The Earth ‘s clime has changed drastically, as a consequence of increased human activities over the old ages, and will go on to alter every bit long as there is continued enlargement in the assorted concern sectors ; this meant that more ‘Fossil Fuels ‘ had to be consumed in order to bring forth adequate energy to provide the of all time turning demand. This increased energy ingestion, elevated the degrees of ‘Greenhouse Gases ( GHG ) ‘ in the ambiance and with ‘Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) ‘ holding the largest by per centum, caused the Earth ‘s ambiance to heat up giving rise to ‘Global Warming ‘
The truth is that ‘CO2 ‘ is an ineluctable by merchandise, and that each individual ‘s day-to-day activities coupled with this rapid enlargement in the assorted sectors are to be blamed for the sudden addition in the per centum of ‘GHG ‘ in our ambiance. Industries, concerns, companies, administrations etc. are some of the largest subscribers to planetary heating for the mere fact that they require huge sums of energy for continued nutriment.
There is a turning concern about planetary heating and the permanent impact it will hold on humanity and the environment. This crisis has led the Global community to implement a figure of statute laws geared towards the decrease of CO2 emanations, two ( 2 ) of which are the ‘Kyoto Protocol ‘ see Appendix 1 and ‘Copenhagen Accord ‘ see Appendix 2. The demand to cut down our CO2 emanations and the dependence on ‘Fossil Fuel ‘ by utilizing more ‘Renewable Energy Sources ‘ to bring forth clean energy.
The increased figure of human activities over the last 30 old ages has lead to the rapid enlargement in assorted concern sectors, making the demand for a batch more on the job infinite. This caused the outgrowth of new edifices to taking topographic point at much faster rate, than the renovation or destruction of other predated constructions. With existing edifices already necessitating a huge sum of energy, for continued nutriment, this extra substructure merely added to the already high energy demands.
‘Electricity ingestion in the commercial edifice sector doubled between
1980 and 2000, and is expected to increase another 50 % by 2025 ( EIA 2005 ) ‘
With the outlook that these older edifices will be about for a batch longer period and the demand to do them more energy efficient, by re-designing or enabling them to cut down their ‘CO2 Emissions ‘ and to bring forth adequate energy by utilizing ‘Renewable Energy Sources ‘ to countervail their present energy demands and the present impact they have on the environment is of extreme importance.
‘Buildings have a important impact on energy usage and the environment.
Commercial and residential edifices use about 40 % of the primary energy and about 70 % of the electricity in the United States ( EIA 2005 ) ‘
As of February16th 2005, the 1997 ‘Kyoto Protocol ‘ an international understanding linked to the ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ‘ eventually became jurisprudence, doing it compulsory for all associated states to cut down their ‘CO2 emanations ‘ , but with this protocol due to run out in 2012, universe leaders realised that a batch still needed to be done to stabilise the concentration of ‘GHG ‘ in the ambiance. So in 2009 at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen Denmark, the ‘Copenhagen Accord ‘ papers entitled ; ‘A model for clime alteration extenuation beyond 2012 ‘ was drafted, it is intended to take over from the ‘Kyoto Protocol ‘ when it expires.
This papers continues to recognize that ‘Climate Change ‘ is one of the greatest challenges confronting us at this clip and that actions should be taken to avoid any temperature increases to below 2A°C and for cut downing ‘CO2 emanations ‘ . A figure of states by manner of their governmental representatives signed on to this agreement, doing a committedness to cut down their emanations by 2015.
With ‘Trinidad and Tobago ‘ being associated with both these dockets, the ‘Kyoto Protocol ‘ since January 28th 1999 and officially subjecting a missive to the United Nations on January 28th 2010, bespeaking their purpose to be associated with the ‘Copenhagen Accord ‘ but they are yet to subject what decrease actions they would be taking. At present, their portion of the universe ‘s entire ‘GHG ‘s ‘ is 0.08 % and ‘CO2 emanations ‘ per capita ( tCo2eq ) is 27.3 % , for a complete dislocation See Table 5.
With statute laws on clime alteration going more compulsory, it ‘s merely a affair of clip before conformity and coverage on ‘Energy Consumption ‘ and ‘CO2 emanations ‘ are required by jurisprudence and with these statute laws are non merely geared towards big organisations but for all energy consumers.
So being an Engineering Organization centrally located in Port -Of -Spain, Trinidad dwelling of 25 members of staff and busying a 15 twelvemonth old 2 narrative edifice, does non do us immune. This gives us yet another chance to demo our leading qualities, by being proactive instead than reactive, and lead from the forepart on yet another enterprise. But for us to accomplish these aims set out in both these dockets for C emanation decrease, all our administration ‘s activities both from a personal and professional point of position demands to be addressed ; this is expected to take one twelvemonth and will be administered in three phases:
Phase 1 – Obtain the administration ‘s ‘Carbon Footprint ‘
Phase 2 – Development of an ‘Effective Energy Policy ‘ for the administration
Phase 3 – Implement, control, proctor and study all energy use and CO2 emanations.
3.0 STAGE 1 – Obtain the Organization ‘s ‘Carbon Footprint ‘
This will enable us to efficaciously roll up all required informations on the organisation ‘s activities, so as to obtain the per centum of CO2 emitted on a day-to-day footing from the measure of energy consumed from each activity ; this procedure is called a ‘Carbon Footprint ‘ .
‘The entire set of nursery gas emanations caused straight and indirectly by an [ person, event, organisation, merchandise ] expressed as CO2 equivalent ( CO2e ) ‘ ( Carbon Trust )
Breakdown of a typical individual ‘s C footmark
The pie chart above shows the chief elements which
do up a typical individual ‘s entire C footmark in the developed universe.
These activities are to be so categorized by their emanations into three ( 3 ) groups or Scopess utilizing the ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol ‘ criterion: –
Scope 1 – Direct emanations
Consequence from activities within the administration ‘s control.
Examples include: on-site fuel burning, fabrication and procedure emanations, refrigerating losingss and company vehicles.
Scope 2 – Indirect emanations: electricity and heat
Consequence from the purchase and usage of energy by the administration. Example includes: electricity, chilling, heat and steam.
Scope 3 – Indirect emanations: other
Consequence from beginnings non straight controlled by the administration. Examples include: employee concern travel, outsourced transit, waste disposal, H2O use and employee commutation.
4.0 STAGE 2 – Development of an ‘Effective Energy Policy ‘
For any continued decrease in our energy ingestion to take topographic point, an ‘Effective Energy Policy ‘ must be developed and implemented. This program will be built around the information gathered on our ‘Carbon Footprint ‘ and utilizing the five cardinal guidelines set out in the ‘Good pattern Guide 200 – GPG 200’- :
The five cardinal guidelines are:
Commitment – All Levels ( Stakeholders, Management,
Finance, Human Resource, HSE, Engineering,
Technical, Employees etc. )
Understanding – Quantify, Identify, Analyse & A ; Anticipate
Plan and Organise – Develop, Set Objectives & A ; Designate
Implement – Novice, Train, Integrate, Communicate & A ; Overcome
Control and Monitor – Audited account, Review & A ; Improve
This will enable us to efficaciously pull off and cut down our CO2 emanations, but if this venture is to hold any success the full corporation and committedness of the full administration is indispensable. We can besides cut down our CO2 emanation by ‘Carbon Offseting ‘ this is considered to be the primary attack by many organisation ‘s for commanding the impact they have on the environment, by implementing assorted procedures and policies, so as to promote continued CO2 emanation decrease.
5.0 STAGE 3 – Implement, Control, Monitor and Report All Energy Usage and CO2 Emissions
Once all the phases have been completed and the ‘Effective Energy Policy ‘ has been to the full accepted and integrated into our day-to-day activities. This would enable us to efficaciously command our day-to-day energy ingestion and CO2 emanations, and achieve the international criterions set out by the ‘Copenhagen Accord ‘ & As ; ‘Kyoto Protocol ‘ .
Apart from accomplishing these international criterions set out in both statute laws, the organisation will profit from a figure of chances such as- :
Enhanced profile and repute
Enhanced Public Relation opportunities e.g. – Increased service entreaty
– Corporate Social Responsibility
Competitive advantages e.g. – Long term sustainability
– Customer trueness and referrals
– Repeated concern
– Fresh selling
– Prime minister pick for employment
Tax returns on your investing e.g. – Savingss on energy measures
Obtain an international evaluation e.g. – EPBD, BREEAM etc.
Which will enable us to derive the upper manus over similar service challengers, and in so making we will see a sustainable hereafter for our organisation, with the eventual purpose of accomplishing a zero C working environment by 2020.
6.0 THE ORGANIZATION ‘S ACTIVITIES
6.1 Transportation system
With the demand to acquire from one point to another and the continued growing and enlargement of different manners of conveyance available today, doing dodo fuel to be consumed in huge measures on a day-to-day footing. This continued ingestion causes the C dioxide degrees in our ambiance to increase, doing transit the individual largest subscriber to CO2 emanations worldwide.
The CO2 emitted from transit demands bing within our organisation shown in ‘Table 1 ‘ are non much different, in fact it is manner above norm for an organisation of our size. So for any decrease to take topographic point all the recommended suggestions should be implemented, this could be done without incurring any major cost, but it would intend holding to do major accommodations in both our attitude and behavior for this to be achieved. This could be enhanced even further with the buying of eco-friendly vehicles to replace the fleet when that clip comes about.
For any edifice to be energy efficient it must foremost be decently designed, technologically progress and it occupant ‘s behavior must be geared towards energy preservation, but this is non so with the edifice we soon occupy since it is 15 old ages old.
For us to accomplish any kind of CO2 emanation decrease, the implementing of the suggestions shown in ‘Table 2 ‘ is extremely recommended. Some of which are a speedy hole solution and will non incur any initial cost, but it does non work out the overall edifice ‘s energy inefficiency, so for the eventual purpose of obtaining a ‘Zero Carbon ‘ edifice to be achieved, all of the edifice ‘s imperfectnesss needs to be addressed.
6.3 Office Equipment
Give that the bulk of our Office Equipment are over 10 old ages old and at the clip of purchase, energy preservation was non a requirement for buying equipments hence, energy salvaging characteristics were either non required or nonexistent as can be seen in ‘Table 3 ‘ .
However statute laws on clime alteration have made industries rethink the manner that their merchandises are manufactured and how they perform in the on the job universe. This following coevals of energy salvaging equipment will finally replace its predecessors, because apart from energy efficient they are besides smaller, lighter, faster more user friendly. So for any energy preservation to take topographic point all of the recommended suggestion demands to be implemented.
6.4 Material Use
Although we are non straight responsible for the production or industry of the stuffs we consume on a day-to-day footing see ‘Table 4 ‘ . We are responsible for sing that the merchandises, which we use are both environmentally friendly and are produced or manufactured by green energy providers, by this we will be making our portion by sing that the degree of CO2 emanation do non increase any farther.
7.0 ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Conforming to international criterions, from the information gathered on our administration ‘s C footmark should be of major concern, given the huge sum of energy consumed by our Lighting, Air Conditioning & A ; Outdated Office Equipments. Apart from the execution of all the suggestion made, to better our CO2 emanations and assist to cut down the overall impact that we could hold on the environment. A batch can still be done to further cut down our CO2 emanation by the execution of ‘Low and Zero Carbon Technology ‘ ( LZCT ) to cut down our present energy ingestion.
With the promotion in LZCT, new edifices are being constructed and outfitted with a figure of these energy salvaging devices, they help cut down the overall ‘Carbon Footprint ‘ by ‘Offsetting ‘ the edifice ‘s energy demands, doing a edifice a batch more ‘ECO-Friendly ‘ . Older edifices were n’t so lucky, because at their clip of building ‘LZCT ‘ engineering was non readily available and whatever small information they did hold, was non converting plenty to justify the demand for ‘Energy Conservation ‘ .
By utilizing ‘LZCT ‘s ‘ to bring forth energy from renewable energy beginnings such as Solar, Wind, Wave, Biomass, Geothermal and Nuclear. This would assist to countervail our now bing energy ingestion, by bring forthing adequate electrical energy to run both our lighting and air status systems. But given our geographical location, the readily available natural resorts, land mass and our belongings location, the lone renewable energy beginning that is both practical and cost effectual would be solar. There are two ( 2 ) options to see which uses solar as their chief energy beginning they are:
7.1 Photovoltaic ( PV )
This uses solar cells to change over sunshine ( Solar Radiation ) into electrical energy, they fundamentally do non incorporate any traveling parts in their design and necessitate really small or no care. They can be easy mounted onto the bing roof construction.
Examples of ‘Building Integrated PV Designs ‘ – :
4 Timess Square
Location: Broadway and 42nd Street, New York City, New York
General Services Administration, Williams Building
Location: 408 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts
7.2 Absorption Cooling ( Solar Cooling Systems )
It is recommended that the chilling system should be upgrade, to one that is both technologically advanced and eco-friendly, for this ground the ‘Solar Cooling Systems ‘ was chosen because it is fundamentally an air status system which is non driven by electricity but by solar het solutions or fluids such as H2O. They can either be used as stand-alone or with conventional AC systems and are energy efficient and environmentally safe.
Global heating is fast going the universe ‘s most important concern, and is doing the Earth ‘s clime to alter at such an dismaying rate, that it has become one of world ‘s greatest challenges, because of its annihilating effects on our planet ‘s eco system. With the environment the manner it is at present everything that could be done, should be done by us both as an person and to a greater extent an administration.
So this initial cost of cut downing the degrees of CO2 emitted by cut downing our energy ingestion, should non be seen as an obstruction, but more so as investing in our administration ‘s hereafter. Because if this planetary phenomenon continues to travel unbridled, the Earth ‘s eco system will finally make a point that it can no longer prolong life. Some of these effects can already be seen in the signifiers of utmost conditions conditions, temblors, thaw of the polar ice caps, utmost drouths etc. some of which may be already irreversible. So we should therefore ask ourselves these two questions- :
1. ) Are we willing to sit lazily by and go on devouring the sum of energy and breathing the measure of CO2 we soon do, cognizing that at our present rate of ingestion there will be nil left but a planet unable to prolong life? .
2. ) Are we willing to take from the forepart as a responsible organisation by making our portion in assisting to cut down the sum of CO2 soon emitted, so that our kids will be able to hold a sustainable hereafter? .
‘Table 1 ‘ below shows our organisation ‘s ‘TRANSPORTATION ‘ activities, and gives grounds for our ‘CO2 emanations ‘ and recommended suggestions on how to cut down them.
REASONS FOR CO2 EMISSIONS
Vehicle usage above norm
When possible auto pool
Use the public transit system more frequently, walk or rhythm if distance is short
AC is being used excessively frequently
Use fresh air every bit frequently as executable possible
Driving at inordinate velocities
Practice proper driving techniques
Excessively many unneeded concern trips
Where possible usage picture conferencing
‘Table 2 ‘ below shows our organisation ‘s ‘BUILDING ‘ activities, and gives grounds for our ‘CO2 emanations ‘ and recommended suggestions on how to cut down them.
REASONS FOR CO2 EMISSIONS
Use more natural airing
Puting the thermoregulator to a specific temperature
Improper canal insularity
Refurbish canal insularity
Improper waterproofing of constructing envelope and construction
Correct imperfectness in constructing envelope and construction
Present Windowss allow excessively much heat and noise to come in
Install double coated glassy Windowss
Make more usage of natural visible radiation whenever possible
Ensure they are turned off in countries which are non in usage
Light bulbs non energy efficient
Lighting fixtures can be outfitted with high frequence ballasts and energy efficient tubings
Lighting fixtures ill arranged
Re-arrange lighting fixtures for more efficiency
Leaving lights-outs open for long periods
Near one time finished
Install H2O salvaging devices on all washroom fixtures
To many leaks
Find and mend all leaks
Majority of piping is corroded
All fixtures are outdated
Update all washroom fixtures
‘Table 3 ‘ below shows our organisation ‘s ‘OFFICE EQUIPMENT ‘ activities, and gives grounds for our ‘CO2 emanations ‘ and recommended suggestions on how to cut down them.
REASONS FOR CO2 EMISSIONS
Little or no energy salvaging characteristics available and non environmentally friendly –
( Personal computer ‘s, Photocopies, Printer etc. )
Ensure that all equipment are switched off at the terminal of the working day and on weekends
Install an contraption degree smart metering system
Equipment are outdated
All out-of-date equipment demands to be upgraded to those which are more cost effectual
‘Table 4 ‘ below shows our organisation ‘s ‘MATERIAL USAGE ‘ activities, and gives grounds for our ‘CO2 emanations ‘ and recommended suggestions on how to cut down them
REASONS FOR CO2 EMISSIONS
Consumption – Too many unneeded printing
Reduce paper trails – Electronic mail it one time possible
Prints should be done in bill of exchange and or double sided if possible
Buy from a closer provider if possible
Purchased – ( Ink, Paper, Toner, etc. )
By merchandises from green energy providers
Use environmentally friendly merchandise / service ( LCA )
Does non recycle – ( Waste disposal )
Implement the 4 ‘R ‘ – Reduce, Repair, Reuse and Recycle
‘Table 5 ‘ below shows ‘TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDICATORS ‘
APPENDIX 1 – ‘THE KYOTO PROTOCOL ‘
The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC or FCCC ) , aimed at contending planetary heating. It is an international environmental pact with the end of accomplishing “ stabilisation of nursery gas concentrations in the ambiance at a degree that would minimise unsafe anthropogenetic intervention with the clime system. ”
The Protocol was ab initio adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. Under the Protocol, 37 industrialised states ( called “ Annex I states ” ) commit themselves to a decrease of four nursery gases ( GHG ) ( C dioxide, methane, azotic oxide, sulfur hexafluoride ) and two groups of gases ( hydro-fluorocarbons and per-fluorocarbons ) produced by them, and all member states give general committednesss.
The five chief constructs of the Kyoto Protocol are: –
Committednesss to cut down nursery gases that are lawfully adhering for extension I states, every bit good as general committednesss for all member states.
Execution to run into the Protocol aims, to fix policies and steps which cut down nursery gases ; increasing soaking up of these gases ( for illustration through geo-sequestration and bio-sequestration ) and utilize all mechanisms available, such as joint execution, clean development mechanism and emanations trading ; being rewarded with credits which allow more nursery gas emanations at place.
Minimizing impacts on developing states by set uping an version fund for clime alteration.
Accounting, coverage and reappraisal to guarantee the unity of the Protocol.
Conformity by set uping a conformity commission to implement committedness to the Protocol.
APPENDIX 2 – ‘THE COPENHAGEN ACCORD ‘
In 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference ( Copenhagen Summit ) , was held at the Bella Centre in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 7 to the 18 of December. It was at this acme that the ‘Copenhagen Accord ‘ papers entitled ; “ A model for clime alteration extenuation beyond 2012 ” was drafted: –
Endorses the continuance of the Kyoto Protocol
Underscores that climate alteration is one of the greatest challenges of our clip and emphasises a “ strong political will to desperately battle clime alteration in conformity with the rule of common but differentiated duties and several capablenesss ”
To forestall unsafe anthropogenetic intervention with the clime system, recognises “ the scientific position that the addition in planetary temperature should be below 2 grades Celsius ” , in a context of sustainable development, to battle clime alteration.
Recognises “ the critical impacts of clime alteration and the possible impacts of response steps on states peculiarly vulnerable to its inauspicious effects ” and stresses “ the demand to set up a comprehensive version programme including international support ”
Recognises that “ deep cuts in planetary emanations are required harmonizing to scientific discipline ” ( IPCC AR4 ) and agrees cooperation in top outing ( halting from lifting ) planetary and national nursery gas emanations “ every bit shortly as possible ” and that “ a low-emission development scheme is indispensable to sustainable development ”
States that “ enhanced action and international cooperation on version is desperately required to… cut down exposure and build.. resiliency in developing states, particularly in those that are peculiarly vulnerable, particularly least developed states ( LDCs ) , little island developing provinces ( SIDS ) and Africa ” and agrees that “ developed states shall supply equal, predictable and sustainable fiscal resources, engineering and capacity-building to back up the execution of version action in developing states ”
About extenuation agrees that developed states ( Annex I Parties ) would “ perpetrate to economy-wide emanations marks for 2020 ” to be submitted by 31 January 2010 and agrees that these Parties to the Kyoto Protocol would beef up their bing marks. Delivery of decreases and finance by developed states will be measured, reported and verified ( MRV ) in conformity with COP guidelines.
Agrees that developing states ( non-Annex I Parties ) would “ implement extenuation actions ” to decelerate growing in their C emanations, subjecting these by 31 January 2010. LDS and SIDS may set about actions voluntarily and on the footing of ( international ) support.
Agrees that developing states would describe those actions one time every two old ages via the U.N. clime alteration secretariat, subjected to their domestic MRV. NAMAs seeking international support will be capable to international MRV
Recognises “ the important function of cut downing emanation from deforestation and forest debasement and the demand to heighten remotions of nursery gas emanation by woods ” , and the demand to set up a mechanism ( including REDD-plus ) to enable the mobilisation of fiscal resources from developed states to assist accomplish this
Decides pursue chances to utilize markets to heighten the cost-effectiveness of, and to advance extenuation actions.
Developing states, particularly these with low-emitting economic systems should be provided inducements to go on to develop on a low-emission tract
States that “ scaled up, new and extra, predictable and equal support every bit good as improved entree shall be provided to developing states… to enable and back up enhanced action ”
Agrees that developed states would raise financess of $ 30 billion from 2010-2012 of new and extra resources
Agrees a “ end ” for the universe to raise $ 100 billion per twelvemonth by 2020, from “ a broad assortment of beginnings ” , to assist developing states cut C emanations ( extenuation ) . New many-sided support for version will be delivered, with a administration construction.
Establishes a Copenhagen Green Climate Fund, as an operating entity of the fiscal mechanism, “ to back up undertakings, programme, policies and other activities in developing states related to extenuation ” . To this terminal, creates a High Level Panel
Establishes a Technology Mechanism “ to speed up engineering development and transportation… guided by a country-driven attack ”
Calls for “ an appraisal of the execution of this Accord to be completed by 2015… This would include consideration of beef uping the long-run end ” , for illustration to restrict temperature rises to 1.5 grades