This assignment adopts a multi-method attack to happen out which situational factors are linked with offense in the outskirts of Victoria, Gozo. Official statistics of offense were analyzed utilizing Geographic System ( GIS ) package. The consequences were compared and contrasted with factual informations derived from the position survey conducted in Tac-Cawla. The ethnographic portion consisted of participant observation conducted over a period of months. The factual information was conducted within several occupants, stand foring few persons of the population life in the country and registered as life in Tac-Cawla. The bulk of these occupants lives in Victoria or had been populating at that place for more than ten old ages. The bulk had a secondary degree of instruction or lower, and tended to populate in rented flats. Their degree of instruction, coupled with the type of adjustment and occupancy, indicate that the participants were more likely to belong to a lower socio-economic class.

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Housing Estates in Malta and Gozo

The Housing estates in Malta and Gozo has ever been an of import affair and schemes begun after Second World War. In 1943 the Housing Act was recognized, which in return allowed the Government to prehend private belongingss for province usage ( Structure Plan for the Maltese Islands Housing Topic Paper, 2002 ) . Till the 1960s, Government lodging in Malta and Gozo was negligible though, in the 1970s and 1980s the Government intervened and lodging countries were at their extremum ( Camilleri, 2000 ) . Furthermore, by the terminal of the 1970s, most metropoliss and small towns had newly-built lodging estates on their fringes. Throughout this clip, the Home Ownership Schemes ( HOS ) were besides established whereby secret plans for terraced houses were set out on probationary land rent ( Camilleri, 2000 ) . During this clip, precisely in 1976, an independent Housing Authority was set up so as to progress the lodging state of affairss of really low wage groups and besides to advance HOS.

In 1955 the slum known as il-MandraA?A? was unoccupied. Such an country was categorized by really low income societies and therefore really hapless individuals holding seven to eight people populating in one room ( Darmanin, 2009 ) . Houses or slightly kerrejja in this country had really hapless saneness conditions and the edifices were dark, soiled and humid ( Darmanin, 2009 ) . High offense rates had conquered over this country since the bulk of the people populating there were unemployed and populating off condemnable activity ( Heritage Malta, 2008 ) . By clip, this country had expanded a position of a unsafe country and due to such a ground, people who did non populate in at that place did non venture those streets as it was hazardous ( Heritage Malta, 2008 ) . This can be supported by the broken Windowss theory where it states that if the ocular image of an country delivers the message of a disorganised topographic point, it may pull fright of offense ( United Nations Human Settlements Program, 2003 ) . Wilson and Kelling ( 1982 ) took the broken Windowss theory beyond in their account by showing that an urban country that is constituted by hooliganism, offense and anti-social behavior produces a unsafe rhythm that in return upholds farther of the same behavior, doing it truly insecure for the individuals populating in the vicinity specifically after certain clip at dark. Furthermore, when there are a figure of condemnable subcultures all in one country as in this instance, the differential association theory develops, where many people learn from others on how to perpetrate offense particularly if interaction with anti-social equals commenced from a really immature age ( Vito Maahs and Holmes, 2006 ) .

In the interim, from a survey conducted by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute ( 2007 ) , it has been reported that individuals populating in socially disadvantaged countries and countries holding high degrees of reported offense and disputes such as graffito, noise pollution, traffic, hooliganism etc. are negatively affected in footings of ‘social’ connection and dealingss. Alternatively, people populating in countries where there are societal and substructure jobs, the degrees of interaction in the vicinity are considered to be high bespeaking the doctrine of ‘coming together to decide local problems’ ( Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2007 ) .

When it comes to persons migrating from different topographic points, different societal backgrounds and traveling in to populate in the same community may ensue in holding a negative interconnected facet particularly on the bing emotional bonds of the neighbors ( Morrison, 2003 ) . Since lodging estates in Malta and Gozo were built in suburb countries a prostration of the nucleus Centre started being felt by clip giving a ocular image of creaky edifices. Due to such a ground, the lone people who stayed in these countries were by and large the aged and those who did non afford the Home Ownership Schemes. This surely leads to the job of knee bend, where people break into unoccupied houses and get down life at that place.

Areas of Crime Hotspots

This assignment is a agency to happen out which situational factors are linked with the peculiar form of offense found in Tac-Cawla country. This subdivision will get down by showing some of the perspective socio-demographic features of the contexts. The involvement in Tac-Cawla arises from the fact that this country is frequently associated by the general populace with offense since a significant figure of convicted individuals come from this country. Tac-Cawla exhibits rather a figure of high population densenesss. A figure of societal lodging undertakings in Tac-Cawla were built in the 1970s and started sing high population turnover. Housing Estates are by and large built and run by the authorities to ease lodging to those who does non hold inexpensive lodging. This means that most of the households have really low net incomes. In many fortunes they are besides unemployed. It besides comes out that certain households have societal jobs where household members which function in this society populating really near together, will hold differences. Occasionally these jobs are hard to avoid and individuals populating in the same level do non acquire along. Since the rent for this sub-standard lodging tends to be low, materially deprived groups tend to be attracted to the country.

This high rate of dependance on societal public assistance is due to the high rate of unemployment found in the country. However when compared to the GIS system this does non come into notice. The high unemployment rate is besides linked with the relatively higher illiteracy rate. This concentration of registered wrongdoers in country might hold been caused by societal lodging arrangements every bit good as the handiness of inexpensive adjustment which might hold attracted those without adequate stuff agencies to happen rented adjustment in the country.

Sampson, Raudenbush and Felton maintain that higher offense rates in socially deprived countries might deduce from a deficiency of corporate efficaciousness. Changeless population turnover, particularly in certain societal lodging estates, can take to a deficiency of corporate efficaciousness. This deficiency of corporate efficaciousness is, nevertheless, prevalent in certain societal lodging estates and non in others. The informations analyzed in this paper demonstrates that, offense is linked with poorness, deficiency of corporate efficaciousness, and of Windowss of chance. Some societal jobs include domestic force, unemployment ; persons hold different sentiments about fortunes like unplanned gestation and many others. All these concerns correlate why people commit such offenses like larceny, disgusting linguistic communication, hooliganism and other related offenses.

Perspective point of View

As Map 1 demonstrates, the registered offense rate in Tac-Cawla was highest in the countries where the poorness rate was high. In footings of offense analysis, in the cardinal portion of Tac-Cawla is a comparatively high concentration country of offense. Offence hot spots in Tac-Cawla are spread across the resort area country but concentrations exist, located in an country around the edifices. This country is surrounded by the edifice flats and this might be the ground why offense conquers. A figure of households have been populating at that place for a figure of old ages, but the bulk does non remain long because this country is associated with antisocial behavior. Another resort area is located following to the church country, and this might be the ground why offense here does non be. The church and resort area is besides located on the outskirts of the lodging estates, but one can non state that the country is uninhabited. Another church is on the sou’-west of the playground country. This country is slightly cut off from the remainder of the lodging estate since it is a little convent. Therefore, this indicant conclude that a lower rate of corporate efficiency exists in countries where occupants might non hold had the clip or capacity to organize societal webs with other persons populating in the country meanwhile they are persistently altering abode. It is apparent, that condemnable activity takes topographic point in countries where there is a high concentration of occupants populating in societal lodging units or in in private lodging adjustment. A moderate prevalence of offense besides takes topographic point in commercial countries and in less frequented public infinites illustrations include the church and the large parking country. Crime rates were besides high in countries where there was a prevalence of ignored and abandoned houses such as Patri Anton Debono Street, countries where a figure of drug- related offense are taking topographic point. Crime rates were lower in residential countries around the outskirts of the lodging estates edifices where there was a prevalence of place private proprietors, and/or private occupants who had been populating at that place for coevalss.

On the other manus during my scanning process it involved the perusal of the state of affairss to verify that a job is being present. It besides included the collection of informations on what, when, who, where, why, and how. I besides identified frequent jobs by utilizing different attacks and grouping similar incidents into topics of groups.






Bicycles Larcenies

12:00 – 16:00, 20:00 – 22:00

Children aged between 7 to 15

Traveling about in the entrywaies of flats.

Vandalism, Personal used for their bike.

Vehicle/Other Vandalism

19:00 onwards


Passers-by, Children life in the country

Vandalism, merely for merriment. Because of such restrictions to come in the resort area.

Vehicle related larcenies

21:00 onwards

Male people

Peoples populating in the country, passerby.

Personal usage for their vehicle, hooliganism

Larceny from individuals

9:00 – 11:00

Unemployed people


To get their demands.

Gas Larcenies

8:00 – 9:00

Peoples populating in the country

Pass by

For themselves

Abusive Language

10:00 12:00, 4:00 – 21:00, 23:00 – 1:00


Gathering of groups.

To demo power.

Illegal Barbecues

19:00 – 23:00

Peoples populating in the country

Gathering of people in the playing field.

Most people live in flats.

Garbage bags

19:00 – 14:00

Peoples from the country

Hump refuse bags left in different points.

Most people do non take history of clip of refuse aggregation.

Drug Sellers

Between 10:00 am – 13:00p.m

Unemployed people

Car fillet, handover – exchange

Sellers live in the country.

The Factual Point of View

It is besides of import to look at the community’s perceptual experience of offense, since their experience of antisocial behavior might be different from that which appears from the position attack and the statistical analysis. This subdivision will emphasis on what occupants feel about life in one of the offense hot spots. When occupants were asked in the demands assessment what types of antisocial behavior took topographic point in the countries where they lived, the prevailing felon and antisocial behaviors mentioned were unsupervised young person, followed by larceny from vehicles/persons, larceny of vehicles, vehicle and other related hooliganism and drug-related offenses. It was surprising to observe that occupants were rather worried about the disregard of kids and immature people populating in the country, which they felt was about every bit dominant as drug-related offense. Their concern originated from the fact that unsupervised young person were more likely to fall back to antisocial behavior. In fact, some occupants at one clip pointed out and were really concerned about the circumstance that some of these kids and striplings were being used by drug thrusters to present drugs. The occupants were besides fearful that the happening of drugs in the country might intend that immature people populating at that place might hold more chance to experiment with drugs. Substance maltreatment non merely has a harmful consequence on the individual who abuses, but can besides take to offense. Such occupants besides raised and mentioned domestic force in the same breath as drug-related offense.

The residents’ perceptual experience of offense does non hold with the offense statistics provided by the GIS. It might be the cause that the GIS package, record and Acts of the Apostless on studies that concerned offense against belongings than those that concerned offense against individuals or frailty versa alternatively because it does non foreground any related offense. Respondents were asked whether they had of all time contacted the constabulary of such committed offense and answered that some of them contacted the governments even when the offense or the antisocial behavior did non concern them straight. Therefore one can reason that they were looking out for the involvements of all those populating in their vicinity and in a manner, they were moving as an informal vicinity ticker.

Other occupants besides said that even though they had contacted the constabulary they were non satisfied with how the issue was dealt. They argued that the constabulary had non done sufficiency to settle the instance, or did non demo any involvement in undertaking the instance when the incident was reported. These occupants felt that the governments needed to make more to face the antisocial behavior mentioned above. Some answered that the constabulary needed to do their presence felt in the country by runing more pes and auto patrols. As some of the occupants besides claimed that the constabulary merely turned up when something went highly incorrect.


A figure of criminological theories such as the everyday activity theory ( Cohen and Felson, 1979 ) , the rational pick position ( Clarke and Felson, 1993 ) and the offense form theory ( Brantingham and Brantingham, 1993 ) all include the of import correlativity between the topographic point and the clip in order to make the ideal apparatus for a condemnable act to take topographic point. With respects to clip, it is besides affected by monthly and seasonal tendencies ( Harries, 1980 ) . For illustration, during the months of summer, Field ( 1992 ) claims that there would be an addition in violent offenses, while in the months of winter, Van Koppen and De Keijser ( 1999 ) claim that offense rates experience an addition in commercial robberies. Crimes besides have specific clip oversight as to when they occur during the twenty-four hours. Ratcliffe ( 2002 ) claims that larceny from autos occurs in residential vicinities largely at dark nevertheless, the same offense occurs in non-residential countries during mid-day.

Taylor ( 2002 ) took Ratcliffe’s ( 2002 ) arguments a measure farther by discoursing them from the behavioral geographic theory position. Taylor ( 2002 ) states that from the position of the latter theory ;

“ … topographic points that are closer to where wrongdoers work or shack are at higher hazard of being burglarized than topographic points that are non within the offenders’ regular route” .

Therefore this theory is bespeaking that there is a direct correlativity between offense and easy handiness.


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