In this age of globalisation, every company is looking to tap into the international market. Amidst the lifting credence and acceptance of planetary sourcing as a feasible scheme to make an organization-wide impact, currency fluctuation has emerged as a really existent job.

History of Indian Outsourcing

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The thought of outsourcing has its roots in the ‘competitive advantage ‘ theory propagated by Adam Smith in his book ‘The Wealth of Nations ‘ which was published in the twelvemonth 1776. Over the old ages, the significance of the term ‘outsourcing ‘ has undergone a sea-change. What started off as the shifting of fabricating goods to states supplying inexpensive labour during the Industrial Revolution, has taken on a new intension in today ‘s scenario. In a universe where information engineering has become the anchor of concerns worldwide, ‘outsourcing ‘ is the procedure through which one company hands over portion of its work to another company, doing it responsible for the design and execution of certain concern procedure under the demands and specifications of the outsourcing company.

This outsourcing procedure is good to both the outsourcing company and the outsourcing service supplier. In an outsourcing relationship, the outsourcing service supplier enables the outsourcer to cut down operating costs, addition quality in non nucleus countries of concern, salvage on attempt and increase in productiveness.

Since the oncoming of globalisation in India during the early 1990s, consecutive Indian authoritiess have pursued plans of economic reform committed to liberalisation and denationalization. Until the twelvemonth 1994, the Indian telecom sector was under the control of the governmental. The province owned units in India enjoyed a monopoly in the market. In the twelvemonth 1994, the authorities announced a policy under which the sector was liberalized and private engagement was encouraged. The ‘New Telecom Policy ‘ of 1999 brought in farther alterations with the debut of IP telephone and ended the province monopoly on international naming installations. This brought about a drastic decrease heralded the aureate epoch for the ITES/BPO industry. This in bend ushered in a batch of inbound call center/telemarketing services and informations processing centres.

Although the IT industry in India has existed since the early 1980s, it was the early and mid ninetiess that saw the outgrowth of outsourcing. One of the first outsourced services was medical written text, but outsourcing of concern procedures like informations processing, medical charge, and client support began towards the terminal of the 1990s when MNCs established entirely owned subordinates which catered to the off-shoring demands of their parent companies. Some of the earliest participants in the Indian outsourcing market were American Express, GE Capital and British Airways.

The ITES or BPO industry is a sector in India that has been in being for a little more than ten old ages. Despite its recent reaching on the Indian scene, the industry has grown phenomenally and has now become a really of import portion of the export-oriented IT package and services environment. It ab initio began as an activity confined to transnational companies, but today it has developed into a wide based concern platform backed by taking Indian IT package and services organisations and other 3rd party service suppliers.

The ITES/BPO market expanded its base with the entry of Indian IT companies. The ITES market of the present twenty-four hours is characterized by the being of these IT giants who are able to leverage their wide skill-sets and planetary patronage to offer a broad spectrum of services. The spectrum of services offered by Indian companies has evolved well from its low beginnings. Today, Indian companies are offering a assortment of outsourced services runing from client attention, medical written text, medical charge services and database selling, to Web sales/marketing, accounting, revenue enhancement processing, dealing papers direction, telesales/telemarketing, HR hiring and biotech research.

Looking at the success of India ‘s IT industry, the cardinal authorities identified the ITES sector as a cardinal subscriber to the economic growing that prioritized the attractive force of FDI in this section by set uping ‘Software Technology Parks ‘ and ‘Export Enterprise Zones ‘ . Benefits like tax-holidays by and large enjoyed by the package industry were besides made available to the ITES/BPO sector. The National Telecom Policy ( NTP ) was introduced in the twelvemonth 1999 and the deregulating of the telecom industry opened up national, long distance, and international connectivity to competition. The authoritiess of assorted provinces besides provided aid to companies to get the better of the enlisting, keeping, and preparation challenges, in order to pull investings to their part.

The National Association of Software and Service Companies ( NASSCOM ) have created platforms for the airing of cognition and research in the industry through its studies and conferences. NASSCOM acts as an ‘advisor, adviser and organizing organic structure ‘ for the ITES/BPO industry and affairs between the cardinal and province authorities commissions and the industry. The fervent protagonism of the ITES/BPO industry has led to the inclusion of call centres in the ‘Business Auxiliary Services ‘ section, thereby guaranting freedom from service revenue enhancement under the Finance Bill.

These steps have led to a steady influx of investings by big foreign companies such as Reuters, for set uping big confined ITES/BPO installations across India. Furthermore, the bing ITES/BPO operations of major multi-nationals are besides being ramped up to provide to the of all time increasing demand for better and speedier services. Almost all of India ‘s top ITES/BPO giants have announced some signifier of enlargement and are in the procedure of engaging manpower to make full in the extra seats. India ‘s competitory advantage lies in its ability to supply immense cost nest eggs thereby enabling productiveness additions and this has given India an border in the planetary ITES/BPO market place. NASSCOM surveies pinpoint the undermentioned factors as the major grounds behind India ‘s success in this industry.

Abundant, skilled, English-speaking work force, which is being harnessed even by ITES hubs such as Singapore and Ireland

High-end telecom and substructure which is at par with planetary criterions

Strong quality orientation among participants and their focal point on measurement and monitoring quality marks

Fast turnaround times and the ability to offer 24×7 services based on the state ‘s alone geographic location that allows for leveraging clip zone differences

Proactive and positive policy environment which encourages ITES/BPO investings and simplifies regulations and processs

A friendly revenue enhancement construction, which places the ITES/BPO industry on par with IT services companies.

Outsourcing to India offers important betterments in quality and productiveness for abroad companies on important parametric quantities such as figure of right minutess, figure of entire minutess, entire satisfaction factor, figure of transactions/hours and the mean velocity of replies. Surveies by NASSCOM besides revealed that Indian companies are better focused on keeping quality and public presentation criterions. Indian ITES/BPO companies are on an go uping curve every bit far as the quality criterions are concerned. Organizations that have achieved ISO 9000 enfranchisement are migrating to the ISO 9000:2000 criterions and companies on the CMM model are realining themselves to the CMMI theoretical account. Apart from puting in upgrading their CRM and ERP enterprises, many Indian ITES companies are get downing to admit the COPC enfranchisements for quality and are working towards accomplishing COPC licences.

The handiness of technically trained and skilled work force in India is doing companies across the universe expression at the state as a profitable base to switch their high-end support services.

Offshore Outsourcing

There are many affairs to see when puting up an offshore outsourcing deal-scope, location, functions and duties, service degrees, administration programs and monetary value, merely to call a few.

The consequence of foreign exchange rates on the dealing tends to fall reasonably far down the precedence list at the negotiating tabular array, if the outsourcing client considers the issue at all.

But disregarding the currency exchange considerations associated with offshore outsourcing minutess can be a multi-million dollar error, say analysts. Unanticipated swings in currency rating can increase a company ‘s exposure to fiscal hazard and drastically minimise nest eggs.

“ Many clients do non pass equal clip constructing a fiscal hypothesis of what [ jobs ] currency fluctuations could do in the short and long term, ” explains Sandeep Karoor, pull offing manager of offshore outsourcing consultancy neoIT. “ At best, loose footings and conditions get agreed upon. ”

Most U.S. companies think in footings of U.S. dollars. That ‘s apprehensible ; everything from budgets to their daily concern is doled out in bills. And during the aureate age of offshore outsourcing, the nest eggs reaped from labour arbitrage entirely were important plenty that any extra money left on the tabular array from a deficiency of currency arbitrage was pocket alteration by comparing.

But that scenario is altering. “ Today, with many companies come ining into second- and third-generation offshore trades, the low-hanging fruit is already gone, ” explains David Rutchik, a spouse with outsourcing consultancy Pace Harmon. “ Companies need to look at currency deductions as a manner to drive down costs. ”

Exchange Rate Fluctuations

Historical Indian Rupee Rate Vs US Dollar

Average one-year currency exchange rate for the Indian Rupee ( Rupees per U.S. Dollar ) is

shown in this tabular array: 1973 to show.

Rupee Vs Other Currencies

Below are some of the latest tendencies ( in the last 120 yearss ) of Rupee viz-a-viz some of the major currencies of states to which India is an IT outsourcing service supplier.

Based on the above, we can understand that –

A house should see the impact of fluctuations in the currencies to which it is exposed

Diversification of hazards across currencies is good as different currencies move otherwise

Integrated Assessment of the Exchange Rate Risks

Steep and long-run displacements in exchange rates create disagreements in cost and gross theoretical accounts ensuing in operational and strategic hazards. To explicate effectual hazard direction schemes, companies need to measure the hazard exposures originating from sensitivenesss in costs and grosss dynamic under assorted exchange rate scenarios.

Fluctuations in exchange rates affect different stakeholders otherwise. In general, when rupee appreciates, importers benefit and frailty versa. However, the impact varies from sector to sector.

Furthermore, the ability of different sectors to defy inauspicious effects is different.

As the IT sector has higher borders than the handcrafts sector, an IT company has a greater capacity to defy the inauspicious impact of the grasp of the rupee.

Currency fluctuations impact exporters significantly. It adversely impacts exporters while currency depreciation benefits exporters.

How Exchange Rates Affect Outsourcing

Tendencies in the exchange rate – a state ‘s currency monetary value in regard to a foreign one – have to be one of the major factors taken into consideration when choosing from different offshore finish states.

A steady lower currency value of the finish state by and large ensures higher return on investing ( ROI ) to the state doing the investing. A volatile currency can decidedly impact the planning and budget allotment for seaward enterprises.

The planetary economic system is connected through two wide channels — planetary trade and finance. The volume of planetary trade and finance is dependent upon the currency exchange rate between different states. Countries adopt an appropriate exchange rate government — natation, managed or fixed agreements — based on important alterations in the universe economic system over the old ages. Recent alterations include the general addition in capital mobility to developing and passage economic systems and the disconnected reversals in capital flows to the same.

The exchange rates among the most powerful and sought after currencies ( chiefly the US dollar, the Euro, and Nipponese hankerings ) fluctuate in response to market forces, with short-term volatility and occasional big medium-run swings. Out of all the “ sought after ” currencies, the US dollar is frequently the currency of pick to the express the exchange rate. This is because the universe economic system depends on a simple fact — the US spends.

No currency is entirely fixed or drifting. Exchange rates are influenced by a figure of factors including:

Domestic investing clime

Gross domestic merchandise

Trade policy

Foreign direct investings

Imports and exports


Companies transporting out a location analysis for offshoring should see exchange rate tendencies of the currency of the finish state.

A comparatively predictable currency tendency is preferred. On the other manus, crisp grasp or depreciation of the currency over a period or, the exchange rates of the currency being extremely volatile, could take to a major impact on cost and nest eggs.

An exchange rate of the currency that is on an upward tendency with regard to the dollar or the Euro will hold a direct impact on fight of the merchandise you ‘re purchasing ( such as package development services ) as the value per US dollar or Euro is reduced.

An analysis of the long term tendencies can enable you to be after for possible exchange rate hazards of the currency/economy. Looking at long-run tendencies will assist in make up one’s minding whether to travel in for the long-run investing in the finish state or merely look at short-run additions.

By deriving an apprehension of the macro economic factors, you can break measure how cardinal industries will experience the impact of alterations in the exchange rate.

In location analysis, states where the exchange rate tendencies are extremely correlated to the public presentation of a really few sectors/industries should be carefully analyzed. Why? The diminution in that sector/industry could intend the diminution of the whole economic system.

Besides, analyzing currency tendencies can foreground whether the power of the currency is strictly based on economic sciences or on certain authorities policies. Understanding this difference is critical.

How Offshore Outsourcing Suppliers Benefit From Falling Exchange Ratess

Typically, an outsourcing purchaser wages in its ain currency to the offshore vendor-in the instance of an American client, the all-powerful dollar. Meanwhile, the supplier pays for its seaward resources in its local currency. As the value of that local ( offshore ) currency beads, the suppliers ‘ costs go down and the client ends up paying more in dollars for the services provided than the services really cost in the foreign currency.

For illustration, during 2008, the Indian rupee fell 23.3 per centum against the U.S. dollar. A company with a $ 10 million IT services contract that would usually be the offshore supplier $ 8 million to supply ( pocketing a 20 per centum net income border ) would hold really cost the seller less than $ 6 million, set downing the supplier a windfall of an excess $ 2 million.

“ We have seen these borders translate into literally 1000000s of dollars yearly, ” Rutchik explains.

That ‘s no mere pocket alteration in today ‘s economic clime.

Offshore outsourcing providers-and transnational sellers with offshore subsidiaries-understand the impact that the complexness and capriciousness of currency markets can hold on their concern. Smart sellers have fudging schemes in topographic point to cover with currency fluctuations that may turn out unfavourable to them.

Why you should be the driver, but non the proprietor of concern instance ROI.

“ In most contracts that have linguistic communication about currency fluctuations, the footings tend to be service supplier friendly, non client-friendly, ” explains neoIT ‘s Karoor.

But a savvy offshore outsourcing client can negociate footings that provide some protection for their half of the trade.

Methods for Extenuating the Hazard of Currency Fluctuations

From all the above treatments, we understand that it is really of import for Indian IT outsourcing service suppliers to pull off their foreign exchange hazards expeditiously and efficaciously.

In order to make so, an Indian IT outsourcing service supplier should:

Determine Risk Exposure

Determine Risk Mitigation Strategies

Determine Risk Mitigation Tools

Determine Risk Exposure

These factors help find the foreign exchange hazard an outsourcing service supplier is exposed to:

What percentages of your gross revenues or purchases ( particularly receivables and payables ) are in foreign currencies?

Are you in a monetary value competitory market where you can non go through on currency losingss to clients by increasing monetary values?

Can you come in into monetary value discrepancy clauses with your clients based on exchange fluctuations?

Is your hard currency flow place fast, such that an inauspicious currency fluctuation can do jobs?

At what point will a alteration in exchange rates affect your profitableness significantly?

To which currencies are you exposed to?

Determine Risk Mitigation Strategies

Based on the quanta of foreign exchange hazard an outsourcing service supplier is exposed to, it can take one of these schemes:

No Hedging: No fudging implies that the outsourcing service supplier can accept the foreign exchange hazard and it need non be after for it. This can be possible when the outsourcing service supplier either transacts merely an undistinguished portion of its entire concern in a fluctuating foreign currency or when it can wholly go through on the benefit or loss originating from foreign currency minutess to the clients.

Selective Hedge: It implies that the outsourcing service supplier will fudge merely a portion of its entire foreign exchange exposure. They can take this scheme when they have important but short-run exposure to foreign currency and when they are anticipating a favourable motion in the exchange rate. In such a scenario, they may fudge merely 50 % to 60 % of their exposure and can take benefit or loss from the un-hedged place.

Systematic Hedge: Systematic Hedging implies that the outsourcing service suppliers hedge their foreign exchange hazard every bit shortly as they enter into any foreign currency committedness.

As a general regulation, the more an outsourcing service supplier relies on its foreign exchange hard currency flow in its concern, the more it should fudge against foreign exchange hazards.

Determine Risk Mitigation Tools

An outsourcing service supplier can take from any of these options to fudge themselves against currency hazard:

Currency Diversification

Forward Contracts


Call and Put Options

Impact of Rupee Appreciation on Supplier Fees: A Birlasoft India Ltd. Case

Impact of currency exchange hazard on an outsourcing trade can be important. To understand how the currency hazard plays out, allow us see an outsourcing contract between a U.S.-based purchaser ( functional currency is USD ) General Electric and a provider with India-based service bringing ( functional currency is INR ) , Birlasoft India Ltd.

A Brief About The Supplier

Birlasoft is a taking supplier of information engineering services in both onshore and offshore theoretical accounts to Fortune 1000 every bit good as mid-sized organisations in banking, fiscal services and insurance, retail, health care, fabrication and independent package seller sectors.

Birlasoft ‘s services include application development, support & A ; care, endeavor application execution, integrating, substructure direction and quality confidence & A ; proving.

Headquartered in Noida ( National Capital Region ) , India, Birlasoft has approximately 4000 employees across US, UK, Germany, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Malaysia, Australia, Singapore and India.

Birlasoft was in a long term relationship with GE, wherein GE made Birlasoft as one of its Global Development Centers.

Impact of Rupee Appreciation on Birlasoft ‘s Fees

Let us see here a contract between GE and Birlasoft with the following contract particulars:

Start day of the month: 2003

Term of contract: 5 old ages

Entire Contract Value ( TCV ) : US $ 50 million with equal one-year payouts

Bing a GDC for GE, the provider, i.e. Birlasoft bears all the currency exchange hazards all contracts.

Under such a scenario, Birlasoft in 2003 is confronting five old ages of paying out rewards and other costs in INR ; hence, it is “ short ” the rupee. At the same clip, Birlasoft is keeping histories receivable of five old ages of grosss denominated in USD ; hence, it is “ long ” the dollar. Being long the dollar and short the rupee, Birlasoft is hurt when the rupee rises comparative to the dollar.

Given the rupee grasp that we saw during the five old ages of contract continuance, under such an understanding, Birlasoft experienced INR 110 million currency exchange loss if we compare the existent realized fee versus the expected provider fees. This translates into a net negative currency impact of 4.71 % on the top line ( see below graph ) .

Embedded here is the workbook demoing mathematical calculation from which above graphical representation has been derived.

This was a lose-lose state of affairs for both the purchaser ( GE ) and provider ( Birlasoft ) because while the purchaser pays out as per the contract, the provider borders are hurt, which may ensue in a bead in quality of service and deficiency of investing in uninterrupted betterment.

What could hold Birlasoft done?

A batch of India-based providers have used the currency hereafters market to pull off the currency exchange hazard. This involves buying derivative instruments such as foreign exchange forward contracts and options contracts to cover a part of outstanding histories receivable. These contracts typically mature within one to 12 months, must be settled on the twenty-four hours of adulthood, and may be cancelled capable to the payment of any additions or losingss in the difference between the contract exchange rate and the market exchange rate on the day of the month of cancellation.

Given that providers can non fudge beyond one twelvemonth in the currency hereafters market, and most outsourcing contracts have a term of three to 10 old ages, a more originative hedge outside of standard hereafters contracts is required.

There is a close infinite assortment of possible hedges that the parties can build. For illustration, a simple method for a provider with bringing from India to make a long-run hedge is to borrow dollars and put the borrowed dollars in India. The provider can borrow the dollars through a figure of agencies runing from bank loans to selling dollar-denominated bonds. They can put these returns in India by purchasing rupee denominated authorities or corporate bonds in India.

In a state of affairs where the purchaser of outsourced services takes on currency hazard, that is, if the purchaser agrees to a contractual proviso to take some or all of the currency exchange hazard, the purchaser can besides fudge its currency exchange hazard by borrowing rupees and puting the money in the United States.

Let us presume that the Birlasoft in the above scenario had used the simple originative hedge described above. Birlasoft could hold wholly eliminated the currency exchange hazard by fudging about 11 per centum for every U.S. dollar in receivables when the trade started.

Our analysis indicates that even if we assumed the contrary tendency ( i.e. , rupee had really depreciated ) , Birlasoft would non hold lost on this originative hedge due to the involvement rate derived functions between the two states. So Birlasoft could hold wholly protected itself from exchange hazards by following such a hedge, given the predominating economic conditions.

Some providers are besides sing outsourcing contracts with charge in INR. While such a scheme protects the provider wholly from any exchange hazard, it might non be wholly in the involvement of the purchaser as it exposes it to new hazard. In rule, the hazard should enthrone with the party that is best positioned to pull off it ; typically that party is the provider.

Furthermore, by charging in INR there is no added inducement for the provider to force its bringing beyond Indian shores, which could impact the market adversely in footings of happening the following frontier for planetary sourcing. INR charge can besides impact the fight of India-based providers as purchasers might get down looking at U.S. or Europe-based providers to extenuate their currency hazard.

It is non our purpose to urge cross-country adoption and loaning for each contract ( as described in the exemplifying illustration supra ) as the best possible currency hedge for all companies in all economic climes. There are other possibilities to see. For case, the provider could make a long-run natural hedge at the corporate degree by alining its bing capital construction with the gross construction. The provider could make this by raising a portion of its debt funding through corporate bonds denominated in USD and Euros in a proportion that resembles its client portfolio.

There are many other originative ways to fudge currency hazard ; hence, the choice of the appropriate hedge should non be limited to standard currency hereafters contracts.

More significantly, it should be noted that fudging is a short to medium term scheme at best. In the long term, providers need to:

Diversify bringing location portfolio. India has emerged as the offshore hub of the Earth. For illustration, about 70 per centum of the offshore employee base in the Finance & A ; Accounting Outsourcing ( FAO ) market is based in India. A high concentration of bringing in a peculiar location increases the hazards related to currency exchange fluctuations. As a consequence, we see a bulk of providers, including India-based providers, diversifying their location portfolio to include multiple seaward parts.

Diversify client portfolio. U.S. dollar-denominated grosss represent more than 60 per centum of the entire grosss for most big India-based providers. Such a high client concentration in a peculiar geographics increases the currency exchange impact.

Optimize internal operations. Suppliers may hold to re-evaluate the ideal use rates, bench strength, pay additions, usage of productiveness tools, standardisation, and other cost variables that impact borders.


From the above treatment and instance, we can reason below cardinal deductions for Suppliers and Buyers.

Cardinal deductions for providers

Currency exchange hazard is existent and can be important and extremely seeable.

Suppliers need to develop a short-run and a long-run scheme to protect themselves from the currency exchange hazards. Long-run schemes include diversifying the bringing and client portfolio along with operational optimisation.

Siting long on dollars is no longer an attractive option. Using hedge is an attractive option for the short-to-medium term. Suppliers should be originative in their analysis of fudging options and non be limited to traditional currency hereafters contracts.

Cardinal deductions for purchasers

Exchange rate tendencies for the seaward bringing location should be built into the outsourcing and location choice determinations.

The provider ‘s scheme and demonstrated capableness around forcing the envelope of planetary sourcing in footings of a diversified bringing portfolio and operational optimisation should be given due importance during supplier choice.

Using a currency hedge of some type is an attractive option non merely for the providers, but besides for purchasers when there is a shared hazard.

Conclusively, grasp and depreciation of rupee can non surely be taken as good to the Indian economic system in general. On one manus the rupee grasp will impact exporters, outsourcing service suppliers, BPOs, etc. , on the other, rupee depreciation will impact importers. So now it depends on what the hereafter has to uncover for, how efficaciously the cardinal bank can equilibrate the FX rates with small impact to the comparative countries of FX use.