Cocoa is an economic harvest which contributes vastly to gross domestic merchandise of the state and increase socio-economic position of husbandmans. However communal struggles direction manner, employed by chocolate husbandmans frequently lead to devastation of life and belongingss in Core Conflict Areas ( CCA ) . Attempt has been made by Governmental and non-governmental bureaus to supply alleviation bundles for struggle victims with small or no attempts geared towards socio-economic impacts of struggles on husbandmans ‘ support variables which necessitate this survey. The struggle countries were stratified into CCA and Outside Conflict Areas ( OCA ) based on anecdotal history of struggle impact in the country. Farmers ‘ small town list was used as trying frame work where 10 % of the husbandmans were indiscriminately selected, from CCA, 61and OCA 69 to give a sum of 130 husbandmans who participated in the research. Datas were collected utilizing interview agenda, direct observation and analyzed utilizing frequence, per centum every bit good as t-test. Findingss revealed that husbandmans in CCA and OCA are in the mean age scope of 40.5 and 42.6 severally and 70 % of them were educated. OCA recorded higher Cocoa Mean Production Level ( HCMPL ) of 828.4 metric tons per one-year as opposed to lower HCMPL of 105.0 metric tons recorded in CCA because 76 % of them were displaced from their farm. Cocoa production degree between nucleus and outside struggle countries degree is statistically different at P & lt ; 0.05. Consequently bulk ( 70 % ) of the husbandmans in nucleus struggle countries live below poorness line. Hence, struggle alleviation bundles in signifier of economic authorization of the struggle victims and conflict direction preparation technique should be promoted so as to convey peace an “ indispensable factor of productions ” in CCA.

Cardinal words: Production degree, one-year income degree, communal struggle impact, husbandmans and chocolate

Introduction

Cocoa dictates the gait of economic activities in former western provinces ; now Ogun, Oyo, Osun and Ondo States. These provinces belong to what is frequently referred to as chocolate belt, of Nigeria. Harmonizing to ( 1 ) western provinces produce 95 % of chocolate in Nigeria. The production involves 33,000 provincial husbandmans and 48,000 hectares of land. Until 1975 the record indicated that Nigeria was the universe 2nd largest manufacturer of chocolate ( 2 )

In 1972, Nigeria produced an estimated 241,000 dozenss of chocolate. The figure declined to 202,000 metric tons in 1977/78 and 100,000 dozenss in 1986 ( 3 ) . It was believed that low manufacturer monetary value, paid by Nigerian Cocoa Board was responsible for diminution, hence its abolishment in 1986. Its abolishment led to a gradual addition in production of chocolate from 1986 – 1997. The estimated Nigeria end product from 1980 – 1997 is as follows:

Table 1: Out-put of Cocoa between 1980 – 1997

Year

Out-put ‘000 metric tons

1980

153

1981

174

1982

156

1983

140

1984

140

1985

160

1986

148

1087

100

1988

253

1989

256

1990

244

1991

268

1992

292

1993

306

1994

323

1995

203

1996

323

1997

325

Beginning: Central Bank of Nigeria ( 1998 ) . Data derived from Federal Office of Statistics ( FOS )

Tendency of chocolate end product in Oyo/Osun are indicated in the Table 2 below. This was the period when Osun was portion of Oyo State.

Table 2: Tendency of Cocoa end product in old Oyo and Osun State end product

Year

Old Oyo State ( Osun and Oyo combine )

Osun Output

Percentage of Osun State Output

%

1978/79

51,680

31664.37

61.27

1979/80

67,433

40,959.80

60.08

1980/81

65,710

38,078.95

57.95

19981/82

57,757

36,028.81

62.38

1982/83

66,575

39,878.43

59.9

1983/84

65,930

40,059.07

60.76

1984/85

63,846

36,960.45

57.89

1985/86

65,526

39,617.07

60.46

Beginning: Nigeria Cocoa Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development 1986 one-year studies

The above tabular array indicates the per centum of Osun State production out of old Oyo State end product. The part of chocolate to the national economic system is so tremendous. Indeed after crude oil, it is the 2nd highest foreign exchange earner in Nigeria. However, ceaseless struggles among tenant husbandmans and land proprietor most of the clip service as a hinderance to production. ( 4 ) one time reported that these struggles are due to internal boundary differences, rival involvement of nomads and sedentary husbandmans every bit good as agitation for improved monetary values for agricultural trade goods and improved criterion of life by groups of husbandmans or provincials in some local authorities ‘s countries. Example of such struggles includes series of clangs between Ife and Modakeke communities in Osun State between 1981 – 1996. Many communities in Osun State have grounds to contend and accommodate e.g Ifetedo and Olode Modakeke and Ipetumodu. However in violent struggle ridden countries, ( Ife and Modakeke ) the belligerencies of 2000 – 2001 claimed several lives and belongingss deserving 1000000s of Naira were vandalized.

The state of affairs became worse when the struggle spread from devastation of husbandmans colony to farms. In the two communities some chocolate trees were cut down, salt poured on the chocolate and kola nut stocks to forestall them from shooting. Besides corpses of the small towns attacked during the crisis littered the surrounding small towns, peculiarly those of Ife and Modakeke natives ( 5 ) .

In position of anecdotal history of the struggles consequence on husbandmans ‘ socio- economic position in the struggle ridden countries and inaccessibility of empirical records to set up the consequence of the struggle that this research on of socio- economic impact of communal struggle on chocolate husbandmans ‘ socio-economic position was conducted. The survey was guided by the undermentioned research specific aims:

describe the personal and socio-economic features of husbandmans in nucleus and outside struggle locations. .

determine husbandmans accessibility to their farms,

assess the effects of the struggle on chocolate production degree,

find the poorness degree of husbandmans.

Hypothesis

There is no important difference in husbandmans ‘ chocolate production degree between nucleus and outside struggle countries

Materials and Method

Based on struggle badness or anecdotal history of struggle, small towns in the province were stratified into nucleus and outside struggle countries. In nucleus struggle country out of 54 small towns 31 had nucleus struggles, while outside struggle countries has 63 small towns ( 6 ) . ( 6 ) revealed that 6,120 husbandmans were in nucleus struggle small towns while 10,352 husbandmans were in outside struggle country.

Random trying technique was used to choose 7 small towns in nucleus and outside struggle countries severally. Besides, Simple random trying technique was used to choose 10 % of husbandmans from the stratum. Hence, 61, and 69, husbandmans were selected in nucleus and outside struggle countries severally. Datas were collected utilizing interview agenda and analyzed utilizing frequence, per centum every bit good as t-test

Result and Discussion

Personal features of Cocoa husbandmans

Entries in Table 3 show the personal feature of husbandmans across struggle strata. As shown in Table 3 average age scope for husbandmans were 40.5 and 42.7 in nucleus and outside struggle countries severally. The deduction of these findings is that more than 80.0 % of husbandmans across struggle strata are immature and still in their productive old ages. These findings are in line with the determination of ( 7and8 ) where they found that fewer older husbandmans take agriculture as a career due to miss of strength to get by with farm plodding. Refering sex, greater than ( 60 % ) of the husbandmans are males across struggle strata. Investigation during field study revealed that female husbandmans are more interested in processing, trading and distribution of agricultural green goods than tilling the land and raising of animate being in the province.This determination corroborated ( 9 ) who discovered that nutrient processing and agricultural merchandises distribution are chief activities of adult females in Nigeria. More than ( 80 % ) of the husbandmans were married and have house hold size of 5-8 across the struggle strata. There are merely 3 chief businesss in the survey countries, agriculture, trading and civil service. In nucleus struggle countries as shown in Table 3, distribution of husbandmans by business indicates that agribusiness provides the primary agencies of support to 83.6 % of husbandmans while 39.2 % of the husbandmans combine farming with other endeavors.

Table 3: Personal Characteristic of Cocoa husbandmans in Core and Outside Conflict countries.

Variables Description

Core struggle

Outside struggle

Entire

freq

%

freq

%

freq

%

*Age

12-24

4

6.5

2

2.9

6

4.6

25-37

13

21.6

9

13.4

22

16.9

38- 42

12

19.6

27

39.1

39

30.0

43- 52

24

39.7

30

43.3

54

41.5

53- 65

5

8.1

1

1.45

6

4.6

& gt ; 65

3

4.5

3

2.4

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Sexual activity

Male

51

83.6

60

87.0

111

85.3

Female

10

16.4

4

13.0

19

14.7

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Marital Status

Single

2

3.3

4

5.8

6

4.6

Married

56

92.0

57

82.6

113

86.9

Divorce

2

2.9

2

2.9

Widow

3

6.0

6

8.7

9

5.6

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Family

Small 1-5

18

29.5

28

41.0

46

35.4

Medium 5-8

41

67.2

41

59.0

82

63.1

Large 8- 13

2

3.3

2

2.5

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

*Age mean= 40.5 and 42.7 for nucleus and outside struggle countries severally

Social-economic features of Cocoa Farmers

Table 4 shows that bulk ( 70 % ) of the husbandmans had one formal instruction or the other across struggle strata. The deduction of this determination is that many of the husbandmans across struggle strata were educated and would be able to follow new agricultural engineerings and have entree to recognition installations, which will take to betterment in husbandmans ‘ support. This determination substantiated the averment of ( 10 ) that wide mindedness can be determined by the degree ; of instruction which is really of import in husbandmans ‘ credence of new engineerings that will increase agricultural production. Table 4 shows that 67.2 % of husbandmans in nucleus struggle country and 46.5 % of husbandmans in outside struggle country belonged to societal group. The determination across struggle strata revealed that husbandmans belonged to one societal groups or the other. ( 11 ) assured that group engagement is a model by which provincial husbandmans defend and negotiate their involvement ; is an indispensable ingredient for accomplishing success in agricultural development undertakings. Table 4 revealed that all the husbandmans 100.0 % had the chance to go outside their small towns across struggle strata.

Entries in Table 4 revealed that in 29.5 % of the husbandmans inherited their pieces of land while 70.5 % of the husbandmans ‘ acquired land through any of the undermentioned: least, purchase and gift in nucleus struggle country. The deduction of this determination is that the most common land beginnings to husbandmans in nucleus struggle country are least, purchase and gift. Therefore, land allotment to husbandmans if non manage positively may bring forth violent struggle that may adversely impact husbandmans socio-economic position. Table 4 indicates that in nucleus struggle country 57.4 % of husbandmans had 1-5ha farming area. The deduction of this determination is that husbandmans ‘ farm retentions are still little. This justifies the ground for combination of farming with other work in order to prolong their support. This determination is in line with the entry of ( 12 ) that little graduated table farming mostly dominates the agricultural sector in Nigeria.

Table 4: Socio-Economic Characteristic of Cocoa Farmers

Variables Description

Core struggle

Outside struggle

Entire

Freq

%

freq

%

freq

%

Education

None

6

9.8

4

5.8

10

8.0

Adult Literacy

16

27.9

19

27.5

35

27.0

Primary

20

32.2

15

21.7

35

27

Senior Secondary School

10

16.4

12

17.4

22

17.0

Third

9

13.7

19

27.7

28

21.0

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Member of Social Groups

Yes

40

67.2

24

34.8

64

49.2

No

21

32.8

45

65.2

66

50.8

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Cosmopolitness

7-10 times

36

59.0

38

55.1

74

57.0

11-20

13

23.0

10

14.5

23

18.0

21-30

5

7.2

5

4.0

31-40

10

14.8

11

2.9

21

16.0

41-50

2

3.3

5

8.7

7

5.0

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Beginnings of Land

Inheritance

18

29.5

31

45

49

38.0

Lease

19

31.1

8

11.6

27

21.0

Purchase

16

26.6

10

14.5

26

20.0

Gift

8

12.8

20

29

28

21.0

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Agricultural Retentions

1-5 hectares

35

57.7

18

26.1

53

41.1

6-10

11

18.0

14

20.3

25

19.2

11-15

11

18.0

7

10,1

17

13.1

16-20

7

11.5

13

20.3

20

15.3

21-25

15

23.2

15

11.4

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Farmers ‘ handiness to their farm when violent struggle de-escalated

Table 5 indicates that a really low per centum 24.0 % of husbandmans in nucleus struggle country had entree to their farms when struggle de-escalated compared to 96.5 % of the husbandmans in outside struggle country that had entree to their farms. The deduction of this determination is that in nucleus struggle country 76.0 % of husbandmans were displaced from their farm. It could be inferred from the consequence that nucleus struggle country landholders were hostile to tenant husbandmans because bulk ( 76.0 % ) of them was prevented from come ining their farms.

Table 5: Farmers accessibility to their farm

Variables Description

Core struggle

Outside struggle

Entire

Handiness to farm

Class

Freq

%

Freq

%

Freq

%

Yes

15

24.0

68

98.5

83

63.8

No

46

76.0

1

1.5

47

36.2

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Cocoa Farmers Production Level after the Conflict

Table 6 revealed differences in husbandmans ‘ harvests yield degree between husbandmans across struggle strata. Higher average index of 828.4 metric tons per one-year that was recorded in the outside struggle zone for chocolate confirms the impact of the violent struggle on harvest production in nucleus struggle zone where lower average index of 105.0 metric ton per one-year was recorded for chocolate, other harvests production degree follow the same tendencies. Cocoa husbandmans in nucleus struggle country felt the impact of the struggle because bulk ( 76 % ) of the husbandmans were displaced and lost greater proportion of their work to conflict. This determination is supported by ( 13 ) who reported that the Osun province violent struggle reduced cocoa production in Ife -Modakeke ( nucleus struggle country ) . This community is regarded as the chocolate belt part of Osun province. Hence, husbandmans ‘ socio-economic position in this location was adversely affected.

Table 6: Cocoa Farmers Crops Production Level

Crops

Violent Conflict country

Outside Conflict country

Crops Mean Weight ( tones )

Crops Mean Weight ( tones )

Cocoa

105.1

828.4

Kolanut

93.7

251.4

Maize

614.4

885.2

Yam

250.0

771.6

Cassava

450.0

1721.3

Distributions of respondents by caput count poorness degree after the struggle

Head count poorness ratio, is merely an estimation of the per centum of people below the poorness line ( 14 ) which is a map of socio-economic position of husbandmans. Socio-economic position ( SES ) is the place that single or household occupies with mention to the prevalent mean criterions of cultural ownerships effectual income, material ownership and engagement in the group activities of the community ( 15 and 10 ) . The computed husbandmans head count poorness index as shown in Table 7 indicates that 70.0 % of the husbandmans in nucleus struggle country live below poorness line. That is they are hapless. Meanwhile, fewer ( 40.0 % ) of the husbandmans were in the same class in outside struggle country. The higher proportion ( 70.0 % ) of the husbandmans in nucleus struggle country that are in hapless class confirm, the significance of the violent struggle which accounted for greater figure ( 70.0 % ) of husbandmans in hapless caput count class in the nucleus struggle country.

This determination confirms the observation of ( 16 ) that the strongest forecaster of conflict impact among rural inhabitants is poorness, since poorness and over dependance on subsistence agribusiness is closely related. Farmers in the conflict musca volitanss of this survey can non be excluded from such results.

Table 7: Cocoa Farmers Poverty Head Count

Variables

Violent

Outside

Entire

Freq

%

Freq

%

Freq

%

Core

31

50.0

12

18.0

43

33.1

Reasonably hapless

12

20.0

15

22.0

27

20.7

Non-poor

18

30.0

42

60.0

60

46.2

Entire

61

100

69

100

130

100

Hypothesis

There is no important difference in chocolate production degree in violent struggle country and outside struggle country.

Table 8 shows that there is a important difference in husbandmans ‘ production degree of the selected harvests across Osun State ‘s nucleus and outside struggle countries. For case, the deliberate t- trial is statistically important for chocolate ( t =3.37 ; P & lt ; 0.05 ) . This implies that the chocolate production mean tonss in nucleus and outside struggle countries were non equal after the violent struggle. Therefore, chocolate rehabilitation programme would be necessary to re-establish burnt farms, constitution of new or fresh farms and proviso of short continuance maturing and high giving assortments of chocolate tree in the country.

T-test Analysis of Cocoa husbandmans ‘ Production Level between Core and Outside Conflict countries

Variables Crops Means t-cal P-Value Decision

Core Conflict Cocoa 105.0 3.37 0.05 s

Outside Conflict 828.4

S= Significant at P & lt ; 0.05 D.f. = grade of freedom

Decision

In the visible radiation of the consequences of the survey the following major decisions were drawn. Farmers in the nucleus struggle countries employed negative struggle managing manner accordingly the struggle non merely destruct their chocolate production it makes nucleus struggle country a poorness endemic country. In order to relieve poorness which is an index of low socio- economic position and prevent happening of violent struggle in the country the undermentioned recommendation were made:

formation of husbandmans into conflict mediation advisory commission should be encouraged in nucleus struggle country. Such a commission will be in a vantage place to experience the pulsation of the people and prevent outgrowth of struggle state of affairss in the country before it escalates further to any detrimental degree.

Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank and Commercial Banks should be encouraged to give agricultural loans at low involvement rates to genuine husbandmans in Osun province in order to better agriculture and husbandmans ‘ socio-economic position.

capacity edifice for husbandmans should be encouraged through formation of rural concerted societies or related associations to ease husbandmans entree to loan installations with less load for indirect security demands.