This paper present the development of a handheld solarimeter which is integrated with temperature detector faculties by utilizing the application of Microcontroller PIC16F877A. The solarimeter employs a mention solar cell which is calibrated to mensurate the solar irradiance. Besides the solarimeter, two temperature detector faculties will besides be introduced to mensurate ambient temperature and photovoltaic faculty temperature severally. All measurings from the solarimeter and temperature faculties will be controlled by a Microprocessor PIC16F877A which provides scheduling scheme through basic C linguistic communication. The designed algorithm is based on the standardization of the used solar cell and the temperature detector faculties. All the measurings of the solarimeter and temperature faculties will be displayed on a LCD show. The consequences show that the developed integrated pyranometer device is accurate and cost effectual as compared to the commercial pyranometer devices.

Keywords-solar irradiance, ambient temperature, faculty temperature, solar cell, temperature detector, microcontroller.


Nowadays, there is a planetary demand for a renewable energy beginnings which can supply a green energy that is safe to the environment and will last everlastingly. One of the renewable energy is solar energy and now has been used in our day-to-day life. Solar energy really has been harnessed by worlds since antediluvian times which are utilizing the engineerings keep altering and germinating by clip to clip. This solar energy can be obtained straight from the sunshine that making the Earth.

Recently, there are a batch of researches related to solar irradiance measuring due to the increasing demand of photovoltaic system. Therefore many engineerings are developed to bring forth methods or devices that can mensurate the solar irradiance. In photovoltaic system, solar irradiance is the step incident of entire sum of solar radiation transmitted to the surface of the solar cell in a given unit of clip. It varies throughout the twenty-four hours with the motion of the Sun and the clouds. This measuring is usually done in the units of Watts per square metre ( W/m2 ) . The measurings of solar irradiance are the of import thing for gauging power coevals from the photovoltaic ( PV ) systems and finding the correlativities to the electric system tonss.

Solar irradiance is normally measured by pyranometers, solarimeters, or actinoraphy. Based on of all the devices, pyranometer is suited and can be incorporating with other devices so that it can be used for photovoltaic system application. Pyranometer is a type of device that used to mensurate solar irradiance or the radiation flux denseness.


A solar cell is a device that generates electricity straight from the seeable visible radiation particularly from the sunshine. There are several factors that affect the solar cell efficiency such as effects of cell temperature, MPPT ( maximal power point tracking ) and energy transition efficiency [ 2 ] . An efficient type of solar cell is due to cut down recombination in solar cell itself. Recombination is a confining factor for current in a solar cell. Using polycrystalline Si cell as hat can absorb the solar irradiance from the sunshine.

This undertaking besides will supply the informations such as the solar irradiance ( W/m2 ) , module temperature ( oC ) and ambient temperature ( oC ) which can assist when measuring the public presentation of photovoltaic ( PV ) solar energy systems.


Callibration of Solar Cell

A polycrystalline solar cell ( 6V/100mA ) is connected to a resistance 100I© used to mensurate the solar irradiance. This solar cell supposed to feed the resistance by a certain current and electromotive force under a certain solar irradiance and ambient temperature. However, the solar cell current can be comparatively measured by mensurating the resistance terminal electromotive force.

Hardware Development

In this undertaking, there are five chief parts dwelling solar cell, digital thermometer detector, ambient temperature detector, Microcontroller and LCD as a show. Polycrystalline solar cell been used in this undertaking because solar irradiance is the most influenced parametric quantity on the public presentation of polycrystalline solar cell in Malayan clime.

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows the hardware design of this integrated pyranometer project.PIC16F877A is a microcontroller operated based on plan created by utilizing MPlab package and it interfaces with a solar cell and two temperature detectors. The solar cell is used to mensurate the solar irradiance based on the terminal electromotive force of the resistance which is connected to the solar cell itself. The LM35 temperature detector is used to mensurate the ambient temperature utilizing analog-to-digital ( ADC ) . The preciseness of the LM35 detector is precision temperature detector which the end product electromotive force is linearly relative to the Celscius ( Centigrade ) temperature.

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