The international system composes of many international organisations. International Organization includes Intergovernmental Organization IGOs: United Nation, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, International Monetary of Fund and World Trade Organization etc. and Nongovernmental Organizations ( NGOs: Amnesty Internationalaˆ¦. ) . Basically, the outgrowth of the 20 first century international organisations rooted really long clip ago. The inaugural thought of making the International Organization was historically developed by procedures from the Westphalia pact in 1648 to Versailles and League of Nation Congress in 1919. True, the sign language of Peace Westphalia established the rules of national sovereignty ; therefore, the pact provided the European provinces with territorial unity and full right to carry on domestic and foreign matter with no foreigner intercession. Subsequently, in 1814-1815, the Vienna Congress established diplomatic foundation for new European security order following the devastation of Napoleonic wars. Until 1919, Versailles and League of Nation which caput of provinces and diplomats met up created a planetary security and International Organizations in League of Nation. Unusually, in post-world war II, there were many international organisations evolved to cover with the regional and international issues such as the issue of war and peace, disease bar and economic development. Most of the international organisations were created after World War II in an purpose to advance provinces cooperation to cover with the lifting issues. Furthermore, these assorted organisations serve different intents. For illustration, the intent of the creative activity of the United Nations was to forestall any farther struggles among provinces from taking topographic point. North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) serves for military intent, while World Bank, IMF or GATT dealt with the economic development by easing the NTBs ( Non-Tariff Barriers ) and trade liberalisation. As the consequence, some critics believed that International organisation was created to function the economic and political involvement of the rich states, while working the hapless states. Yet, before judging whether the predominating international system is created to function simply the rich states ‘ involvements, we should ab initio take a expression at the statements from both side, the protagonists of the above unfavorable judgment and the against side, which will be clarified in the undermentioned portion of this term paper.
International System serves Rich Countries simply
Bigger Gap between Rich and Poor Nations
The international system is so created to function the involvements of the rich states, while taking advantages of the hapless states. To get down with, the predominating international system is playing its important functions in widening the spread between the rich and the hapless states. This merely means that the international system is doing the rich states become richer and doing the hapless states become poorer. For case, the International Monetary Fund, IMF, created in 1944 at a conference in Bretton Woods, has several visions it wants to accomplish, and one among the several purposes is to do easy the growing of international trade, promote occupation creative activity, promote economic growing, and cut down poorness ( International Monetary Fund, 2012 ) . However, in its procedure toward carry throughing its visions, IMF has generated many obstructions for the hapless states development, yet this does intend that simply the hapless states is confronting issues such as the economic or fiscal instability ; few developed states besides face that sort of jobs, but when it comes to measure, there are more of hapless states confronting this sort of trouble, doing the fiscal assistance from the IMF an of import savior to those states. For case, confronting an economic job, a underdeveloped state can inquire for a loan from the IMF, yet that peculiar state is allowed to borrow the IMF ‘s fund merely if it can run into the immoral standards set by the IMF. To show, a state has to follow the IMF Structural Adjustment Policies ( SAP ) to do certain that the borrower states will be able to refund back the debt in the approaching hereafter by demanding that peculiar state to cut disbursement on the many other sectors including the educational or wellness section. Therefore, holding less to pass on the other sectors of the state, a state will hold to decelerate down its development ‘s procedure or set it off due to the deficiency of budget. As a affair of fact, it is true that the IMF does play its function in assisting to work out the economic job of a state, but in the procedure, the IMF besides generates many other jobs to the other sectors of that peculiar state ; for illustration, a decrease on the educational disbursement would intend a state will confront a deficiency of human resource, a really important factor for the development of a state ; a cut disbursement on wellness sector would do more agony to the local people wellbeing, which could do a batch of bitternesss from the people that could potentially take to the interruption out of some helter-skelter state of affairss such as protests or presentations. Consequently, holding solved the economic issue with the aid of the fund from IMF, the borrower-country would happen itself confronting many other jobs originating from the acceptance of the Structural Adjustment Policies of the IMF, which will decelerate down the development of that state in footings of economic, political and societal growing. Unusually, the job of this structural accommodation policy has already done many amendss to many borrower-states, and one among those provinces was Argentina. Argentina economic crisis taking topographic point in 2001 was chiefly caused by the IMF ‘s structural accommodation policy. Borrowing money from the IMF, Argentina had to cut down passing on many necessary sectors including wellness, instruction and security, doing a batch of bitterness from the Argentines and instability inside the state both economically and politically. In add-on, IMF, at that clip, made the Argentine authorities adopt free trade system stressing on export to do certain that the Argentine authorities would be able to refund back the debt. In this procedure, the Argentine authorities had to take all sort of trade barriers taking to the prostration of many Argentinian local companies since Argentina was non economically ready to be engaged into the international market yet during that clip ( Khilafah.Com, 2007 ) . On the one manus, Structural Adjustment Policy is non a large issue for few developed states confronting fiscal trouble because the Structural Adjustment Policies do non do much harm to those developed states since they have already got a developed, well-structured state ; for illustration, even though those states have less to pass on the educational sector, it will non harm them much since they have already had a developed educational sector, while the developing states will hold no pick but to impede its development due to the deficiency of resources, doing the spread between the development and developed states remain stable or even bigger if the SAP causes more of the negative effects to the other sectors of those developing states in demand of the IMF aid.
Decision Making in Hands of Rich Countries
Second, the international system is non effectual at all when it comes to assisting hapless states since simply the rich states would hold the legitimate power to make up one’s mind on the of import affairs inside the system. For case, inside the international pecuniary fund, determination doing power is granted to states lending the most financess to the organisation. It could be compared as a system of “ one dollar, one ballot ” . Harmonizing to the Global Exchange, “ The U.S. is the largest stockholder with a quota of 18 per centum. Germany, Japan, France, Great Britain, and the US combined control about 38 per centum ” ( Global Exchange, A 2011, par. 3 ) . Therefore, harmonizing to realists ‘ positions, with all of the powers inside their custodies, it is really improbable that those rich states would set the involvement of the hapless states before their ain involvements. Likewise, World Bank is besides another tool easing the control of the rich over the hapless states. To show, although World Bank is runing on behalf of its 186 member provinces, simply a little proportion of economically powerful states have the power to do things go on inside World Bank because those states get to take high ranking officers from their picks, enabling those rich states to be able to set their involvement in the first precedence of the universe bank ‘s docket ( James, A 2010, par. 3 ) . In add-on, World Trade Organization is besides one of the many other establishments, where the rich states use to maximise their ain involvements. For case, harmonizing to the Global Exchange organisation, “ The WTO purportedly operates on a consensus footing, with equal decision-making power for all. In world, many of import determinations get made in a procedure whereby hapless states ‘ negotiants are non even invited to closed door meetings – and so ‘agreements ‘ are announced that hapless states did n’t even cognize were being discussed ” ( Global Exchange, A 2011, par. 9 ) .
United Nations serves Rich Countries ‘ Interests
Last but non least, the United Nations, a important organ of the international system, is doubtless an intergovernmental organisation created to function the benefit of the rich states. The North and South struggle is a really good illustration of the rich states working the hapless states. To show, the formation of the G77 whose members are hapless and developing states inside the United Nations has proven that the United Nations has put the involvements of the hapless states to the underside of the docket of its meeting, for if the United Nations had of all time genuinely cared about the involvement and benefit of the hapless states, would G77 hold been created? In fact, if the United Nations had truly played its function in advancing the involvement of the hapless states, the development states would non hold come together to organize an confederation to contend for their involvements inside the United Nations at all ; the developing states stood up to contend together because their involvements were violated by the rich states ; for illustration, the predominating international economic system is created to impoverish the hapless, while enriching the rich states. Free trade, one among the many constituents of the current international economic system, is more of a expletive than a approval to the development states because the local manufacturers in those states have non possessed adequate capacity and ability to be engaged in the international market yet ; therefore, the import of the international merchandises with the remotion of all sort of trade barriers would convey a batch of negative impacts to the developing states. To show:
It is frequently hapless husbandmans who suffer most when trade is liberalized. The autumn in domestic demand which consequences from increased imports hits them peculiarly hard. Poor husbandmans have small entree to capital or engineering to increase their productiveness or better the quality of what they sell in response to more competition. They are besides viing in an highly unequal market, where imports from developed states are frequently to a great extent subsidized ( AfricaFocus, A 2005, par. 6 ) .
In short, if the predominating international system has of all time genuinely served the involvement of developing states, hapless states would non hold tried so difficult to suggest a new format of economic system functioning their ain involvements.
The International System serves both Rich and Poor States
IGOs like the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the World Trade Organization are high profile histrions while others are lesser known but still play cardinal functions in peculiar Fieldss in this modern twenty-four hours. However, its nucleus concern with advancing international peace and security, advancing human development and economic wellbeing, and protecting human right has been supplemented over clip by an of all time using economic and societal docket for hapless states non merely in favored of the Western states. This subdivision discuss chiefly on the function of the United Nations.
Promoting peace and security
The chief purpose of the UN is ‘to maintain international peace and security ‘ ( Article 1 ) , with duty for the Security Council ( “ Peace and Security, ” 2008 ) . As a consequence, its function has been surrounded basically to supplying mechanisms that facilitate the peaceable declaration of international struggles. As we can see its successes in negociating a ceasefire between India and Pakistan in 1959, keeping peace in 1960 in the Belgian Congo ( now Zaire ) , and interceding between the Dutch and the Indonesians over West Irian ( New Guinea ) in 1962. With the UN mediation and the action of 3rd parties moving with UN support, many struggles have been brought to an terminal since the 1990s. Those includes struggles in El Salvador, Guatemala, Namibia, Cambodia, Mozambique, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, Burundi and the north-south struggle in the Sudan. In add-on, The United Nations has cleared landmines in some 30 states or districts, including Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iraq, Mozambique and the Sudan ( “ Peace and Security, ” 2008 ) . The UN besides teaches people how to remain out of injury ‘s manner helps victims to go self-sufficing, assists states in destructing stockpiled landmines and defends for full international engagement in pacts related to landmines. Furthermore, UN bureaus and plans have helped states to set in pattern the common scheme, supplying legal aid and advancing international cooperation against terrorist act and placed a legal model to battle terrorist act. Sixteen planetary understandings have been negotiated under UN support, including pacts against hostage-taking, aircraft highjacking, terrorist bombardments, terrorist act funding and, most late, atomic terrorist act ( Margaret & A ; Karen, 2004 ) .
Promoting economic and societal development
The United Nations has devoted its attending and resources to advancing life criterions and human accomplishments and possible throughout the universe. Since 2000, this work has been guided by the Millennium Development Goals ( “ Economic Development, ” 2008 ) . Virtually all financess for UN development aid come from parts donated by states. For case, the UN Development Programs ( UNDP ) , with staff in 145 states, supports undertakings to cut down poorness, promote good administration, reference crises and continue the environment. The UN Children ‘s Fund ( UNICEF ) works in more than 150 states, chiefly on kid protection, immunisation, misss ‘ instruction and contending HIV/AIDS. The UN Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ) helps developing states make the most of their trade chances ( Cameron, 2012 ) . The World Bank provides developing states with loans and grants, and has supported more than 10,000 development undertakings since 1947. Furthermore, the International Fund for Agricultural Development ( IFAD ) provides low-interest loans and grants to really hapless rural people. Since 1978, IFAD has invested more than $ 12 billion, assisting more than 370 million adult females and work forces increase their incomes and supply for their households. Today, IFAD supports more than 200 plans and undertakings in 81 developing states ( John, 2008 ) . The UN Industrial Development Organization ( UNIDO ) serves as a “ matcher ” for North-South and South-South industrial cooperation, advancing entrepreneurship, investing, engineering transportation and cost-efficient and sustainable industrial development. It helps states to pull off the procedure of globalisation swimmingly and to cut down poorness. In add-on, The International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) and the World Bank have helped many states to better their economic direction, provided impermanent fiscal aid to states to assist ease balance-of-payment troubles and offered preparation for authorities finance functionaries ( “ Economic Development, ” 2008 ) . The International Telecommunication Union ( ITU ) brings together Governments and industry to develop and organize the operation of planetary telecommunication webs and services. It has coordinated shared usage of the wireless spectrum, promoted international cooperation in delegating satellite orbits, worked to better telecommunication substructure in the underdeveloped universe and negotiated the planetary criterions that guarantee the seamless interconnectedness of a huge scope of communications systems. From broadband Internet to the latest-generation radio engineerings, from air and sea pilotage to radio uranology and satellite-based weather forecasting, from phone services to TV broadcast medium and next-generation webs, ITU is committed to linking the universe. Its work has enabled telecommunications to turn into a $ 1.3 trillion planetary industry ( Michael & A ; Emily, n.d. ) . On the other manus, with the societal development, The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) has helped 137 states to protect ancient memorials and historic, cultural and natural sites ( Andrew, 2011 ) . It has negotiated international conventions to continue cultural belongings, cultural diverseness and outstanding cultural and natural sites. More than 910 such sites have been designated as holding exceeding cosmopolitan value. The United Nations, through UNESCO and the United Nations University, has encouraged scholarly and scientific cooperation, networking of higher instruction establishments and publicity of cultural look, including for minorities and autochthonal people.
United Nations ‘ Role in Promoting Human Right
The function of the United Nations in advancing Human Rights is really important. To show, the acceptance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 was a really important factor enabling the promoting of Human Rights worldwide. All of the United Nations members are demanded to sign this declaration. With its members ‘ acceptance of this Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has the power and legitimacy to knock or even put countenance on its members go againsting this declaration. In most occasions, human rights ‘ misdemeanors are more likely to take topographic point in developing states, Syria, Egypt, or Myanmar instead than in rich states, the United States, Canada or the United Kingdom, where Human Rights are extremely recognized. Therefore, we can see that the acceptance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has proven that the United Nations is besides working for the benefit of the hapless states instead than simply functioning the benefit of the rich states because this declaration will assist to protect the right of the many people populating in developing states where human rights misdemeanor is a common issue, while this issue of human rights ‘ misdemeanor is non truly a job to be considered in most developed states.
Our Group Stance
Despite of the fact that those international organisations, viz. the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and World Trade Organization, were intentionally created to advance peace and security to the universe in both military and economic agencies, there is no warrant that all international organisations particularly those which have specified above can pull off absolutely to carry through hapless states ‘ involvements. The 2009 Reforms of the International Monetary Fund makes a best illustration of all. To exemplify, originated intents of this reform were to shut spreads and supply great attentions orienting the low-income states ‘ demands by take downing involvement rates, hiking the loaning up to $ 8 billion through 2011, supplying zero involvement rates until the terminal of 2011, and other more flexible footings. At the first glimpse, it was obvious that most of the hapless states could get the better of their hard-time during the crisis gently thanks to IMF loaning. Yet, later, those the hapless states started to trust even more to a great extent than of all time on AIDSs supplying from flexible loaning footings from the IMF. Furthermore, harmonizing to an article called “ Battle with IMF Helps Poorer Countries Through Global Crisis ” on the IMF web page, the hapless states ‘ dependances on the IMF did non merely increase in sum loaning, but besides their demands for farther IMF-backed plans ( 2012, Sept 13 ) . From this point, irrespective of how much the IMF wants to assist, they have to screen out first what is the first for those states ; hence, some of the hapless states ‘ demands may non run into owing to the restriction in the IMF current available resources ( International Monetary Fund [ IMF ] , 2012 ) . In short, one time once more, even though, the IMF tends to assist the hapless states with all it has got, to some extent, it may hold to go forth out some to catch the anterior demands of the states. Furthermore, in whatever instance, the World Bank and the IMF have got some issues in common sing assisting most of the hapless states in economic agencies. Another illustration worth to be taken into history is the World Trade Organization. Mike Moore, Director of the World Trade Organization said as mentioned in an article “ Free trade helps cut down poorness, says new WTO secretariat survey ” ( 2000 ) in WTO web site that:
This study confirms that although trade entirely may non be plenty to eliminate poorness, it is indispensable if hapless people are to hold any hope of a brighter hereafter. For illustration, 30 old ages ago, South Korea was every bit hapless as Ghana. Today, thanks to merchandise led growing, it is every bit rich as Portugal.
This sentence shall be a really good illustration of how much the WTO could assist the hapless to get the better of some of the singular economical and commercial issues it has faced. Briefly, it is extremely positive that no affair how hard those International Organizations attempt to assist, it is possible that some errors and defects within the systems are inevitable ; hence, it can non ever assist to extinguish all of the hapless states ‘ agonies.
As have been argued with back uping facts above, both positions on the International Organizations – state, some people believe that the International Organization is simply a tool that the rich states use to work the hapless, while others believe that these organisations serve besides the involvements of the hapless states – reveal to be true to a peculiar grade. It is eligible to state that those International organisations though it were created to keep for the universe ‘s interest, it someway tends to be more good to the rich states than the hapless. A instance in point is IMF and the World Bank whose chief intents are to assist all the states in the universe reasonably, yet there are a batch of demand that the adoption states have to travel through. To the low-income states, this makes once more their barriers measuring for economic aid. Yet, to the IMF and the World Bank, these demands were set up merely in order to prioritise which states and in which way should they assist to settle one upon all. Again, to sum up what have been described above, while those International Organizations aid to advance peace and security, economic and societal development, and human rights, it besides out of the blue extends the spread between the rich and the hapless, and as those International Organizations resources are chiefly distributed by the rich states, those organisations ‘ decision-makings are in custodies of the rich and gently serves for the rich states ‘ involvements. Shortly, after rightly analyzed both positions on the International Organizations, our group believe that even though in some instances the organisations tend to work following the rich states ‘ involvement, those organisations play of import functions in stabilising most of the hapless states ‘ economic systems and assisting most of them from being suffer in whichever manner. We besides believe that even though those organisations were chiefly emerged to assist the hapless, those organisations are unable to carry through 100 % of all the hapless states ‘ demands.