I would wish to research some of the complex waies, where landscape and memory meet and interact, through a spectrum runing from anthropology to different signifiers of art.
The image of the physical environment and the landscape has been used for centuries as a stuff beginning that enable us to bring forth recollections, from the memory system of Simonides of Ceos in 500 B.C. until the fanciful walks of S. V. Sereshevskii in twentieth century[ 1 ]. French republics Yates ( British historiographer, 1899-1981 ) considers memory as an art, in her book “ The Art of Memory ” ( 1966 ) she writes that memory was seen as an art from the antediluvian times when Greeks talked about the “ mnemotecnics ” , the techniques that were used in order to affect spacial images on memory[ 2 ], and subsequently on from Greece it passed on to Rome to take a more complete signifier. Yates is composing some rules about the ‘mechanism ‘ of the art of memory ; the most of import one is the necessity to I?I± I‡I±I?I±I?I?I…I?Iµ I?I„I? I?I…I±I»I? I?I±I‚ a series of topographic points and she notices that the most common type of mnemotechnic topographic point is the architectural 1. ( IˆI‡ I?IˆI?I„I? I?I±I? I„I± I?I‰I?I±I„I?I± I„I?I… ) Yates has demonstrated the consistence between this metaphor and certain major premises of ancient doctrine, such as the primacy given to the sense of sight- perceptible in the really etymology of the thought, which in Plato designates the kernel of things, or in the Aristotelean thesis keeping that ‘the psyche ne’er thinks without a mental image ‘ . I?IµI» . 12rephrase.
As for impressions of memory, the landscape position would convey an increased consciousness of how memory is ‘seen ‘ . Landscape is of class historically linked to ‘the art of memory ‘ . Since vision appears to be natural, it transforms memory into a apparently natural experience, an experience nowadays in the here-and-now. The interaction between vision and memory in the landscape is therefore capable of bring forthing narrative vision that cuts across the really basic differentiation between the textual and the visual- a differentiation which tends basically to oppose, in art and architectural history, the iconographic attack to the attack of ocular civilization studies. ? ? einaicopyapokapou? ? ?
Nowadays, we see a batch of ‘memory systems ‘ interacting with landscape. These memory systems could be considered the books, every bit good as movies. I?I„I?I? I‡I‰I?I? I„I·I‚ IµI?I?I?I?I·I‚ I„IµI‡I?I·I‚ this can be seen clearly in the plants of Andrei Tarkovsky[ 3 ]( 1932-1986 ) and his well known movie The Mirror ( 1975 ) , in this autobiographical and really personal movie of his utilizations oneiric landscapes images combined with verse forms[ 4 ]to clip travel to the yesteryear and his childhood memories.phototainias I?I„I± IˆI»I±I?I?I?I± I„I?I… I?I±I?I„IµI? we were challenged to near this thought of interaction, by doing our ain short movie about landscape and how it interferes with clip and memory. This movie had to place an intersection between clip, topographic point and memory and my reply to this was the feeling of nostalgia ( hankering for the yesteryear ) and besides the rubric of the movie. ‘Nostalgia ‘ is really closely linked to memory, since IµI?I?I±I? I· I?I±I„I±I?I„I±I?I· I?I„I·I? I?IˆI?I?I± I?I?I?I?I?I?I?I±I?I„Iµ I?I„I±I? I?I±I‚ IˆIµI?I?I„I?I…I?I…I?I?I¶I?I…I? I?I? I±I?I±I?I?I·I?IµI?I‚ , I?I…I?IµIˆI‰I‚ without them it the feeling of nostalgia would ne’er existed. Here, memory is perceived as more like a screen on which we project a phantasy of the yesteryear, inspired by present desires. Furthermore it can be seen as a originative procedure closely linked to fantasize or as an compulsion of retracing and recovering the past. ( IˆI·I?I· ? ) So, in this movie I am seeking to develop mnemotecnics ( as mentioned before ) in order to convey to the surface the feeling of nostalgia by seeking and so capturing spacial images or sounds that awaken my senses and memories, from topographic points unknown to me, I?I±I? IµI?IµI? IµI?I?IµI?I„I±I? I· I?I…I?I?I?I»I?I± . But can be overcome through picturesque images and familiar sounds or odors. For illustration in the movie, I am using the sound of aeroplanes and I„I? I?I?I?I?I?I?I± I„I‰I? I†I…I»I»I‰I? , because “ Sounds every bit good as silence are woven with memory ”[ 5 ], every bit good as a picturesque image of the visible radiations of the metropolis that reflects on the river as a nexus with the past and acquaintance. The merger of present and past in memory in this movie is expressed through flashbacks, a aggregation of souvenirs, exemplifying in that manner ‘snapshot ‘ nature of memory.
The thought of a garden as a theatre of memory p. 18 sub-urbanism and the art of memory.
Based on Aldo Rossi[ 6 ]“ the metropolis is the venue of the corporate memory ”[ 7 ]. The corporate memory of its people which live in her and give her life, IˆI±I»I?I? and her typical character. “ The psyche of the metropolis ” becomes the metropolis ‘s history, its I±IˆI?I„I…IˆI‰I?I± I„I·I‚ , its memory. “ It is in the metropolis that one becomes citizen ”[ 8 ]. The metropolis could be likened to a mental map, where the comparative localisation of the dedicated topographic points and the paths of the emanations themselves inscribe landmarks and mnemotechnic scheme. ( I?I± I?I?I‰ I„I·I? IˆI·I?I· )
Memory is related with objects and topographic points through the transition of clip. So everything that consists a metropolis, its edifices and public infinites and of class its Parkss becomes the venue. Corporate memory becomes a value, a steering force that participates in the I?I?I±I?I?I?I†I‰I?I· of a topographic point. It transforms through its people criterions and rules and through their ‘frameworks ‘ of memory.
In a similar manner, the history of a metropolis or of a public park could be seen as corporate memory, due to the engagement and the engagement of people in different clip periods. Maurice Halbwachs ( 1877-1945 ) , Gallic philosopher and sociologist was responsible for developing the thought of corporate memory argued that: “ When a group is introduced into a portion of infinite, it transforms it to its image ” and continues: “ It encloses itself in the model that it has constructed ” . The history of the metropoliss and urbanism showed as that the urban infinites were a vision as an art of corporate memory. So holding in head what the histories of thoughts have taught us and with combination of the scientific discipline of doctrine that searched the societal kernel of memory, we should be able to understand infinites better non merely as inactive, conditioning memories ( that is as peculiarly heavy accretions of hints and remembrances ) , but besides as active and learned memories- as systems of constructed mnemotechnic topographic points.[ 9 ]I§I?IµI?I±I¶IµI„I±I? rephrase p.18
Halbwachs, in the Social Frameworks of Memory[ 10 ]( 1925 ) , from which Aldo Rossi IµI?I‡Iµ I±I?I„I»I·I?IµI? I?I·I?I±I?I„I?I?I± I?I„I?I?I‡IµI?I± for his thoughts about corporate memory argues that memory is related with the society and non with the person, he was I±I?I±I?I?I?I…I?Iµ personal memory, because he was n’t seeing memory as a depot of feelings and remembrances that has each one of us, but as “ more of a procedure of Reconstruction: an activity of localisation and constellation working basically from and within socially elaborated frames or mention systems ” .[ 11 ]That means that memory is related indirectly with societal models and mentions such as our dealingss with people, infinite and clip. We have memories kept of different times in our lives and there are coming to the surface and reproduced due to some trigger, to a spacial image of the present. It is the landscape that we see, the infinite itself that is clip going us, and combined with our imaginativeness our memories reappear and are able to retrace.
Layers of Memory in Vauxhall Spring Gardens
For my design proposal for the Vauxhall Spring Gardens memory and ‘its workings ‘ IIˆI±I?I?I±I? I?I±I?I?I?I?I?I„I?I?I? I?I?I»I? . To be more specific, I saw and distinguished I±I‚ I?I?I… IµIˆI?I„I?I±IˆIµI? the memory in my design procedure I?Iµ I„I?I?I± IµI?I?I· : into personal memory, corporate memory and the historic memory of the topographic point for which I am traveling to speak in the chapter about Place Reclamation. I‘I…I„I· I· I±I?I±I¶I·I„I·I?I· I?I?I·I?I·I‚ was realized after seeking to develop a signifier of notation on site and a more personal site analysis of the park.
First I am traveling to speak about personal memory and how is possible to convey my ain memories in Vauxhall Spring Gardens, I±I…I„I? I?I…I?IµIˆI±I?IµI„I±I? to convey memory to a topographic point unknown to me when the of import factor of acquaintance is losing.
At this point I will hold to advert the workshop that took topographic point in the beginning of the maestro class with the lensman Chino Otsuka, with the position to assist us to convey our ain memories in the park. It turned out to be really helpful in footings of localisation some objects or inside informations in the park that would function as triggers in order to assist us to convey memory and to acquire more familiarized to an unknown topographic point. We were asked to confront memory as ‘a signifier of storytelling ‘ and by pull offing to happen these triggers we could travel back and seek to animate the yesteryear. The get downing point I?I?I± I±I…I„I· I„I·I? I±I?I±I¶I·I„I·I?I· of the triggers through exposure was an old exposure of our household album that we chose because of keeping a particular significance for us. In this exposure colors and stuffs as wood are dominant.[ 12 ]
These exposures gaining control inside informations of the infinite and some of the objects found at that place. The intent of these exposures was to trip our memory and remind us of some feelings from the past and possibly manage to convey to the surface feelings that make us nostalgic. PhotosChinoThis was fundamentally attempted by capturing elements and qualities of the infinite such as texture, coloring material and the games between visible radiation and shadiness. Visually texture is related with visible radiation, since in every different visible radiation tone the texture seems different. “ The item of coloring material, texture and visible radiation are non merely of import in supplying profusion, diverseness and complexness to inspire landscape experience, but besides in supplying simpleness and coherency to unite experience. ”[ 13 ]
I•I? I?I…I?IµI‡IµI?I± I?I„I± IˆI»I±I?I?I± of an active battle with the site we tried to develop our ain tools to look into and I?I?I‰I?I?I?I?I…I?Iµ the site. So beyond the needed and typical site analysis of the park, we were challenged to do a more personal site analysis. After disbursement as more clip as possible in the park, I try to acquire to cognize it, after deep observation of the park and how people behave on it. Obviously the clip that a interior decorator has in order to acquire to cognize a topographic point it ca n’t be compared with the clip that its regular visitants have passed in the topographic point and with the clip that is needed in order to acquire familiarized with it, the manner they see it the last 1s is more sentimental ( based, of class, on their memories and experiences ) , although with the usage of the appropriate design tools and the experimental accomplishments of the interior decorator, can rush the process of larning a topographic point and the engagement with it might give the feeling of a more originative design procedure instead than IµIˆI?I†I±I?IµI?I±I?I· I?I±I? I±IˆI?I?I?I‰IˆI· . The trouble IµI?I?IµI?I„I±I? to the presentation of how he experiences the topographic point, since the interior decorator is pass oning through his drawings, the typical landscape architecture drawings have deficiency of reflecting significances and bing qualities of the topographic point. For that, notation systems, a medium of drawing is helpful because “ it enable us to see at the same time different beds of experience including motion and clip ”[ 14 ]. Based on Lawrence Halprin ‘s[ 15 ]motation ( motion notation ) on his book The RSVP Cycles ( 1969 ) , I tried to hit my motion through the park, recognizing in this manner how I move and behave and as a effect how I experience Vauxhall Spring Gardens. And this motion in a manner is explained by apportioning and hiting the of import musca volitanss of the park based on my remembered feelings and my “ inward oculus ” ( Wordsworth ) . ( photo I?I‡.11 )
We realize as Halprin writes “ that hiting makes the procedure seeable and makes our presence felt ” .
The corporate memory in Vauxhall Spring Gardens can be found with the signifier of memory of events which are taking topographic point. Events that are socially constructed from different groups of people, like households, group of friends, even the association of the Vauxhall City Farm, I?IˆI?I… I±IˆI?I„IµI»IµI? IµI?I±I? IˆI…I?I·I?I± IˆI?I?I?IµI»IµI…I?I·I‚ I?I?I?I?I?I… I?I?I± I„I? IˆI±I?I?I? . The farm offers a batch to the community of Vauxhall by holding educational and environmental consciousness, but overall offers to the kids particular memories by conveying them near to nature. So in my design proposal for this park I preserved all the infinites that the farm keeps in the park, every bit good as the hoops tribunal, I?Iµ I„I· I?I?I?I· I?I?I±I†I?I?I± the remotion of its fencing, that seems a abhorrent image and an obstruction of little informal assemblages of immature people, that they can be an of import portion of corporate memory.