Magnesium has 12 negatrons and 12 protons. The negatrons spin around the karyon in three negatron shells, where the first shell has 2 negatrons, second has 8 negatrons, and 3rd has 2 electrons.* . Magnesium ‘s negatron constellation is 1s22s2p63s2. The mean atomic mass of Mg is 24.31. Magnesium has 3 stable isotopes: Mg-24, Mg25, and in conclusion Mg-26. Besides, Mg is hexangular in form in its crystal structure.7

Figure 4: Bohr Diagram of Magnesium


First, Mg is a metal at room temperature. It is found in Group II ( alkaline-earth metals ) in the periodic tabular array. Magnesium is in the 3rd period of the periodic table.4

Figure 5: Magnesium at Room Temperature


Magnesium is ne’er found of course in its pure province, as a metal, because it readily reacts with other elements to organize compounds. The more common compounds of Mg are magnesium oxide ( MgO ) , magnesium hydrated oxide ( Mg ( OH ) 2 ) , magnesium chloride ( MgCl2 ) , magnesium carbonate ( MgCO3 ) , and Mg sulphate ( MgSO4 ) . Positive Mg ions ( Mg2+ ) are strongly attracted to negative ions such as sulphate ( SO42- ) , carbonate ( CO32- ) and chloride ( Cl- ) and when bonded together they form ionic compounds. Furthermore, Mg reacts with dilute acids which finally form salts of Mg, for case, Mg reacts with hydrochloric acid to organize Mg chloride and with sulfuric acid to organize Mg sulfate.4

Figure 6: Magnesium Oxide Figure 7: Magnesium Chloride

Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical Properties:

Magnesium is a difficult, glistening, silvern white coloured metal. In footings of weight, Magnesium is the lightest of all structural metals. At room temperature, Mg is solid, at 651°C Mg thaws, and at 1107°C Mg furuncles and turns into a gas. Magnesium has a denseness of 1.74g/cm-3 at 20°C.3

Chemical Properties:

To get down with, Mg is highly reactive. Magnesium ‘s metallic surface is covered with a little bed of oxide, which helps guard the metal from onslaughts by air. When Mg is set on fire, it burns in air with a blinding, bright, white fire, to organize a mixture of white Mg oxide ( MgO ) and magnesium nitride ( Mg3N2 ) . Magnesium is extremely reactive with halogens including, Cl ( Cl2 ) or Br ( Br2 ) and it burns to organize the dihalides, Mg chloride ( MgCl2 ) and magnesium bromide ( MgBr2 ) .3



An approximative appraisal of half of all Mg made is assorted with aluminium to do metals. Magnesium metals are used for the building of drink tins and are besides used in printing, in a procedure called photoengraving.* . Magnesium chloride is used to make cements for shocking and in the fabric industry. Magnesium carbonate is used to craft inks, glass, gum elastic, pharmaceuticals, and nutrient additives. Magnesium hydrated oxide is used in the production of Mg metal. Magnesium oxides are used as stuff in the furnace liners for fabricating Fe and steel. Since Mg has a really low denseness, it has legion applications where weight plummeting is a important factor, for illustration, in aeroplane and missile assembly and in modern-day race-car design and lightweight vehicles. Magnesium has a big figure of helpful chemical and metallurgic belongingss, which make it appropriate for many other non-structural applications. Furthermore, Mg constituents are widely used in industry and agribusiness. Magnesium is used to do bright and noisy pyrotechnics, it makes those crackling noises because the Mg is assorted with aluminum.* . Last, Mg pulverization is critical to countless atomic power workss due to the fact that it is the cut downing agent for the production of pure uranium.9

Figure 8: Magnesium Alloy

Environmental Issues

The procedure of electrolysis is non hurtful to the environment whatsoever. On an environmental ranking from 0 to 3, Mg oxide smoke is placed at 0.8, where 3 signifies an highly harmful danger to the environment while 0 signifies an inconsequential danger. Magnesium pulverization is non suspected to be enormously damaging to the environment. Magnesium is the cardinal atom of a chlorophyll molecule, and therefore, as a consequence is an duty for works photosynthesis.12

Health Issues

Magnesium is an improbably critical component in the human organic structure, and worlds require a lower limit of 200mg of Mg in their organic structures. Magnesium and Ca work side by side in our musculuss to assist them travel. Calcium helps the musculuss to contract, while Mg helps the musculuss to loosen up. A deficiency of Mg in the organic structure can ensue to an addition hazard of bosom onslaughts, because a deficit of Mg can halt bosom musculuss from loosen uping decently. Magnesium hydrated oxide is non merely used in the production of Mg but besides used as a laxative and as an alkalizer to bring around dyspepsia. No cogent evidence is given that Mg creates systemic toxic condition, although regular inordinate indulgences of Mg addendums and medical specialties can take to purging, take a breathing jobs, and megrims. Exposure to magnesium oxide smoke followed by combustion, welding, or run metal work can consequence to metal fume febrility. Assorted enzymes found in the human organic structure necessitate Mg ions to work right. Magnesium ions are necessary to all living things ; they play a chief function in important biological polyphosphate compounds including ATP, DNA, and RNA.2

Social Deductions

Magnesium is highly of import in society. Magnesium is really critical in the production of steel industry. Magnesium is a really of import component in the human organic structure, as it helps decrease the hazard of bosom onslaughts. Magnesium is found in green veggies, some leguminous plants ( beans and peas ) , nuts and seeds, and whole, unprocessed grains. Magnesium hydrated oxide is non merely used in the production of Mg metal but besides is used as a laxative and as an alkalizer to take attention of indigestion.11

Table 1: Food that contains Magnesium and its sum of Mg in 100-gm


Detailss of Company:

The United States Steel Corporation operations are in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe. The United States Steel Corporation consists of 49, 000 employees worldwide as of 2008. They have an one-year natural steelmaking capableness of 31.7 million net dozenss. The company produces a wide assortment of value-added steel sheet and cannular merchandises for the automotive, contraption, container, industrial, machinery, building and oil and gas industries.13

Figure 9: Statement of Net Income for The United States Steel Corporation from December 2007 to December 2009


There mare legion callings that involve Mg. Dieticians, as they advertise the importance of the consumption of Mg in the human organic structure. Pharmacists, as they use magnesium hydrated oxide when doing laxatives and alkalizers to handle dyspepsia. Company manufacturers of glass, steel, cement, gum elastic, and Fe usage Mg. Engineers the work in atomic power workss, as Mg is the cut downing agent for the production of pure U. Employees that work in the production of pyrotechnics, as Mg is used to do pyrotechnics bright and loud. 10


Magnesium is a important component on this planet. It is really of import in the production industry of cement, steel, Fe, plastic, glass, gum elastic, and printing. It is highly critical to the human organic structure as it reduces the hazard of bosom onslaughts and plays a cardinal function in important biological polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA. Scientists say there is adequate Mg for many future coevalss. So since Mg is really easy accessible in legion dietetic nutrients, everyone should retrieve to devour a part of Mg a twenty-four hours for their ain wellness benefits. Worlds need Mg to populate ; it ‘s life or decease.

End Notes

1. Albert Stwertka, A Guide to the Elementss ( Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2002 ) , 39-42.

2. Brian J. Knapp, Calcium and Magnesium ( Oxon: Atlantic Europe Publishing, 1996 ) , 34.

3. Ref. 2, P. 37-41

4. Ref. 2, P. 46-49

5. Carolyn Dean, The Miracle of Magnesium ( New York: Ballantine Books, 2003 ) , 7-9.

6. Colin Uttley, Magnesium ( New York: Benchmark Books, 2000 ) , 4-7.

7. Ref. 6, P. 9

8. Ref. 6, P. 16-18

9. Ref. 6, P. 21-22

10. Ref. 6, P. 25-28

11. David E. Newton, Chemical Elementss: From Carbon to Krypton ( Farmington Hills: UA·XA·L Publishers, 1999 ) , 42.

12. “ Encyclop?dia Britannica Online School Edition. ” Encyclop?dia Britannica Online School Edition. hypertext transfer protocol: // question

=magnesium & A ; ct=null ( accessed March 22, 2010 ) .

13. “ United States Steel Corporation. ” United States Steel Corporation. hypertext transfer protocol: // ( accessed March 24, 2010 ) .