This paper is discoursing about the economic market construction, particularly for imperfect competition market which are monopolistic competition market and oligopoly market. There will be accounts about definition, features, and illustrations of monopolistic competition market and oligopoly market. There is Dunkin ‘ Donuts Inc. for the monopolistic competition market and Coca Cola Co. for the oligopoly market. This paper besides will discourse about competitory schemes of Coca Cola.


In economic system survey, people know that there are view types of market in the being. These market types are differentiated harmonizing to figure / distribution of house ( s ) in the market. Harmonizing to Sloman & A ; Norris ( 2002 ) , there are four types of market constructions in the pattern, which are perfect competition, monopoly and monopolistic competition, oligopoly markets.

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Perfect competition market is a market with the most Sellerss and purchasers in dealing. In this type of market, the merchandises that provided are largely homogeneous. To acquire in into this market, there are no barriers. Both of the purchasers and Sellerss is monetary value taker ( O’Sullivan et al, 2008 ) , so in this market monetary value is non the factor that could impact the gross revenues, alternatively of it service is much more attractive.

Monopoly market is a market with a individual house that provide merchandise that has no close-substitutes. This status clearly shows that this type of house has power that will let them as the monetary value shaper, since there are no close-substitutes that can be chosen by consumer to replace the usage of the service or goods provided by the house. In this monopoly market there is entry barriers such as patent, authorities policy, etc.

Perfect competition and monopoly market are the utmost status in market. The other two market constructions which are monopolistic competition and oligopoly market is more common type of market that we can see in the existent life state of affairs if they are compared to hone competition and monopoly market.

This paper will discourse more on imperfect competition market that are the including the monopolistic competition market and the oligopoly market, which are more relevancy to the pattern with the relevancy and appropriate illustrations.



Monopolistic Competition Market

Monopolistic competition was developed by an American economic expert named Edward Chamberlin in 1930s ( Sloman & A ; Norris 2002 ) . Monopolistic is a type of monopoly market ; there are quite figure of houses ‘ running in the industry, but they produce a differential merchandise which distinguish them from other.

In monopolistic market, a house is independence ; means that house in this market are barely affected with their rivals act or determination, or frailty versa ( Sloman & A ; Norris 2002 ) . Firms in the monopolistic market are offering their merchandises through different things from their rivals ; visual aspect, degrees, engineering, quality, monetary value, etc. These distinctions of merchandise are besides known as Product distinction ( Parkin,2000 ) .

There are no entry barriers to acquire in into this monopolistic competition market. Barrier such as patent or authorities ordinance is non applicable in this market ( O’Sullivan et al, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Parkin ( 2000 ) , houses have the free entry and issue in monopolistic market. Normally if the status of this market is extremely profitable there will be a positive signal that invite Numberss of house to come in and the distribution of net income will be divided to the houses in market, but when they public presentation of market is low, there will be figure of house every bit good go forthing this market. The below tabular arraies show monopolistic market in net income and loss clip ( Case & A ; Fair, 2008 ) :

However, in the long tally at that place will be no ace unnatural net income for houses in monopolistic market, since because of the signaling, houses are freely enter and issue from the market. Here is the long term status graph ( Case & A ; Fair, 2008 ) :

Oligopoly Market

Oligopoly is a term that derived from the term of the Greeks which are “ oligos ” intending small or few and “ polein ” intending to sell. Oligopoly refers to a market where there are merely few house running the concern in the field. ( Tucker, 2005 ) . Not the same with monopolistic, to come in into oligopoly market is non easy to be done, since oligopoly market has the entry barrier as monopoly market ( Sloman & A ; Norris 2002 ) . Harmonizing to O’Sullivan et Al ( 2008 ) , authorities has intercession in this market, doing certain there is no clump of houses runing in the oligopoly industry by publishing accountant such as patent and concern licences. Besides that, houses in oligopoly market are bulk viing besides by publicizing run. The outgo budget for advertisement in this market is really high.

Not similar with monopolistic competition market, oligopoly market is mutualist. The determination that made by house that runing in oligopoly will impact the other houses that operating in the same market. In this market there will be no house that does non see the action taken by their challenger. Most of the companies in oligopoly house compete through non-price competition. By practising non-price competition, each oligopolist create barrier for rivals to battle an of import merchandise betterment. Here are some illustrations of non-price competition ( Riley, 2006 ) :

Free bringings and installing

Drawn-out guarantees for consumers and recognition installations

Longer gap hours ( e.g. supermarkets and gasoline Stationss )

Branding of merchandises and heavy disbursement on advertisement and selling

Extensive after-sales service

Expanding into new markets or variegation of the merchandise scope

In oligopoly market, the graph of demand will demo a kinked curve. The kinked demand curve theoretical account happen because of two premises that made in oligopoly market, which are:

If a house lifting the merchandising monetary value, the other houses remain ( non follow to increase the monetary value )

If a house cutting the merchandising monetary value, the other houses will follow to cut down their selling monetary value every bit good

Kinked demand curve in monopolistic market ( Anonymous, n.d )

Oligopoly market has a inclination to believe what is their rival reaction to their new policies. To analyze this oligopolist behaviour can be done with the Game Theory. Game Theory is a survey to analyse the strategic behaviour depends on the reaction of the rival into the new policies ( Sloman & A ; Norris 2002 ) . As outlined by Samuelson and Nordhaus ( 2005 ) , some general findings of game theoretician in the country of imperfect competition are:

As the figure of non-cooperative oligopolists becomes big, industry monetary value and measure tend toward the absolutely competitory result.

If houses decide to conspire instead than vie, the market monetary value and measure will be near to those generated by monopoly. But experiments suggest that as the figure of houses additions, conniving understandings become more hard to patrol and the frequence of rip offing and non-cooperative behaviour additions.

In many state of affairss, there is no stable equilibrium for oligopoly. Strategic interplay may take to unstable results as houses threaten, bluff, start monetary value wars, capitulate to stronger houses, punish wale oppositions, signals their purposes, or merely issue from the market.

In this Game Theory, there is besides a term called “ Prisoner ‘s Dilemma ” that illustrate the troubles in keeping a cooperation ( Mankiw, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Parkin ( 2000 ) , there are 3 things that need to be paid attending in Game Theory, which are regulations, schemes and final payments. The game theory will be illustrated as followers:

A and B are caught stealing a auto, both of them were interrogated by the constabularies and they will condemn for 2 old ages in prison. The constabulary suspect that A and B is involved in recent robbery, but they have no grounds to turn out it.

Rules: A and B were put in different cabin, each told they are suspected involve in robbery. If both of them confess they did it, they will condemn into 3 old ages prison, nevertheless if one of them confess and the other 1 does non, the first 1 will merely condemn for 1 twelvemonth prison and the other one 10 old ages.

Schemes: the possible action that can be taken by A and B are, Confess or denied they involved in the robbery.

Payoffs: because there are two participants and two schemes, there are four possible results, which are: Both confess, both denied, A confesses & A ; B denies, and B confesses & A ; A denies.

10 Old ages

1 Year

2 Old ages

2 Old ages

3 Old ages

3 Old ages

1 Year

10 Old ages

Prisoner ‘s Dilemma Payoffs Matrix ( Parkin 2000 )

Company in Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly Market

Monopolistic competition market can be entered easy, even though there are many rivals in the industry viing in it. Food and drink industry is besides included in monopolistic competition market. In illustration Starbucks, McD, KFC, and Dunkin ‘ doughnuts are good known in the franchise concern in nutrient and drink industry.

Dunkin ‘ doughnut is a drink industry house that provides doughnuts and the regular java. Founded in 1950, today Dunkin ‘ Donuts is the No. 1 retail merchant of hot and iced regular coffee-by-the-cup in America ( Miranda, n.d. ) . In drink industry like Dunkin ‘ donuts we can see there is quite Numberss of houses are runing in the same industry such as Krispy Kreme, Starbucks, etc. Each of these companies has their ain feature that differentiate them with their rivals ; such as Krispy Kreme is more concentrating in the production of doughnuts, while Starbucks are supplying more assorted blended java. However, Dunkin ‘s doughnut besides has its ain feature which is supplying the regular java with the delightful doughnuts or bars.

Harmonizing to Miranda ( n.d. ) , Dunkin ‘ Donuts in Florida are making really good and making better than the other franchises in other provinces. Dunkin ‘ Donuts sells 52 different doughnuts and more than a twelve java drinks every bit good as beigels, breakfast sandwiches, and other baked drinks. Dunkin ‘ doughnut is holding a powerful market place. It has become the No.1 in regular hot java gross revenues, No.1 in beigels, No.1 in doughnuts and No.3 in breakfast sandwiches, and Dunkin ‘ doughnut is developed with a strong and profitable franchise concern theoretical account ( Goumas, 2006 ) . There is no entry barrier for those houses that wanted to come into drink market, such as J.Co in Malaysia ; it ‘s a new comer in the drink industry.

For Oligopoly market there is Coca Cola Co. which is taking in the carbonated drink industry for old ages. There are merely a few manufacturers in carbonated drink, this makes carbonated drink industry included in oligopoly market.

Coca Cola Co. are included in oligopoly market, even though in the existent life there is rather a batch carbonated drinks available ( which can be categorized into monopolistic competition ) , such as F & A ; N in Malaysia. But in the pattern, these carbonated drinks industries were dominated by Coca Cola Co. and Pepsi Co. for decennaries, this drink industry become oligopoly. Therefore, for the smaller house such as F & A ; N in drink industry has their gross revenues in a small portion and can non be compared to the gross revenues of Coca Cola and Pepsi. The chief challenger of Coca Cola is Pepsi Co. , which has been decennaries viing in the Coke industry. In the carbonated soft drink industry today, Coco-Cola dominated 43.7 % of the market, followed by PepsiCo. occupied 31.6 % and Cadbury-Schweppes ‘ 15.8 % ( In January 1999, the smallest oligopolist Cadbury Schweppes PLC, sold portion of its international concern to Coca-Cola Co. ) (, 2005 ) .

The stigmatization and advertizement attempt for Coca Cola and Pepsi are besides competitory and they have their ain feature. For Pepsi, they ever hire well-known creative person such as Britney Spears, Beyonce and Pink to publicize their Pepsi Coke. In the other side, Coca Cola ever use a originative advertizement. They ne’er stop their advertizement, even though they know that both of them is the leader in the industry, because they ne’er want to lose to one another.

From the figure of houses in the market, the inclination that houses can travel in into market and the stigmatization & A ; advertisement attempt, makes the carbonated drink industry become an oligopoly market instead than monopolistic competition market.

Competitive Schemes of Coca Cola Co.

Ad and Sponsorship

See the long-running Coke-Pepsi feud, both Coca-Cola Co. and PepsiCo. are seeking to do a utile foil for advertisement, and company created merchandise differentiations during the competition. During the Beijing Olympic in 2008, once more Coca Cola has been the official spouse for this event in past 80 old ages. For Coca Cola there is ne’er excessively early to make publicity, it proven by the launching of limited edition Coca Cola Olympic edition with assorted linguistic communications ( Baar, 2008 ) . In December 2008, Coca Cola running a new nomadic selling run in Germany and besides they did publicize in telecasting that demoing the Coca-Cola truck driving through a white landscape. ( Khan, 2008 ) .

Expand in Market and Product Range

Recently, Coca Cola put more attempt in spread outing their production in China. Coca Cola Co. has built 2 production works in the less developed cardinal and west China ( The Coca Cola Company Press, 2009 ) . Since Pepsi gross revenues compare to Coca Cola gross revenues in China is larger, Coca Cola does non halt spread outing their mark which is China market.

Coca Cola Co. has assortment merchandises which have been introduced as the demands of the client. As stated in The Coca Cola Company Press ( 2009 ) , Coca Cola has more than 3,000 drinks, from diet and regular twinkle drinks to still beverages such as 100 per centum fruit juices and fruit drinks, Waterss, athleticss and energy drinks, teas and javas, and milk-and soy-based drinks, our assortment spans the Earth.

Keep Innovative and Efficient over the Long Run

Oligopolistic competition is proved to be good, because it provides uninterrupted betterment, and ensures that directions would maintain their organisations innovative and efficient over the long tally. Argued by Zachary ( 1999 ) , market leaders need rivals to maintain them on their toes.

Harmonizing to Weier ( 2009 ) , Coca Cola Company works to lunch out Freestyle imbibe dispenser, in the US countrywide. This dispenser have the construct of fulfill client pick to new highs, the most interesting facet is the engineering it ‘s built on.

Cutting Price

By making invention such as tiffin out Freestyle drink dispenser, it will assist Coca Cola Company to make monetary value film editing. Freestyle will go Coke ‘s front-line robotic ground forces for concern intelligence, directing monolithic sums of ingestion informations back to the drink company ‘s Atlanta central office. The dispensers collect informations on what clients are imbibing and how much, and transmit that information each dark over a private web to data warehouse system in Atlanta. Unique by-product of this BI enabled dispenser is that Coke can seek out new spirits and acquire back about existent clip feedback on the viability of its success.A It will no longer hold to ensemble Customer focal point group and seek it out in a ‘lab’.A The existent universe becomes the lab and the selling section at Coke can watch consumers vote yea or nay on the viability of new merchandise instantaneously.A This non merely improves the velocity of feedback but besides makes the full trial selling procedure cheaper.A


There is perfect competition market and imperfect competition market. Perfect competition markets are including perfect competition and monopoly market. However, imperfect competition markets are monopolistic competition market and oligopoly. From the overall analysis, it shows that the oligopoly is the most hard competitory construction to measure than other market constructions, because the strength of competition is high whereby oligopolists conflict for market portion. Each and every move by a participant attracts revenge. And many market constructions tend towards being an oligopoly as clip progresses.

In oligopoly market attempt such as stigmatization, advertisement, concern enlargement is really core. Since the monetary value conflict can non be done in oligopoly market, a house must be able to do moves in non-price conflict. To derive the competitory advantages in the long tally, Coca Cola need to take attention about their advertizement and sponsorship plan, developing the research and development, maintain spread outing their market ; specially the location where Pepsi Co. addition more gross revenues compare to Coca Cola.

Coca Cola Company is one of the successful houses in oligopoly market, their attempt to be being in the market has leaded them to the top of drink market until now.