ( Analyst-100, Parkin Elmer, Waltham, U.S.A. ) at 318.4 nanometers wave length ( di-nitrogen oxide-acetylene fire ) as described by Vargas et Al. ( 1994 ) . The filtrate was fed to the setup and Mg contents were recorded in mg/litre ( ppm ) .
C ) Phosphorous
The P was determined harmonizing to the method described by Chapman and Parker ( 1961 ) . The standard solutions runing from 0.5 to 5.0 ppm were made at a uninterrupted difference of 0.5 ppm. For doing standard solution, coloring material was developed by adding each of 5 % 1:6 H2SO4, 5 % ammonium molybdate and 0.25 % ammonium vanadate. The standard curve ( Fig. 3.2 ) was obtained by utilizing K H phosphate alternatively of samples. Then the samples were fed to spectrophotometer ( Evolution 300, Thermo Electron Corporation, Waltham, USA ) at a wavelength of 420 nanometers and transmission was noted which was compared with that of standard curve to happen out the measure of the component in ppm.
The per centum of P in the samples was calculated by utilizing following expression:
D ) Potassium
Potassium was besides determined harmonizing to the method described before by Chapman and Parker ( 1961 ) . Potassium concentration was determined by the fire photometer taking 5 milliliter of wet digestion stuff. Standard curve ( Fig 3.3 ) was obtained by utilizing K chloride.
The measure of the component was found in ppm by comparing the emanation of fire photometer with that of criterion curve which was so converted to per centum by utilizing the expression as under:
Tocopherol ) Nitrogen
For the finding of N, the process described by Chapman and Parker ( 1961 ) was used which included digesting the works stuff ( 1 g ) with 30 milliliters concentrated H2SO4 and 5 g digestion mixture ( FeSO4: K2SO4: CuSO4 = 1:10:0.5 ) . On chilling, the contents were so transferred to 250 milliliters volumetric flask and volume was made up to the grade. Then 5 milliliter of aliquot from this prepared stuff was distilled in micro-kjeldhal setup utilizing 40 % Na hydrated oxide, 4 % boracic acid and assorted index of methyl ruddy and bromo creso viridity ( BCG ) . This distillation was titrated against N/10 H2SO4 till the original coloring material of methyl red was restored. From the measure of acid used in titration, the per centum of N was calculated by utilizing the undermentioned expression:
A = Measure of acid used
B = Blank reading
0.0014 = Constant ( which is equal to gms of nitrogen nowadays in 1
milliliter of N/10 sulphuric acid )
Blank reading was taken for gauging the existent per centum of N in sample. All the process of digestion, distillment and titration was same for space but it was done without leaf sample.
Following parametric quantities were included in Physical analysis.
One fruit from each reproduction was indiscriminately selected and placed into a certain plastic jars for 1 h. Respiration rate was determined by mensurating CO2 production utilizing a CO2 analyser ( Vaisala MI 70, Vaisala Inc. , Helsinki, Finland ) and expressed as milligram CO2 kg?? h?? .
Skin coloring material development was scored manually harmonizing to the following graduated table used by Malik and Singh ( 2005 ) , where 1 = 100 % Green, 0 % Yellow ; 2 = 75 % Green, 25 % Yellow ; 3 = 50 % Green, 50 % Yellow ; 4 = 25 % Green, 75 % Yellow ; 5 = 0 % Green, 100 % Yellow.
Textural softness was besides scored manually utilizing the graduated table used by Malik and Singh ( 2005 ) where 1 = Hard, 2 = Sprung, 3 = Slightly soft, 4 = Eating soft, 5 = Over ripe
Fruit weight Loss
Fruit weight loss was calculated on the footing of initial weight ( before storage ) and concluding weight ( at the terminal of storage period ) .
Skin shriveling of fruit were scored manually utilizing the undermentioned graduated table described by Malik and Singh ( 2005 ) , Where 1 = Nill, 2 = & A ; lt ; 10 % , 3 = 10-25 % , 4 = 25-50 % , 5 = 50 %
Injuries were assessed manually by graduated table used by Akhtar and Alam ( 2002 ) where 1= Nill, 2 = & A ; lt ; 5 % , 3 = 5-10 % , 4 = 10-25 % , 5 = & A ; gt ; 25 % .
Extent of internal dislocation
Extent of internal dislocation was assessed by graduated table already described by Raymond et Al. ( 1998 ) . The symptoms were visually rated as early, intermediate, or advanced. For Stem end pit ( SEC ) evaluation of the symptoms was based on the presence and/or the size of the pit at the proximal terminal of the fruit. Early symptoms of SEC were those in which no seeable pit was formed at the peduncular extension of the fruit. Symptoms of SEC were considered as intermediate when a 0.1-0.5 centimeter diameter pit was seeable at the proximal terminal of the fruit, accompanied by a necrotic country around that pit. Symptoms were ranked as advanced when the pit was larger than 0.5 cm diameter and was accompanied by impairment of the fruit mesocarp around the rock.
For jelly seed and soft olfactory organ, early symptoms were characterized by a marked xanthous color of the mesocarp around the rock ( jelly seed ) or at the distal terminal or at the fistula of the fruit ( soft olfactory organ ) , bespeaking that the aging procedure had been initiated. Intermediate symptoms were those in which the disordered mesocarp had an orange coloring material, whereas the environing tissue ( outside of the mesocarp ) was still white or pale yellow, bespeaking that the outside of the mesocarp was non mature. Symptoms of jelly seed and soft olfactory organs were considered as advanced if the mesocarp showed advanced impairment and/or stain.
Biochemical analysis of fruit mush was done to analyze the different constituents of fruit quality i.e. solubel solids content ( SSC ) , titratable sourness ( TA ) , ascorbic acid and sugars ( entire sugars, cut downing and non cut downing sugars ) . For the finding of biochemical constituents, all the fruits of each reproduction were peeled off with a chromium steel steel knife. The juice was extracted from each sample and homogenized to analyze the biochemical parametric quantities.
A ) Solubel solids content ( SSC )
Digital Refractometer ( RX 5000, Atago, Japan ) was used for the finding of SSC. A bead of juice was placed on the prism of refractometer, the palpebra was closed and SSC ( & A ; deg ; Brix ) was noted straight from the digital graduated table of refractometer at room temperature.
C ) Titratable Acidity ( TA )
For the finding of TA, method given by Hortwitz ( 1960 ) was used. Ten ml fruit juice was taken from each sample in a beaker, diluted ( 1:4 ) with distilled H2O and titrated against N/10 NaOH solution by adding 2-3 beads of phenolphthalein ( C20H14O4 ) as an index. The consequences were expressed as % citric acid. Following expression was used for the finding of entire TA.
SSC: TA ratio
It is calculated by given expression
B ) Ascorbic acid
For the appraisal of ascorbic acid in the mush, the method described by Ruck ( 1969 ) was used. For this intent extracted juice from each sample was filtered through Whatman® filter paper. Ten milliliter of filtered aliquot was taken in 100 milliliter unit of ammunition underside flask, so volume was made up to the grade by adding 0.4 % oxalic acid. Out of 100 milliliter aliquot, 5 milliliter was taken in a beaker and titrated against newly prepared dye ( 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol ) boulder clay light pink terminal point appeared which persisted for 10-15 seconds. For the readying of dye, 42 milligram baking sodium carbonate ( NaHCO3 ) and 52 milligram 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol were taken in a 200 milliliter volumetric flask and volume was made up to the grade by adding distilled H2O. Ascorbic acid was calculated by utilizing following expression:
D1 = milliliter dye used in titration of aliquot
D = milliliter of dye used in titration of 1ml standard ascorbic acerb solution prepared
by adding 1ml of 0.1 % ascorbic acid + 1.5 milliliter of 0.4 % oxalic acid
A = milliliter of juice used
V = volume of aliquot made by add-on of 0.4 % oxalic acid
B = milliliter of aliquot used for titration
D ) Sugars
Method described by Hortwitz ( 1960 ) was used to gauge the mush sugars. Following solutions were prepared for finding of cut downing and non cut downing sugars:
I ) Juice filtrate
two ) Invert sugar solution
three ) Fehling ‘s solution
I ) Preparation of juice filtrate
Ten milliliter of juice was taken in 250 milliliter flask in which 100 milliliter distilled H2O, 25 ml lead bomber acetate solution ( 430 g of lead acetate/L ) and 10 milliliter of 20 % K oxalate solution were added. The volume was made up to the grade utilizing distilled H2O. The solution was filtered and so the filtrate was used for the appraisal of cut downing and non cut downing sugars.
two ) Preparation of standard invert sugar solution
As impersonal or alkalic solutions of sugar should non be kept for longer clip and should be prepared when required ( Ronald and Sawyer, 1981 ) ; hence criterion sugar solution was newly prepared. For the readying of standard invert sugar solution, 23.75 g pure saccharose ( analytical class ) was dissolved in approximately 120 ml H2O in a 250 milliliter volumetric flask, 9 milliliter concentrated HCl was added and the solution was kept for 8 yearss at room temperature for inversion of the sugar contents. On completion of inversion, volume was made up to the grade with distilled H2O ( When inversion is complete, rotary motion in a 200 millimeter tubing is 11.80 & A ; deg ; ± 0.05 & A ; deg ; S ) . Two hundred milliliters of the solution was transferred into a 2 L volumetric flask, 200 milliliter H2O was added and 71.4 milliliter of Na hydrated oxide solution ( 40 g/L ) incorporating 4 g benzoic acid was added along with uninterrupted agitating. Then 1 L of distilled H2O was added, assorted, pH was adjusted at 3 and volume was made up to the grade. In this manner, a stable 1 % m/v stock solution of invert sugars was obtained which was diluted to do 0.25 % standard solution and neutralized by utilizing 1N NaOH.
three ) Preparation of fehling ‘s solution
Fehling ‘s solution deteriorates easy so fresh fehling ‘s solution was made sufficient to run into immediate demands merely. For the readying of fehling ‘s solution, equal measures of solution A and B were transferred to a dry flask and assorted exhaustively. Fehling ‘s solution A and B were prepared utilizing undermentioned process.
Solution A: Copper sulfate pentahydrate ( 69.3 g ) was dissolved in H2O and Volume was made up to 1 L.
Solution B: Sodium hydrated oxide ( 100 g ) and 345 g Na K tartrate ( 345 g ; KNaC4O6.4H2O ) were dissolved in H2O and volume was made up to 1 L.
The filtrate was taken in burette and titrated against 10 milliliter fehling ‘s solution utilizing 2-3 beads of methylene bluish trihydrate ( C16H18ClN3S. 3H2O ) as an index with uninterrupted boiling boulder clay brick ruddy terminal point appeared. Reducing sugars were calculated by utilizing following expression:
Reducing sugars ( % ) = 6.25 ten ( A/B )
A = milliliter of standard sugar solution used against 10 milliliter Fehling ‘s solution
B = milliliter of sample aliquot used against 10 milliliter Fehling ‘s solution
For appraisal of entire sugars, 25 milliliter of aliquot already prepared for cut downing sugars was taken in a 100 milliliter volumetric flask in which 20 milliliter distilled H2O and 5 milliliter concentrated HCl was added and solution was kept for 24-48 hours for change overing the non-reducing sugars into cut downing sugars. Then it was neutralized with 50 % concentrated NaOH solution and volume was made up to the grade ( 100 milliliter ) with distilled H2O. The prepared solution was taken in burette and titrated against uninterrupted boiling Fehling ‘s solution ( 10 milliliter ) to brick ruddy terminal point utilizing 2-3 beads of methylene bluish trihydrate ( C16H18ClN3S. 3H2O ) as an index. Entire sugars were calculated by utilizing expression:
Entire sugars ( % ) = 25 ten ( A/C )
A = milliliter of standard sugar solution used against 10 milliliter Fehling ‘s solution
C = milliliter of sample aliquot used against 10 milliliter Fehling ‘s solution
For the appraisal of non-reducing sugars, following expression was used:
Non cut downing sugars ( % ) = 0.95 ten ( % Total sugars – % Reducing sugars )
Entire carotenoids were estimated by the method given by Lalel et Al. ( 2003 ) . One gm of homogenised ripe fruit mush was grounded with 0.05 g of Mg carbonate in silicon oxide sand utilizing glass howitzer and stamp and centrifuged at 5000 revolutions per minute. Two extractions were made utilizing 20 milliliter of propanone: n-hexane ( 75:60, v/v ) mixture per sample. The infusion was collected in dividing funnel and washed with a 40 milliliter of 10 % NaCl and 2 tens 40 milliliter of distilled H2O to avoid propanone. The hexane infusion was determined for its optical density at 436 nanometers utilizing spectrophotometer ( Evolution 300, Thermo Electron Corporation, Waltham, USA ) and was expressed as ?g.g-1 of ?-carotene equivalent from a standard curve of ?-carotene.
The fruits were evaluated at to the full mature phase for organoleptic acceptableness on the footing of gustatory sensation, spirit, mush coloring material, texture and olfactory property utilizing the 9 point hedonistic graduated table described by Peryam and Pilgrim ( 1957 ) . Nine Judgess were called in the panel for organoleptic rating of interventions.
Hedonic graduated table ( Peryam and Pilgrim, 1957 )
Merchandise: ______________ Assortment: _________________ Date: ______________
Name of Judge: _________________________ Signature: __________________
Instruction manuals: ( Please read the instructions carefully before make fulling the spaces )
This is an organoleptic rating signifier for different Mangifera indica interventions.
Please follow the numerical system for hiting the samples.
Dislike extremely……………..1 Like slightly……………6
Dislike really much…………….2 Like moderately………7
Dislike moderately……………3 Like really much………..8
Dislike slightly…………………4 Like extremely…………9
Neither similar nor dislike………5
Please make non upset the sequence of the samples provided.
Please wash the lingua before proving following sample, with the H2O provided.
The collected information was statistically analyzed utilizing the computing machine package MSTAT- C ( Russel and Eisensmith, 1983 ) . Analysis of discrepancy techniques was employed to prove the overall significance of the informations, while the Least Significant Difference ( LSD ) trial ( P ? 0.05 ) was used to compare the differences among intervention agencies ( Steel et al. , 1997 ) .