Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1INTRODUCTION

The literature survey in this survey revolved around a papers analysis on the Constitution, ( SA 1996: Fundamental law ) , Crime Prevention Strategies, old surveies in the field by discoursing the undermentioned constructs: environmental criminology, the burglary/robbery procedure, motive, mark choice, residents’ activities and life style, handiness of vicinity, position on environmental offense bar, offense bar through environmental design, situational offense bar.

2.2ENVIROMENTAL CRIMINOLOGY

A scope of factors including societal, economic, demographic, biological, psychological and physical, act upon the happening of offense. Harmonizing to Naude ( 2000:7 ) high degrees of offense are more prevailing in states where there is a high proportion of people who feel economically deprived.

From the suspects arrested for house-training residential and house robbery in Westville patroling country for the period 2012/2013 it is apparent that the suspects are non resident in Westville patroling country.

This survey will therefore focal point on locations of offense, the features of those locations, the motion waies that conveying wrongdoers and victims together at those locations as it would be easier to change the environmental chances for offense than to act upon the complex soci-economic factors actuating wrongdoers ( Smith 1986:82 ) . This was besides found in Naude ( 1988:11 ) who stated that it would be easier to forestall chances for offense in the physical environment, since perpetrating the offense can chiefly be attributed to rational determinations instead than being the consequence of pathological, biophysical, psychological or societal factors. Sovensend in ( David 2003:7 ) argues that a offense merely occurs when there is integrating in what motivates the wrongdoer to perpetrate the offense.

The purpose would therefore be as besides found in Smith ( 1986:84 ) , to cut down chances for offense as perceived by possible wrongdoers, by presenting mark hardening, mark remotion, cut downing the final payment and encouraging public surveillance.

2.3THE BURGLARY/ROBBERY Procedure

This procedure refers to the causal events within a specific clip and infinite context that leads to the committee of the offense. For burglary/robbery to take topographic point at that place must be a ready, willing and able wrongdoer, a vulnerable attractive provocative mark, a favorable environment and the absence of a willing, able and believable modulator ( Ekblom 1996:47-50 ) . Harmonizing to Wilcox ( 1990:1 ) the undermentioned elements must be present in order for a offense to happen: Desire, Ability and Opportunity. This is depicted in the offense trigon below Fig.2.3.1

A

Tocopherol B

Roentgen I

I CRE L

Second I

Tocopherol T

D Y

Opportunity

The desire and ability refers to the features of a condemnable or possible felon and the chance, conditions conducive to a condemnable act. The absence of any one of the elements will ensue in no offense taking topographic point.

For a offense to happen the possible culprit must hold a demand and a mark. Harmonizing to Brangtinham and Brantingham ( 1993:268 ) the hunt for a suited marks rests on a general backdrop formed by everyday activities and on a templet that helps place what a great opportunity is or what a good chance would be or how to seek for opportunity and chances. By executing day-to-day modus operandis of non-criminal activities the triggered possible burglar develops an awareness infinite. In conformity with his/her idealised offense templet, his/her mark will be searched in the consciousness infinite. When the possible burglar discoveries such a mark, he/she will perpetrate the burglary. It is of import to recognize that the triggered event, the likely offense templet, the activity backdrop and the condemnable preparedness are interrelated. They further went on to state that mixed-use developments are likely to incorporate a assortment of land-users which could potentially supply increased and more diverse chances for offense. Shoping promenades, storage topographic points, schools, and service Stationss and eating houses tend to pull felons every bit good as legitimate clients to the country. The everyday activities of the community ( including possible wrongdoers ) will therefore impact the incidence of offense in and around these nodes of activity, which are consistently more concentrated in mixed-use developments. Westville’s assorted land development ensures many individuals outside Westville to track into Westville for work, leisure and possible condemnable activity.

The above indicate that felons identify their marks during their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities placing those countries where they would non be easy identified, are easy accessible and are flush.

Research on burglaries done by ( Brantingham and Brantingham 1981, Rengert and Wasilchick 1985 ) suggests that residential burglars engage in a hunt procedure along “activity spaces” in order to choose vicinities in which to perpetrate burglaries. Vicinities are chosen along familiar paths and this is done during the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours motion of the burglars. This was besides found in Schneider and Kitchen 2002:107 who stated that, wrongdoers, like ordinary people, have twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours agendas which involve trips to and from work, sing friends, traveling shopping and it is during the class of these activities that they search out likely marks. These marks may even be repeatedly victimised.

The hum of a location besides creates chances for condemnable activities as was found in Shover ( 1991 ) who stated that the hum and namelessness of a big metropolis attracts those who earn a life through offense as it reduces the possibility of wrongdoers being recognised as aliens. This position was besides held by Rubenstein H, Murray C, Motoyama T and Rouse W ( 1980 ) who reported that heavy prosaic and vehicular traffic flows were associated with higher exploitation rates as it creates high-density environments and this reduces the hazard of aliens and possible wrongdoers being recognised.

2.4OFFENDERS Motivation

Harmonizing to Reppetto ( 1972:21 ) the satisfaction of a sensed demand for money appeared to be the primary motivation for most burglaries although wrongdoers did admit that subordinate satisfactions such as exhilaration retaliation wonder and feelings of group solidarity besides played a function in their determination to pique. This was besides found in the survey done by Dr. Zinn ( ) where he interviewed 30 convicted residential robbery culprits on the motive for piquing. 97 % of the culprits in the survey stated their motive being economic addition ; the victims were mark because of their wealth. 80 % stated that their households and friends and familiarities in their communities had cognition of their condemnable activities. They stated that residential robbery resulted in speedy money.

In a survey done by May ( 2011:70 ) it was found that the bulk of culprits reported that unemployment triggered their aggravated robbery.

2.5TARGET Choice

The mode in which felons select possible offense sites, perforate a assortment of symbolic and physical barriers to perpetrate offense, has drawn attending from environmental criminologists.

Weatherburn ( 2001:6 ) provinces that felons commit more offense when the chances to make so are more and inducements to make so are good. The undermentioned are factors that are contributing for the choice of a possible mark: slack physical security, slack personal security, slack jurisprudence enforcement or low perceived hazard of apprehensiveness, attractive commercial or residential marks and easy chances for selling or disposing of stolen goods.

In Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta ( 2004:297 ) it was found that burglars target specific countries that offer increased gross, requires minimum attempt when the premises or belongings is entered, the premises/property appear to hold valuable points ; and the burglars feel ( perceive ) that they will non be apprehended or disturbed while carry oning the burglary ( low hazard of being detected and apprehended. They further province on ( 2004:297-298 ) that the burglar would look at the richness degree of the belongings ; and the possibility ( likeliness ) of the successful completion of the condemnable act. The wealth displayed in the signifier of belongingss and vehicles by Westville occupants may be what condemnable are drawn to.

Felson and Clark ( 1988 ) states that there are four elements designated by acronym VIVA that influences a marks hazard of being victimized by offense viz. : value, aim must be honoring, inactiveness, the ability of the mark to be moved, visibleness, exposure of marks to wrongdoers, entree, all those environmental and situational characteristics that my facilitate wrongdoers acquiring to the mark.

Sovensend ( 2003:17 ) is of the sentiment that burglars gauge the possible wagess by measuring the size and status of houses, paces, and vehicles parked in garages. Conspicuous grounds of wealth topographic points a belongings at a higher hazard of exploitation. As is the instance in Westville which is an flush country.

However, Wessel ( 2002:13 ) argues that there is grounds that most expensive looking places are spared for fright of security devices or the presence of staff on the belongings.

Harmonizing to Tilley, N Pease, K Hough, M Brown, R ( 1999:7 ) that burglars aim countries were there is a possibility of high value valuables, cipher present to forestall the burglary from taking topographic point, that there is a market where the stolen goods can be disposed of and in return receive a pecuniary inducement for the stolen goods and the home have deficient security hardware to supply it with any sensible degree of sensed care ( protection )

This was supported by Reppetto ( 1971:16 ) in his survey he obtained from the interviewees as to the ground for choice of their marks being, easiness of entree, appears flush, feels invisible, presence non be questioned, stray vicinities, few constabulary patrols and namelessness of neighbors.

Kleemans ( 1996:55 ) in his findings as to why culprits repeatedly victimise he said, the first is the cognition the burglar has obtained about the goods to be stolen, the 2nd clip the burglar can steal the goods he/she could non transport the first clip, the goods that he/she forgot to steal the first clip ; or the goods for which he/she has merely now found a possible client for, the burglar can be reassured that after a clip the goods stolen the first clip have been replaced, knows the hazard factors ( layout of the house, the easiness of entree and emersion ) .

Pease ( 1998:6 ) argued that the cardinal grounds for repetitions are believed to be the presence of good, and deficiency of bad, effects of the first offense for the wrongdoer, and the stableness of the state of affairs which presents itself to an wrongdoer on the first and subsequent visits to the scene of his/her offense.

2.6PERMEABILITY OF NEIGHBOURHOOD

Harmonizing to Garland F White ( 1990:59 ) permeableness is the figure of entree streets from traffic arterias to the vicinities. He is of the sentiment that permeable vicinities may supply less hazard of apprehensiveness for wrongdoers as there are more escape paths. In add-on they may be more likely to be selected for burglaries on the footing of opportunity. If a vicinity has more avenues of entree, the opportunity of an wrongdoer come ining it while seeking for a burglary location would be greater.

Schneider and Kitchen ( 2007:121 ) reported on a survey which compared a dense permeable lodging estate with a lower denseness estate dominated by cul-de- pouch. Their determination was that burglaries, car offense, incendiarism and public upset were significantly higher for the country with a higher denseness permeable development. They were cautious to observe that there are many other factors, other that denseness and street layout, which may assist to explicate these forms

Although vicinity permeableness has been linked to neighbourhood offense rates, the consequences have non ever been conclusive. An experimental survey in Hartford Connecticut ( Fowler 1982 ) found that diminishing the figure of entrywaies to the experimental vicinity and thereby diminishing the sum of traffic did non needfully cut down robberies and burglaries in the long tally although there was a short-run decrease in offenses. The form of exploitation moved from less-travelled side streets to the more to a great extent travelled streets in the territory. The survey suggests that a decrease in offense could be achieved both when physical permeableness is reduced and when the vicinity is organized socially to forestall offenses. The physical alterations entirely were non plenty to bring forth a long term decrease in offense.

( Taylor and Nee 1988 ) are of the sentiment that homes which are more seeable from the street or neighbors and passerby, are less desirable as a mark for burglars. David WM Sovensend 2003:17 were of the same sentiment. He besides stated that burglars tend to avoid marks easy observed by neighbors or passerby. Therefore, it can be deduced that houses in stray countries, non seeable from the route and on big belongingss of land which are following to Parkss or other non-residential countries are more attractive to burglars.

A survey by Davison and Smith ( 2003 ) revealed that offense was more frequent in accessible countries with commercial land usage and residential burglary was reported to be more frequent in residential belongingss near to commercial countries ( Dietrick 1977 ) . Research by Wilcox and Quisenberry ( 2004 ) revealed that concerns in residential countries exhibited an increased hazard of burglary. Yang’s research ( 2006 ) which investigated some three 1000 burglaries, found that burglaries are more likely to happen in belongingss located in mixed-use sites. Brantingham and Brantingham ( 2008:91 ) have discussed blending land-users as supported by New Urbanism and commented “this planning pattern will increase the activity in some nodes and is likely to bring forth a bunch of crime”

2.7CRIME Prevention

Presently offense bar is the primary map of the South African Police Service.

The South African Police is mandated by the Police Act 68 of 1995 every bit good as subdivision 205 ( 3 ) of the fundamental law to battle offense, look into offense, maintain public order, protect and secure South Africa’s dwellers and their belongings ; and to continue and implement the jurisprudence.

However the SAPS are non in a place to efficaciously battle offense on their ain.

The Government since 1994 recognised the demand for offense bar. This demand saw the credence of the National Crime Prevention Strategy ( NCPS ) in 1996 and the White Paper on Safety and Security in 1998. The NCPS is a multi-agency attack to offense bar and aimed to act upon the operations of the Departments of Safety and Security, Justice, Correctional Services, Welfare, Intelligence, Health and Education. The NCPS papers made reference of environmental design as one of its pillars ( 1996:67 ) . To help the NCPS and the White Paper on Safety and Security, a National Crime Prevention Strategy Centre ( NCPSC ) was established within the section of Safety and Security and their maps are to call up other authorities sections, to help provincial and local authorities in forestalling offense, to help in co-ordinating and pull offing the bar of certain offenses and to supervise the effectivity of societal offense bar intercessions.

The White Paper on Safety and Security ( South Africa 1998:14 ) topographic points emphasis on two attacks to offense bar, viz, offense bar through effectual condemnable justness and, societal offense bar.

The White Paper ( 1998:19 ) farther states that societal offense bar can be categorized as follows, viz. developmental offense bar, situational offense bar, community offense bar and uninterrupted betterment to the integrated Justice System.

A multi-departmental or multi-sectoral attack is therefore needed, which involves all degrees of authorities and includes relevant administrations of civil society ( South Africa 1998:20 )

Harmonizing to the Crime Prevention Module degree 1 ( 2001:9 ) offense bar emphasises community engagement and without community engagement, offense can non be prevented efficaciously. To carry through this Police have to organize a partnership with other function participants which include but non limited to, the community, private security companies, concern Against Crime ( BAC ) , media, non-Governmental Organisations ( NGO’S ) , etc.

Naude and Stevens ( 1998:48 ) argue that co-operation must be forged by agencies of counsel, meetings and interaction with business communities, public and usage of media to win in long preventive programme. The research worker supports the statements of Naude and Stevens as this can filtrate through to the bar of house robberies and house-training residential in the Westville policing precinct. Lab ( 1997:19 ) provinces that bar activities should non be restricted to the attempts of the condemnable justness system entirely but should include that of the public and private administrations.

Harmonizing to Bennett and Wright ( 1984:19 ) situational offense bar refers to any environmental community or single based method which aims to increase the hazard, diminish the wages or increase the trouble of perpetrating the offense.

Brantingham and Faust ( 1976:284 ) offer three types of offense bar attacks viz, primary offense bar ( the designation of those conditions in the physical and societal environment that offer chances for condemnable Acts of the Apostless ) , secondary offense bar, the early designation of wrongdoers ( the intercession before an offense is committed ) , third offense bar ( this aims to cover with wrongdoers with the intent of forestalling farther condemnable activities ) .

Lab ( 1997:20 ) is of the sentiment that primary offense bar is to set steps in topographic point with the purpose of doing offense less attractive and more hard for the wrongdoers to perpetrate whilst secondary bar focuses on jobs that already exist and are furthering aberrant behavior. Lab ( 1997:23 ) provinces that third bar includes apprehensions, prosecutions, captivity, intervention and rehabilitation.

2.8.CONCLUSION

The undermentioned chapter will include the methodological analysis that was used to carry on the research.