There is a much argument and on the demands and countries of Corporate Social Responsibility in the direction research and patterns. While it is argued that merely a ‘Corporate Social Responsibility ‘ for the organisation is to ‘maximize the net income ‘ or CSR is believed a ‘Tax after Tax ‘ , In the present paper writers have tried to analyse the societal state of affairs of the state with respects and regard to economic growing. Corporate universe plays a critical function in the economic growing of the state, by bring forthing and merchandising the fabrication merchandises and services and paying direct and in-direct revenue enhancements on the same. Their difficult attempts with favourable economical and political state of affairs has made state proud in footings of economic growing rate in footings of GDP, during the last two decennaries. India has been doing sustained advancement on a graduated table, size and gait that is unprecedented in its ain history. Real GDP growing had averaged 5.8 per cent in the 1980s and 1990s, accelerated to 8.6 per cent in the period 2003 to 2006 and peaked to 9.4 per cent in 2007. If the current GDP growing rate of around 8 to 9 % is maintained, India can impel herself into elusive nine of high growing economic systems. However, this unchallenged record is besides accompanied by blue Human development rankings. Is it all enough that state grows economically in footings of GDP or for the sustainable development society as a whole demands to turn? India has been systematically ranked really low in the measuring of Human Development Index. Present paper is seeking to foreground the comparing between GDP growing rate and Human Development Index and urges a demand for responsible behaviour and Role of Corporate Social Responsibility to bridge the gape between the two.

Cardinal Wordss: Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , Human Development Index ( HDI ) , Corporate Social Responsibility.

Analysis of GPD Vs HDI – A Must Need for Corporate Social Responsibility in India.

1.0 Introduction to Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) and Human Development Index ( HDI )

( I ) Gross Domestic Product ( GDP )

Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) a macroeconomic term used to mensurate economical wellness of the state does non necessitate much debut, since it has been one of the most of import economic parametric quantity steps fiscal wellness of the state. GDP as per the definition is:

“ Gross domestic productA ( GDP ) refers to theA market valueA of all officially recognized concluding goods and services produced within a state in a given period. GDPA per capitaA is frequently considered an index of a country’sA criterion of life ; GDP per capita is non a step of personal income. SeeA Standard of life and GDP. Under economic theory, GDP per capita precisely equals the gross domestic income ( GDI ) per capita. ” ( 1 )

GDP can be determined in three ways, all of which should, in rule, give the same consequence. They are the merchandise ( or end product ) attack, the income attack, and the outgo attack.

The most direct of the three is the merchandise attack, which sums the end products of every category of endeavor to get at the sum. The outgo attack works on the rule that all of the merchandise must be bought by person, hence the value of the entire merchandise must be equal to people ‘s entire outgos in purchasing things. The income attack works on the rule that the incomes of the productive factors ( “ manufacturers, ” conversationally ) must be equal to the value of their merchandise, and determines GDP by happening the amount of all manufacturers ‘ incomes.A ( 2 )

Mathematically It has been Explained as:

GDP =A private consumptionA +A gross investmentA +A authorities spendingA + ( exportsA a?’A imports ) , or

mathrm { GDP } = C + I + G + left ( mathrm { X } – M
ight )

Note: A ” Gross ” means that GDP measures production regardless of the assorted utilizations to which that production can be put. Production can be used for immediate ingestion, for investing in new fixed assets or stock lists, or for replacing depreciated fixed assets. “ Domestic ” means that GDP measures production that takes topographic point within the state ‘s boundary lines. In the expenditure-method equation given above, the exports-minus-imports term is necessary in order to null out outgos on things non produced in the state ( imports ) and add in things produced but non sold in the state ( exports ) .

It ‘s non merely of import that the state grows economically but it is highly of import that the growing be inclusive among all the categories of the society and finally society grows along with the economic system of the state. Macroeconomicss besides measure the wellness of the society with assorted indexes like Human Development Index, Corruption Index, Sex ratios, Children Health etc. For the comparing intent of the wellness of society and economic growing in the present paper we have restricted the survey to the comparing to the Human Development Index. ( HDI )

TheA Human Development IndexA ( HDI ) is a composite statistic used to rank states by degree of “ human development ” , taken as a equivalent word of the older termA criterions of livingA orA Quality of life, and distinguish “ really high homo development ” , “ high homo development ” , “ medium human development ” , and “ low homo development ” states. HDI was devised and launched byA PakistaniA economic expert Mahbub ul HaqA andA IndianA economistA Amartya SenA in 1990. The Human Development Index ( HDI ) is a comparative step of life anticipation, literacy, instruction, and criterions of life for states worldwide. It is a standard agency of mensurating wellbeing, particularly child public assistance. It is used to separate whether the state is a developed, a development or an under-developed state, and besides to mensurate the impact of economic policies on quality of life. There are besides HDI for provinces, metropoliss, small towns, etc. by local organisations or companies.

Dimensions of HDI

Get downing with theA 2011 Human Development ReportA the HDI combines three dimensions:

A long and healthy life: Life anticipation at birth

Education index: Average old ages of schooling and Expected old ages of schooling

A nice criterion of life: A GNIA per capita ( PPP US $ )

As per the 2011 HDI study – Europe and European states leads as a quotient in holding really high HDI index evaluation followed by North America. ( 3 )

Very High HDI Nations, by population size – A 2011 HDI Report



N. America




S. America




GDP Vs. HDI of India

GDP Growth and Growth Rate

There is must speak about the behaviour of Indian economic system station liberalisation policies in 1992 and growing narrative in last two decennaries has been noticed by the universe and has established India in the race of fasted turning economic system with China. As shown in the tendency analysis below Indian economic system has grown from near to 10,000,000 1000000s of Indian Rupee to 70,000,000 during the times span from 1995 to 2010. Even during the stage of US sub-prime crisis and universe economic recession stage from 2007 to 2010, Indian economic system has been executing good and turning gravely at near to 8 to 9 % GDP growing rate. ( 5 )

File: India GDP without labels.PNG

HDI Performance

India ranks a low 134 among 187 states in footings of the human development index ( HDI ) , in the twelvemonth 2011 which assesses long-run advancement in wellness, instruction and income indexs, said a United Nations study 2011. Although placed in the “ medium ” class, India ‘s standing is manner behind tonss of economically less developed states, including war-worn Iraq every bit good as the Philippines. India ‘s ranking in 2010 was 119 out of 169 states.

Sri Lanka has been ranked 97, China 101 and the Maldives 109 has been placed far in front of India with respects to the states executing in Asia.

Pakistan and Bangladesh are ranked 145 and 146 in the list of states that is headed by Norway and in which the Democratic Republic of Congo is at the really bottom. ( 5 )





United StatesA

New ZealandA


HDI Index.A


A 0.929

A 0.910

A 0.910

A 0.908

A 0.908


In Human Development Index public presentation this is unchallenged that India has been systematically ranked really low. ( In 2008, it held 128th, behind Palestine, Iran, Congo, Botswana and Srilanka ) .Sri Lanka has been ranked 97, China 101 and the Maldives 109 has been placed far in front of India with respects to the states executing in Asia. Harmonizing to the “ UN Human Development Report 2011: Sustainability and Inequality ” , India ‘s HDI is near to 0. 57 compared to 0.9 asset in the developed states of the universe like Norway, Australia, Netherlands, United States, New Zealand and Canada, as stated below

High GDP growing rate has resulted in increased disposable income in certain subdivisions of society, non needfully all the subdivisions ; and more handiness of money for Indian authorities to pass, non needfully more purchasing power. Firms employ separate histories for benefits ( grosss ) and costs ( spendings ) . The GDP, how-ever, adds benefits and costs together.

Harmonizing to Stiglitz, “ No 1 would look at merely a house ‘s grosss to measure how good it was making. Far more relevant is the balance sheet, which shows assets and liabilities. That is besides true for a state. ” An extra defect is that GDP covers the costs of the proviso of certain public goods, such as national defence, even though it is apparent that the costs of public goods can non function as an equal step of the benefits associated with these goods.

Harmonizing to the 2009-10 fiscal budget figures, India plans to pass officially $ 29.52 billion for defense mechanism and its allied sector. In India ‘s $ 1.2 trillion GDP, at least $ 29.52 billion have no direct bearing or less bearing on societal public assistance of citizens on that accounting twelvemonth. Finally, many private goods show diverging private and societal costs because of all sorts of market failure, including imperfect competition, monetary value understandings and technical-physical outwardnesss.

Their existent benefits or existent public assistance effects are unseen, that is, non measured by agencies of GDP. As an deduction, GDP growing should non be considered as an index of advancement, but as a contemplation of increasing costs of economic alteration ( whether advancement or diminution ) . This explains why GDP and public assistance growing do non needfully co-occur.

In summing up, observation at both the Numberss such as GDP growing and HDI rankings together reflects a less ideal image of reflecting India and world is much observed with regard to societal development and that is dissatisfactory.

It is necessary to right accent the range of greater generic indexs like GDP and HDI, and besides every bit necessary to admit the fact that they are merely necessary conditions, and non sufficient conditions. So, higher GDP and lower HDI, without development agencies really small to the population of 1.2 billion.

Every attempt has to be made to do certain that higher growing is achieved and besides the nonsubjective growing of growing, which is human race development, is attained.

Corporate Social Responsibility A – Tool For Better HDI.

In a conflict of good economic growing against the hapless public presentation of Human Development index merely Government attempts might non be equal and adequate. Does corporate engagement in societal issues and social development will assist the state in betterment? Or in bettering Human Development Index? It might be to early to react to this but nevertheless, allow ‘s hold a expression on what corporate societal duty is all approximately and how can it assist in the betterment of HDI?

CSR in the modern stage has been an of import academic and research construct other than merely the philosophical position or religious activity. In modern concern it is a cardinal construct of strategic direction, it has remained so, because concern have realized that their sustainable growing is impossible without the growing of the society and the interest holders of concern. In support to the above statement here, some of the illustrations of the positions about the CSR of assorted concern leaders and political leaders or academicians have been presented in brief which have evolved over a different clip period..

Brown and Dacin ( 1997 ) defined CSR in their research paper as,

“ CSR is a companies position and activities with regard to it ‘s sensed social duties. ” ( 6 )

CSR has besides been defined and understood by World Bank Ltd. ( 1998 ) as,

“ Social Responsibility is a pattern of fiting companies with the remainder of society. Corporate citizens are prosecuting in the partnerships for the conman public assistance of all over the universe. ” ( 7 )

Warhurst ( 2001 ) attempted to associate the CSR as a portion of concern scheme, stated

“ A scheme of CSR is defined as the internationalized by the company of the societal and environmental effects of it ‘s operation through proactive pollution bar and societal impact appraisal so that injury is anticipated and avoided and benefits optimized. ” ( 8 )

CII ( Confederation of Indian Industry ) has understood CSR as ( 2005 )

“ Continuing committedness by concern to act ethically and lend to economic development while bettering the quality of work force and their households every bit good as the local community and society at big. ” ( 9 )

Mr.Y.C.Deveshwar, VP ( CII ) , ( 2005. )

“ Business is really of import in relieving people from their poorness. The humanity in us tells us that there is a crisis and hence we need to acquire our economic engines to bring forth wealth for the weaker subdivisions of the society. ” ( 10 )

Mr. Arun Maira – BCG Group, ( 2005 )

“ Corporations are the engines of the growing in an economic system and they should stress on the freedom for the people at the underside of the pyramid by prosecuting them in the economic growing procedure. ” “ With a diversified state like India, we need to acquire steps of our economic system, societal wellness and environmental quality. ( 11 )

Mr. Kumarmangalam Birla ( CMD Aditya Birla Group, 2006 )

The yearss are long past when concern of the concern was merely concern. The thought that corporation is simply a legal abstraction. devoid of bosom and psyche, no thirster has legitimacy. Today, no stakeholder – be it a portion holder, an employee, the community or the authorities – would accept a concern whose principle is limited to net incomes at any cost, or merely to irresistible impulses of its immediate concern. ( 12 )

Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh ( 2007 -CII Meet )

“ If those who are better off do non move in a more socially responsible mode, our growing procedure may be at hazard, our civil order may go lawless and our society may acquire farther divided… I invite corporate India to be a spouse in doing ours a more humane and merely society ” . He has besides given ten point notes to the corporate leaders like ; One, have healthy regard for your workers and put in their public assistance ; Two, corporate societal duty must non be defined by revenue enhancement planning schemes entirely ; Three, industry must be proactive in offering employment to the less privileged, at all degrees of the occupation ladder ; Four, resist inordinate wage to boosters and senior executives and discourage ; Five, invest in people and in their accomplishments ; Six, desist from non-competitive behaviour ; Seven, invest in environment-friendly engineerings ; Eight, promote endeavor and invention ; Nine, fight corruptness at all degrees ; Ten, promote socially responsible media and finance socially responsible advertisement. ( 13 )

Linkage of CSR Efforts With Poor Performing States in HDI Index.

India is widely spreaded state with different natural resources and geographics in each province. During the last two decennary some province have grown at higher GDP and HDI rates and some have non been, much depended on the historic political state of affairs, population and instruction degree of the province. Table below presents the statewise HDI Performance of assorted provinces in India.

Noteworthy facts are merely the Union district of Chandigarh and province Kerala are in the evaluations of High Human Development zone with their evaluation over 0.8 and near to the most top acting states in HDI like Norway, Iceland, US and Canada.

All other provinces are in either medium HDI zone or Low HDI zone with the face that states ‘ norm is every bit low as 0.575. States like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand are executing highly low on the most critical Human Development Index runing from 0.52 or below. These provinces needs immediate attending and though the Government is trying by assorted governmental attempts towards the betterment of human life in all these provinces are non turning out to be plenty.

Presented below are the five inspirational instances where Corporate have initiated the cause in these provinces and have started working with their ‘Corporate Social Responsibility ‘ to bridge the gape beween the GDP growing rate and HDI in the provinces indexes.

HDI – Report 2011 -States Performance of India.

High HDI evaluation

Medium HDI Rating

Low HDI Ratings.

0.75 to 1.0

0.55 to 0.75

0.4 to 0.75





Uttar Pradesh






Madhya Pradesh












Andaman and Nicobar Islands


Daman and Diu










Himachal Pradesh




Tamil Nadu






West Bengal




Dadra and Nagar Haveli


Arunachal Pradesh




Jammu and Kashmir






Andhra Pradesh











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CSR Initiative of Rural Electrification Corporate Ltd. In the provinces with Low HDI evaluations.

Rural Electrification Corporation Limited ( REC ) signed a MoU with Dr.Reddy Foundation ( DRF ) A for the coevals of supports through “ REC-DRF-LABS ” ( Livelihood Advancement Business Schools ) for preparation of 2400 rural-semi urban young person from economically weaker subdivisions taking to their paid employment. REC will be giving an aid of Rs.1.63 Crore to Dr.Reddy Foundation ( DRF ) under this CSR enterprise, in the first twelvemonth. The undertaking will take at supplying accomplishment development taking to support and paid employment to about 12000 young person mostly from weaker subdivision of society such as Below Poverty Line ( BPL ) etc. over a period of 5 old ages with an assured support support of Rs.10 Crores about. The provinces chosen for the intent are Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Eastern UP, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha which are low HDI provinces than the national mean public presentation. ( 14 )

CSR Initiative of TATA Steel – In the provinces with Medium – Low HDI evaluations – Jharkhand

Tata Steel has partnered with the Government of Jharkhand and ISKCON Food Relief Foundation to turn over out a Mid-Day Meal Scheme for underprivileged school traveling kids in East Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharsawa territories of Jharkhand. The Mid-Day Meal Programme in East Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharsawa territories of Jharkhand will ab initio profit 65,000 kids. This figure is estimated to travel up to 1 hundred thousand within the following two old ages. Tata Steel will supply the substructure that would be required for successful rollout of the Mid-Day Meal Programme while ISKCON Food Relief Foundation, an NGO that provides top-class Mid-Day Meal Services in assorted towns and metropoliss across the state, will take charge of the daily direction of the programme.

ISKCON Food Relief Foundation has obtained ISO 9001 and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point certifications and ensures nutrient safety direction. It spouses with many State authoritiess and conforms to the Supreme Court judicial admission of 450Kcal and 18 gms protein per kid. ( 15 )

CSR Initiative of Vedanta Aluminium Ltd. – In Orissa – Low HDI evaluations State.

Vedanta Aluminum Limited, Lanjigarh organized a free Health Camp at Chandanpur small town in Lanjigarh block of Kalahandi territory, Orissa on June 22, 2011 atA which about 300 villagers were examined and were distributed with medical specialties free of cost. The wellness Camp catered largely people of nearby small towns like Jodabandha, Gopinathapur, Nutanbaterlima, Khamankhunti and Chandanpur. Vedanta Aluminium on a regular basis organize wellness cantonments at nearby small towns to do a healthy society around Lanjigarh. Recently we organized cantonments at Chhatrapur, Basantpada etc. Health & A ; MHU Team of VAL went to nearby small towns of the locale as a portion of pre-publicity measure to inform the villagers about the cantonment and physicians handiness during the Health Camp about a hebdomad back.

VAL wellness cantonments is a portion of its purpose to do a healthy society. ( 16 )

Bharat Rural Lively Hood Foundation ( BRLF ) – Palatopharyngoplasty Model for CSR – Iitiative.

In a first major enterprise of affecting corporate India in developmental work, the Government of India has sought its partnership in puting up the Bharat Rural Livelihood Foundation ( BRLF ) . Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh has written letters to corporate like Tatas, Reliance, Wipro and Infosys to fall in the Foundation as lending spouses, to better the support of tribals, largely populating in Central and Eastern India. Public sector NABARD and the National Dairy Development Board have besides been roped in.

“ We have called a meeting on April 27 in New Delhi of all the interest holders, including corporate, civil society organisations and grass root degree militants to discourse assorted facets of the Bharat Rural Livelihood Foundation ” said Mr. Jayram Ramesh, during his informal interaction with media in Mumbai today. The Minister said that the BRLF will be set up with a principal of Rs 1,000 crores. “ Government of India will lend Rs 500 crores, while the remainder will come from other spouses. ” he added.

The latest proposal, evolved jointly by the Ministry of Rural Development and the Planning Commission, envisages a conjunct attempt by the Centre, the State authoritiess concerned, and civil society to transform the lives of the tribal, populating in 170 territories, of which about 78 have been affected by Naxal force and have non seen any development.

The authorities hopes that such enterprises will advance inclusive growing by taking the fruits of development to the tribal population life in distant countries. Since these tribals have remained largely excluded from the benefits of growing, they have become vulnerable to Maoist propaganda.

The foundation will back up developmental activities in the countries of watershed direction, dairy, piscaries, agribusiness, forestry, skill-development, among others. ( 17 )

CSR Initiative of NALCO Ltd. – In Orissa – Low HDI evaluations State.

Navratna PSU under Ministry of Mines, Govt. of India and state ‘s prima manufacturer and exporter of aluminum oxide and aluminium, National Aluminum Company Limited ( NALCO ) , has extend alleviation to the inundation victims.A The company has donated Rs 1 crore to the Chief Minister ‘s Relief Fund, Orissa, which has been badly affected by unprecedented inundation.

NALCO has several times drawn-out alleviation steps towards the development in the Orissa. Earlier, the company had donatedA Rs 1.39 crore during the ace cyclone in 1999 and Rs 5 crore for inundation victims of Orissa in 2008. The company has doubled its CSR budget to 2 % of the net net income from 2010-11, by puting up a NALCO Foundation. For the current financial, the company has earmarked Rs 21.38 crore for assorted CSR activities. ( 18 )


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