1. Large Onion harvest was introduced to Sri Lanka by the British in 1855 and commercial cultivation was introduced by the Department of Agriculture during the 1950 ‘s and over the past old ages, the harvest public presentation was evaluated in many parts of the state and it was observed that large onions can be grown economically during every Maha season in about all parts of the state.

2. However, at present the cultivation of large onion is confined merely to Matale, Anuradhapura, Puthalama, Pollonnaruwa, Mahawelli and Jaffna Districts. More than 30 % of the entire onion production in Sri Lanka is cultivated from the Matale District.[ 1 ]

3. The Government strives to accomplish a ego sufficient phase in the production of large onions since Sri Lanka spends a important sum of hard currency escape every twelvemonth on the importing of the large onions. Meanwhile, in the recent yesteryear it has been noticed that the large onion production has been affected in Sri Lanka and therefore clients are besides paying a higher monetary value for the large onions. In peculiar the large onion production in Dambulla country has been worsening in the last few old ages.

AIM OF THE RESEARCH

4. The Dambulla country plays an of import function in the large onion cultivation in Sri Lanka. The Government has been paying less attending and support on advancing the large onion production in Dambulla. Therefore, it has so happened that the onion production in Dambulla has declined in the recent yesteryear as a effect of the authorities ‘s less support for this sector. Therefore, the chief intent of this survey is to advance the large onion cultivation in the Dambulla country.

Aim

5. This research is carried out with the following general and specific aims.

General Aims

a. The chief general aim of this survey is to place the chief jobs encountered in the onion cultivation of the Dambulla country.

Specific aim

6. The specific aim of this survey is to give the recommendation to better the large onion cultivation in the Dambulla country and specific aims are as follows.

a. To analyze the recent history of large onion cultivation in Dambulla country and to compare the present state of affairs of the Big Onion cultivation.

B. To place the chief issues encountered in large onion cultivation in Dambulla.

c. To place the critical contributing factors.

d. To do recommendations based on the findings

Chapter 02

Methodology

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1. Low output of onion industry in Dambulla is due to less aid of the authorities sector.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

2. The Matale District plays an of import function in the large onion cultivation in Sri Lanka in peculiar Dambulla country provides 30 % of large onions for the Sri Lankans ‘ ingestion. In the recent yesteryear due to the deficiency of support from the authorities sector the large onion cultivation has been worsening.

3. As a consequence the large onion cultivation in Dambulla will be non being in the really close hereafter. Furthermore, many husbandmans depend on the large onion cultivation as their support in Dambulla. Hence, if the large onion cultivation in Dambulla is affected many households will lose their income and it will impact the endurance of many households. Thus the deficiency of support from the authorities and the consequent less onion cultivation are considered as the research job for this survey.

Scope OF THE STUDY

4. This research surveies the worsening phase of the onion cultivation in Dambulla. The range covers merely the Dambulla country of large onion husbandmans. Therefore, this research has been limited to the large onion husbandmans of the Dambulla country.

DATA COLLECTION METHODS

Primary Data

5. Structured questionnaires were used to roll up the information. These questionnaires consist of 2 parts they are ; Part I – the factors finding the large onion cultivation in Dambulla and Part II – the personal profile.

The first portion comprises statements of two major factors which determine the large onion cultivation in Dambulla ; hapless quality of seeds and the deficiency of fertiliser support. To place the responses the questionnaire in portion I applied the Likert graduated table of 1 – 5, which ranges from “ Strongly Disagree ” to “ Strongly Agree ” . The 2nd portion included the personal profile of the respondents associating to ; age, sex, civil position and figure of old ages the husbandman has been in cultivation.

Secondary Datas

6. In add-on to primary informations, secondary informations besides was collected for this research. It was collected by mentioning to the studies from the Agricultural Department and from the Department of Census and Statistics.

Sample OF THE STUDY

7. This research surveies the factors act uponing the diminution of the large onion cultivation in Dambulla. Therefore, the responses were collected from the local onion husbandmans from the Dambulla country. Thus, 100 large onion husbandmans were considered as a sample for this survey since all husbandmans could non be accessible within the limited clip for this survey. These husbandmans were selected in a random footing. Therefore, the simple random trying method was applied for the choice of the sample.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

8. The undermentioned restrictions were encountered in the survey.

a. Time is limited, so that within the limited clip the research has to be finished because of this in-depth analysis can non be applied.

B. The research worker encountered restriction of resources.

c. The sample was limited merely to 100 husbandmans.

LITERATURE REVIEW

9. The large onion is an of import minor harvest consumed by many Sri Lankans and it has been estimated that 34,000 metric dozenss of onion is imported yearly and Sri Lanka spends about 300 million rupees on onion importing. Furthermore, it has been besides estimated that 45,000 labour units are employed in the onion cultivation and production yearly by Sri Lankans and hence, it increases income and employment coevals for many Sri Lankans.[ 2 ]

10. Many states worldwide are acquiring involved in the large onion production. In peculiar they are ; Belarus, Russia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, India, Pakistan etc.[ 3 ]

11. Harmonizing to Shanmugasundaram research in ( 2008 ) there are assortments of onion and it chiefly includes the Sweet, ruddy, white, xanthous, brown and green etc.

BENEFITS OF BIG ONION PRODUCTION

12. Furthermore, it has been identified that the large onion production brings several comparative benefits when compared to with other harvests. Some of the benefits are given below.[ 4 ]

a. End product can be obtained in a short period of clip.

B. Initial costs such as ; seeds costs, fertiliser costs are relatively less.

c. It does non necessitate a set cost.

d. Less engineering the machines are sufficient.

e. High employability of manual laborers.

f. Easy to happen markets.

g. Less storage period.

13. The onion fundamentally has been divided into ruddy onions and large onions and each assortment requires different eco-agricultural conditions, labor, fertiliser, conditions and climatic conditions, temperature, etc.

REQUIREMENTS AND CONDITIONS NEEDED FOR THE BIG ONION PRODUCTION

14. The literature suggests different demands for smooth growth of the large onion production. Some of the conditions suggested by Autko and Moisevich ( 2006 ) are given below.

a. Addition of fertile dirt beds in the zone of works root by 4-6 centimeter.

B. Increase of aeration and heating of dirt, excepting over wetting in the

Time period of the heavy precipitation.

c. Decrease of fertiliser rate application by 30 % .

d. Decrease of seed seeding rates.

e. Ensuring of looser dirt province during the whole period of flora.

f. Possibility of dirt surface copying by working variety meats of machines, during inter-row intervention, lowering of works protective zone 3-5 centimeter, mechanical weed devastation by 70-75 % and set application of pesticides that ensures the lessening of their rates by 2-3 times

g. Increase of irrigation efficiency.

h. Diminution of nitrate content in the production and Decrease of energy disbursal during reaping by 20-40 % .

15. Therefore, the above conditions can be considered as the basic demands for the growing and endurance of the large onion production.

16. The onion fundamentally has been divided into ruddy onions and big onions and each assortment requires different eco-agricultural conditions, labor, fertiliser, conditions and climatic conditions, temperature, etc.

DECEASES IN THE BIG ONION CULTIVATION

17. Research of Shanmugasundaram in ( 2008 ) has identified the undermentioned diseases that affect the onion cultivation. He has divided these deaths into two.

a. Field diseases

B. Storage diseases

18. The field diseases comprises of Stemphylium blight, Purple splodge, Anthracnose, Botrytis foliage blight, Downy mold, Pink root, Smudge, Smut and several Basal putrefactions.

19. The storage diseases screens common field putrefactions, botrytis cervix putrefaction, black cast and bacterial soft putrefaction.[ 5 ]

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE BIG ONION CULTIVATION IN SRI LANKA

20. Meanwhile it has been learned that in the recent past the onion cultivation has been cut downing as a consequence of many factors. Some factors identified by Agricultural section in ( 2008 ) are presented below.

a. Lack of quality seeds.

B. Lack of advice given for application of seeds.

c. Insufficient loan installations available to buy high quality seeds.

d. Long continuances taken for reaping from seeds.

e. Lack of authorities support in supplying fertiliser installations to the onion production.

f. Lack of quality fertilisers available for the onion manufacturers.

g. Lack of handiness of fertiliser at outside and private mercantile establishments.

h. Absence of reding and advice given on how to use the fertilisers for the new assortment.

J. Lack of storage installations to hive away the onion production.

21. Though these jobs are encountered in the onion production it can be divided into two major classs. These are given below.

a. Lack of authorities support in giving seeds to the onion agriculturists.

B. Lack of authorities support to supply fertiliser to onion cultivation.

LACK OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT TO SEEDS

22. It has been observed that large onion cultivation has been affected to greater extent by the deficiency of authorities motive in happening needed seeds. Therefore, deficiency of quality seeds, deficiency of guidance and advise on using seeds, deficiency of new assortment of seeds, deficient authorities fiscal support to buy seeds, absence of confidence on reaping continuance etc are encountered under seeds.[ 6 ]

LACK OF FERTILIZER SUPPORT

23. In the 2007 to 2009 many researches has identified that there is no sufficient fertiliser support to actuate the large onion production. In Sri Lanka it has been learned that the onion husbandmans lack authorities support and subsidies to purchase fertilisers. Furthermore, fertiliser is sold at a reasonably high monetary value in the outside mercantile establishments. In add-on the efficient and crop stimulating fertilisers are non available for the onion husbandmans. Besides the high quality and different assortment of fertilisers are besides non available to increase the large onion cultivation in the Dambulla country.

INCREASING BIG ONION PRODUCTION

24. It is hence of import that the onion production is increased in order to protect the large onion industry and to guarantee the support of many Sri Lankans. Hence the literature suggests that the undermentioned steps can increase the onion production.

a. Involving in research and development activities in order to increase the large onion production.

B. Government has to supplying support to happen high quality seeds.

c. Government has to give seeds of the new assortments.

d. Government has to supply seeds at subsidised monetary values.

e. Government has to supply changeless guidance and advice on managing seeds.

f. Government has to widen the fertiliser subsidy.

g. Supplying high quality fertiliser.

h. Monitoring fertiliser distribution.

j. Reding on managing diseases.

Conceptual theoretical account

25. From the literature reexamine the undermentioned conceptual theoretical account has been developed.

26. The above figure depicts two sets of factors that determine the lessening in the large onion cultivation, the deficiency of seed handiness and the deficiency of fertiliser handiness. This was derived and each set of the major factors have sub factors. Therefore, these two are considered as the independent variables. The diminishing large onion cultivation can be identified as the dependant variable. Hence, this figure establishes links between the factors and the decreasing large onion cultivation. Through this research survey one demand to cognize which factor ‘s cause for the decreasing large onion cultivation, among the husbandmans in the Dambulla country.

DATA EVALUATION

27. The mean and standard divergence were derived for informations analysis. Furthermore, the standards shown in the tabular array below was adopted to measure the mean values.

Chapter THREE

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

1. This subdivision presents average and standard divergence of the factors impacting the large onion cultivation in Dambulla. The mean values have been distributed based on Likert ‘s Scale of one to five which represents “ Strongly Disagree ” to “ Strongly Agree ” . Meanwhile, average values were evaluated based on the already established appraising standards which range from “ low degree ” to “ high degree ” .

2. Table 3.1 represents values of mean and standard divergence of factors lending to the diminishing degree of the large onion cultivation. The average value of the seed handiness is 1.90 and the standard divergence is 0.25. Since the average value of seed handiness ( 1.90 ) is less than 2.33, it falls into the class of “ low degree satisfaction ”

3. Meanwhile, the average value of fertilizer handiness is 2.24 and standard divergence for the same variable is 0.41. Therefore, the average value of fertilizer handiness ( 2.24 ) is less than 2.33 and it besides falls under “ low degree of satisfaction ” .

Table 3.2 the mean and standard divergence values for the statements in the seed handiness:

5. Table 3.2 shows the mean and standard divergence values for the statements in the seeds handiness. As presented above, all eight statements that measure seed handiness for the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country have taken the average values of less than 2.33. Therefore, it can be derived that husbandmans satisfaction on all statements of seed handiness autumn into the class of “ lower degree satisfaction ” .

6. Table 3.3 reveals the values of mean and standard divergence for the statements in the fertiliser handiness. Hence all statements that measure the influence of fertiliser handiness of the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country have taken the average values less than 2.33. Therefore it can be stated that the husbandmans satisfaction towards all statements of fertiliser handiness autumn into the class of “ low degree of satisfaction ” .

PERSONAL PROFILE

7. This subdivision presents informations on the personal profile of the husbandmans in the Dambulla country. It covers age, sex, civil position and the figure of old ages of experience in the onion cultivation of the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country.

AGE DISTRIBUTION

8. Fig 3.3 shows the age distribution of the respondents from onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country. Thirty per centum of the respondents are less than 25 old ages and the respondents falling into the class of 26 – 35 and 35 – 45 are 28 % and 24 % , severally and 82 % of the respondents are less than the age of 45. Merely 18 % of the responded onion husbandmans are above the age of 45. Hence it reveals a fact that the bulk of the onion framers in Dambulla are less than the age of 45.

9. Therefore it can be concluded that most of the immature employees are found to be faced with a diminishing degree of large onion production.

Sexual activity Distribution

10. Fig 3.4 shows the sex distribution of the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country. Sixty-eight per centum of the responded large onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country are male and 32 % of the responded onion husbandmans are female.

11. This shows that most of the male onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country are found to be affected with a diminishing degree of large onion cultivation the Dambulla country.

12. Fig 3.5 shows the civil position of the responded onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country. Sixty-two per centum of the respondents are married and 38 % are individual.

13. It is clear that most of the married onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country are found to be confronting the job of a diminishing degree of onion cultivation the Dambulla country.

14. Fig 3.6 shows the figure of old ages of experience in the onion cultivation of the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country. Consequently, 20 % of the responded onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country have less than 3 old ages ‘ of experience and the responded onion husbandmans in the Dambulla falling into the class of 3 – 5 and 6 – 10 old ages are 46 % and 30 % , severally. Merely 4 % of the responded onion husbandmans have the experience of above 10 old ages. Therefore, more than 95 % of the responded large onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country have less than 10 old ages of experience.

Therefore it can be stated that the most of the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country who have an experience of less than 10 old ages are found to be meeting the job of a diminishing degree of large onion cultivation in the Dambulla country.

CHAPTER04

DISCUSSION AND ARGUMENTS

1. This chapter provides the treatment on analysis. It presents the mean and the standard divergence of the two factors lending to the onion cultivation.

2. As presented in Table 4.1 the onion husbandmans have expressed their lower degree of satisfaction on all statements of the handiness of seeds and the quality, because all average values are under the class of 1 – 2.33.

3. Thus the first statement “ I get high quality seeds ” has taken a average value of 1.88 which represents that the onion husbandmans are non extremely satisfied with the handiness of the high quality seeds.

4. Similarly the 2nd statement “ Government distribute seeds ” has taken a average value of 1.94 and this besides comes under the lower degree of satisfaction. This reflects that the authorities does non administer seeds and therefore it besides affects their large onion cultivation.

5. Third statement “ Government provides the subsidy to purchase seeds regularly ” has taken a average value of 1.79 which represents that the onion husbandmans are non satisfied with the authorities ‘s subsidies to purchase the seeds.

6. Fourth statement “ Seeds gives the expected crop ” has taken a average value of 1.56 which reflects that the onion husbandmans are less satisfied with the sum of crop from the seeds and this affect the onion cultivation from the Dambulla country.

7. 5th statement “ We can purchase seeds from the Government Agricultural Department ” has given a average value of 2.16 which shows that the onion husbandmans are unable to buy seeds from the agricultural section and this besides reduces the onion cultivation.

8. Following statement “ Government provides preparation and reding sing the new seeds ” has obtained a average value of 2.12 which indicates that the onion agriculturists do non acquire sufficient preparation and reding from the relevant governments on how to use the new assortments of seeds and this affects the onion cultivation in the Dambulla country.

9. 7th statement “ I can acquire new assortments of seeds ” has received a average value of 1.79 and this refers that the husbandmans are unable to acquire new assortments of seeds and therefore the onion production has come down in Dambulla. The concluding statement “ I can acquire regular guidance and advice on the diseases in the seeds ” has given a average value of 1.85 which signifies that the onion husbandmans do non acquire regular guidance and advice on new diseases impacting the onion cultivation. Therefore, they are unable to protect the onion cultivation and guarantee higher growing.

11. As in Table 4.2 the onion agriculturists have indicated lower degree of satisfaction on all statements of fertiliser handiness because the mean in all comes under the class of 1 – 2.33.

12. Thus the first statement “ I get the fertiliser subsidy from authorities ” has taken a average value of 2.20 and this means that the onion husbandmans do non acquire fertilizer subsidy to purchase the fertiliser and this leads towards less onion cultivation.

13. Similarly the 2nd statement “ I can purchase fertiliser from the Government Agricultural Department. ” has taken a average value of 2.14 and this falls under the lower degree of satisfaction. This reflects that the husbandmans are unable to buy fertiliser from the agricultural section and has limited capacity of increasing their production.

14. Third statement “ I can purchase the fertiliser from private mercantile establishments at a less monetary value ” has taken a average value of 2.18 saying that the onion husbandmans can non purchase fertiliser at a less monetary value from other outside mercantile establishments. Therefore, it has affected their capacity of the onion cultivation.

15. Following statement “ I can acquire high quality fertiliser ” has taken a average value of 2.20 which represents that the onion husbandmans are happening troubles in buying fertiliser that can maximise their crop and it has reduced the onion cultivation.

16. 5th statement “ I get advice and reding on the application of fertiliser ” has given a average value of 2.15, bespeaking that the husbandmans are unable to acquire advise and reding on how to utilize different assortments of fertiliser. This has limited the onion cultivation in Dambulla.

17. 6th statement “ I get different assortment of fertiliser ” has obtained a average value of which indicates that the onion agriculturists are unable to happen different assortments and new assortments of fertilizer that stimulate more crop. As a consequence the onion cultivation has been less in the Dambulla country.

18. 7th statement “ I get fertilizer that can maximise the crop ” has received a average value of 2.12 and it means that the onion husbandmans are unable to happen fertilizer that can give the optimum crop and this has affected the onion cultivation from Dambulla.

19. The concluding statement “ I can hive away extra fertiliser for future usage ” has given a average value of 2.09 which indicates that the onion husbandmans do non hold installations of storage and maintaining fertiliser for future usage. Therefore, their fertiliser use is non optimum. Therefore the onion cultivation has been limited in Dambulla.

Chapter 05

FINDINGS/RESULT

1. This chapter provides the findings and the treatments. It presents the mean and

the standard divergence of the two factors lending to the onion cultivation.

Table 5.1 Valuess of mean and standard divergence of the factors lending to the onion cultivation

( Source – Survey Data )

2. As presented in Table 5.1, the seed handiness for the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country has taken the average value of 1.90. Here the average value for seed handiness falls into the class of “ low degree satisfaction ” since the average value is less than 2.33. It reveals that the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country have low degree of satisfaction and unfavorable appraising statements refering the seed handiness.

3. Hence, the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country discovery troubles in happening high quality seeds and multi assortment of seeds which gives a high harvest home. Furthermore, the husbandmans are unable to happen the seeds that give a crop early. The Government Agriculture Department does non supply seeds on a subsidised monetary value.

4. In add-on in Sri Lanka, research and developmental activities targeted at presenting higher output seed is limited. Furthermore the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country discovery troubles in obtaining regular guidance and advice on the diseases of seeds. Jointly all these facets have contributed for less satisfaction from the seeds handiness for the onion husbandmans of the Dambulla country and it has affected the onion cultivation in the Dambulla country hence, the onion cultivation has been diminishing. Hence, the first hypothesis which states that “ Poor quality seeds cause for less onion cultivation in Dambulla ” can be accepted.

5. The fertiliser handiness for the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country has taken the average value of 2.44. The average value for fertilizer handiness comes under the class of “ low degree satisfaction ” since the average value is less than 2.33. It shows that the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country have low degree of satisfaction and unfavorable appraising statements on the fertiliser handiness.

6. It farther indicates that the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country face jobs of acquiring fertilizer subsidy from the authorities. In add-on, it is hard for them to purchase fertiliser from the Government Agricultural Department at subsidised monetary values. Likewise, they can non purchase fertiliser from the private mercantile establishments at a less monetary value. They are unable to purchase fertiliser of high quality. In add-on they can non obtain advice and reding on how to use fertiliser. Similarly, they are non in a toxicant to obtain different assortment of fertilisers.

7. During the interview they besides expressed their sentiment to state that, they are unable to acquire fertiliser that can maximise the onion crop. In add-on, they can non hive away extra fertiliser for future usage. Therefore, these factors have jointly contributed for a hapless satisfactory phase for the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country with regard to fertilizer handiness for the onion cultivation in the Dambulla country. Therefore, it has led to diminishing degree of the onion cultivation in the Dambulla country. Consequently, the 2nd hypothesis which says that “ deficient support for fertiliser cause for less onion cultivation in Dambulla ” can be accepted.

Chapter 06

Decision

1. During the informations analysis and findings it was derived that the onion husbandmans in the Dambulla country were unable to happen high quality seeds therefore, they have expressed less satisfaction on this factor. Hence, the onion husbandmans face jobs of less quality seeds. In add-on, the authorities does non supply sufficient subsidy to acquire choice seeds and the authorities itself does non administer any seeds. Furthermore, the presently applied seeds do non give the expected crop. Further, it has been besides learned that the onion husbandmans are unable to purchase seeds from the agricultural section. Likewise, the authorities authorized organic structures do non supply preparation and reding on how to use the new seeds. The onion husbandmans could non happen new and multiple assortments of seeds that can give a big crop. Similarly, the husbandmans are unable to acquire regular advice and reding on commanding and confronting diseases impacting the onion cultivation. Then it can be concluded that the authorities and authorized institutes do non supply sufficient support to supply quality seeds and other value added services related to seeds. Therefore, it has led to a damaging consequence to the onion cultivation in Dambulla.

2. Data analysis revealed that the onion husbandmans are meeting the job of fertiliser. This is due to the authorities non supplying fertiliser subsidy to the onion husbandmans. Furthermore, there are no installations to purchase fertiliser from the Government Agricultural Department.

In add-on the onion husbandmans can non happen fertiliser at a lesser monetary value from the private fertiliser mercantile establishments. Further, the fertiliser distributed at nowadays does non actuate sufficient crop. Likewise, there is no good established consultative system to advocate the onion husbandmans on the application of fertiliser.

3. In add-on the onion husbandmans are unable to happen different assortments of fertilisers. Similarly the fertiliser applied at nowadays will non actuate higher sum of crop. Likewise the onion husbandmans are happening troubles in hive awaying their fertiliser stock. Therefore from this paragraph it can be summarized and concluded that the onion husbandmans in Dambulla face jobs related to fertiliser and it has affected the onion cultivation in the Dambulla country.

Chapter 07

Recommendation

1. This subdivision provides recommendations as how the cut downing degree of onion production in the Dambulla country can be addressed.

2. In the old chapter it was derived that the onion husbandmans in Dambulla have been affected with seeds related jobs and fertiliser related issues. Therefore, the recommendations have been given specifically to turn to these two countries.

3. Hence the followers can be suggested to better the seed related issues.

a. Government has to actuate research and developmental orientated activities to guarantee that new and high output giving seeds are introduced.

B. Government has to do certain that the onion husbandmans get high quality seeds.

c. Government has to do an enterprise to administer seeds.

d. Government has to supply seeds at a subsidised monetary value.

e. It is the duty of the governments to give seeds that can give a big crop.

f. Seeds have to be made available at the Government Agricultural Department.

4. The above can be recommended to better seeds handiness for the onion husbandmans in Dambulla.

5. In the old chapter it was derived that the onion husbandmans in Dambulla face jobs with fertiliser. This subdivision provides recommendations as to how jobs related to fertilizer can be rectified. Hence the undermentioned can be recommended to work out the fertiliser related jobs so that the onion cultivation can be increased.

a. Government has to supply fertiliser subsidy.

B. Fertilizer has to be distributed through Government Agricultural Department.

c. A mechanism has to be developed to guarantee fertiliser would be available in the private mercantile establishments at a sensible or subsidised monetary value.

d. Good quality fertiliser that can give a maximal output has to be provided.

e. Agricultural section has to supply preparation, advice and reding on using the fertiliser.

f. Different assortments and new assortments of fertiliser must be made available to the onion husbandmans.